Fillers in dentistry /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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Fillers in dentistry /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMYLeader in Continuing Dental Education www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. ₪ INTRODUCTION ₪ WHAT ARE FILLERS? ₪ PROPERTIES OF A FILLER₪ FILLERS USED IN VARIOUS MATERIALS ₫ COMPOSITES ₫ CERAMICS ₫ AMALGAM ₫ DIRECT FILLING GOLD ₫ TEMPORARY CEMENTS ₫ INVESTMENT MATERIALS ₫ CASTING ALLOYS ₫ IMPRESSION MATERIALS ₫ ENDODONTICS ₪ REFERENCES ₪ CONCLUSION
  3. 3. MATRIX ALONE IS NOT STRONG ENOUGH TO SUPPORT OCCLUSAL LOAD AND CONTRACTS EXCESSIVELY DURING POLYMERIZATION,THERFORE REINFORCING IT WITH CERTAIN KINDOF MATERIALS USED PROVIDES THE MATERIAL ADEQUATE STRENGTH.
  4. 4. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION TO INCREASE FILLER LOADING, IT ISNECESSARY TO ADD FILLER IN A RANGE OFPARTICLE SIZES. IF SINGLE SIZE IS USED SPACE WILL EXISTBETWEEN THE PARTICLE. SMALL PARTICLE SIZE FILLERS THEN FILLTHESE SPACES.
  5. 5. REFRACTORY INDEX FOE ESTHETIC MATERIALS, SHOULD HAVETRANSLUCENCY SIMILAR TO THAT OF TOOTH. 1.5 AMOUNT OF FILLER ADDED AS FILLER CONTENT INCREASES, THEFLUIDITY REDUCES. DEGREE OF FILLER ADDITION ISREPRESENTED IN TERMS OF WT % AND VOL %. HIGHER FILLER CONTENT, LOWER WATER
  6. 6. SURFACE ROUGHNESS FILLER PARTICLES ARE GENERALLY HARDERTHAN THE MATRIX. DURING FINISHING SOME FILLER PARTICLESMAY PROTRUDE FROM SURFACE. IF PARTICLE SIZE PROTRUDING IS SMALL,THEN RESULTING SURFACE ROUGHNESS IS OFLITTLE CONCERN.
  7. 7. RADIOPACITY BARIUM ZINC THESE ARE USED BORON TO PRODUCERADIOPACITY ZIRCONIUM YTTRIUM SURFACE AREA SMALLER THE PARTICLE SIZE LARGER IS THESURFACE AREA.
  8. 8. Composite is any material that is composed of hard, pebble-like filler particles similar to sand or pebbles, surrounded by a hard matrix of a second material which binds the filler particles together.  The filler particles can be any coarseness varying from large rocks to microscopically fine powder. 
  9. 9. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON FILLER PARTICLE SIZE MEGAFILL MACROFILL VERY LARGE 10-100 U m PARTICLE SIZE 0.5-2MM MIDIFILL 1-10 U M MINIFILL MICROFILL O.1 – 1 U M 0.1 – 0.01 U M
  10. 10. HYBRID NANOFILL MIXED RANGE OF 0.005 – 0. 01 U M PARTICLE SIZES HOMOGENEOUS FILLERS +UNCURED MATRIX MATERIAL MODIFIED HETEROGENEOUS THESE ARE NOVEL FILLER MODIFICATIONPRECURED COMPOSITE IN ADDITION TO OR OTHER UNUSUAL CONVENTIONAL FILLERS FILLER
  11. 11. BENIFITS INCREASES HARDNESS. INCREASES STRENGTH. REDUCES WEAR OF MATERIAL. REDUCES POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE. REDUCES THERMAL EXPANSION &CONTRACTION. IMPROVED WORKABILITY. REDUCES WATERSORPTION. REDUCES SOFTENING. REDUCES STAINING.
  12. 12. DISADVANTAGE DIFFICULT TO FINISH & POLISH HARDER THAN RESIN MATRIX, SO PROTRUDESON SURFACE WHICH MAY ACT AS AREAS OFSTRESS CONCENTRATION. CAN ABRADE OPPOSING TOOTH.
  13. 13. TYPE OF FILLERS GROUND QUARZ COLLOIDAL SILICA GLASS OR CERAMIC CONTAINING HEAVYMETALS alumina silicate borosilicate PURE SILICA OCCURS AS CRISTOBALLITE TRIDYMITE QUARTZ
  14. 14. QUARTZ USED IN CONVENTIONAL COMPOSITES. CHEMICALLY INERT. VERY HARD. DIFFICULT TO POLISH. ABRADES OPPOSING TOOTH. 0.1 – 1.00 UM
  15. 15. COLLOIDAL SILICA MICROFILLER 0.04 UM OR LESS ADDED IN SMALL AMOUNT AS THEY HAVELARGE SURFACE AREA. SIZE SMALLER THAN WAVELENGTH OFLIGHT, SO BETTER POLISHING.
  16. 16. CERAMIC CONTAINING HEAVY METALS PROVIDE RADIOPACITY. BARIUM ALUMINIUM ZINC YITTRIUM TRIFLOURIDE YITTERBIUM TRIFLOURIDE TRICALCIUM PHOSPHATE RARELY USED, ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE STRONTIUM
  17. 17. MACROFILLERS FINELY GROUND AMORPHOUS SILICA ORQUARTZ. AVERAGE SIZE 8 – 12 um. PARTICLES AS LARGE AS 50 um MAY ASLO BEPRESENT. FILLER LOADING IS 70 – 80 % BY WEIGHT 60 -70 % BY VOLUME ADVANTAGE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH IMPROVED OFCOMPOSITE DUE TO TRANSFER OF STRESS FROM
  18. 18.  REDUCES WATER SORPTION,POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE, THERMALEXPANSION. DISADVANTAGE ROUGH SURFACE DEVELOPS DURINGABRASIVE WEAR OF SOFT RESIN MATRIX. EXPOSING MORE OF FILLER PARTICLE,THAT PROTRUDE FROM THE SURFACE. ALSO LEAD TO DISCOLORATION.
  19. 19. MICROFILLERS 0.04 um. 80 % BY WEIGHT. 60 % BY VOLUME. PROBLEMS OF SURFACE ROUGHENING & LOWTRANSLUNENCY ASSOCIATED WITHMACROFILLED COMPOSITES ARE OVERCOME BYUSE OF COLLOIDAL SILICA.
  20. 20. ADVANTAGE SMOOTH SURFACE. INORGANIC FILLER PARTICLE SMALLERTHANABRASIVES, SO SILICA REMOVED ALONG WITHRESIN, LEAVING SMOOTH, POLISHED SURFACE. DISADVANTAGE REDUCES TENSILE STRENGTH. INCREASES WATER SORPTION.
  21. 21. SMALL PARTICLE 0.5 – 3 um. FILLERS ADDED ARE GROUND QUARTZ TOIMPROVE SUTFACE ROUGHNESS & RETAIN ORIMPROVE PYSICAL PROPERTIES OFTRADITIONAL COMPOSITES. 80 -90 % BY WEIGHT. 65 – 70 % BY VOLUME.
  22. 22. ADVANTAGES COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH EXCEED THAT OFTRADITIONAL COMPOSITES. HIGH MODULUS OF ELASTICITY. HIGH TENSILE STRENGTH. SURFACE SMOOTHNESS IS ALMOST SIMILARTO THAT ACHIEVED BY MICROFILLERS. GREAT WEAR RESISTANCE, THUS CAN BEUSED IN HIGH STRESS BEARING AREAS.
  23. 23. HYBRID FILLERS 0.6 – 1.0 um. DEVELOPED IN AN EFFORT TO OBTAIN EVENBETTER SMOOTHNESS THAN THAT PROVIDED BYSMALL PARTICLE, WHILE STILL MAINTAINING THEPHYSICAL PROPERTIES. COLLOIDAL SILICA & GROUND PARTICLES OFGLASSES CONTAINING HEAVY METAL .
  24. 24. ADVANTAGES SMALLER PARTICLE SIZE + GREATTERAMOUNT OF MICROFILLERS INCREASES SURFACE AREA THUS, OVERALL FILLER LOADING IS NOT ASHIGH AS SMALL PARTICLE. PROVIDING A SMOOTH &POLISHEDSURFACE. PHYSICAL & MECHANICAL PROPERTIESRANGE BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND
  25. 25. PACKABLE COMPOSITES BASED ON PRIMM, WHERE THE FILLER CONTENT ISINCREASED AND MATRIX CONENT REDUCED. THE NOVEL FILLERS USED INCREASED THEFILLER SURFACE AREA THAT WOULD ABSORB MOREMATRIX & THUS AVOID STICKINESS. THE FIRST FEW PACKABLE COMPOSITES USEDFUSED PARTICLE AGGLOMERATES, FIBROUS FILLERADDITINS AND BETTER FILLER PARTICLE PACKINGARRANGEMENTS. ALL THIS WILL REDUCE THE VISCOELASTICITY OF
  26. 26. EXAMPLESSOLITAIRE FILLER USED IS CRUSHED BARIUMALUMINOSILICATE . THESE PARTICLES ARE BONDED AT HIGHTEMPERATURES, CREATING LARGE PARTICLES WITHCOARSE STRUCTURE. THE UNIQUE GEOMETRY OF THE FILLERCOMPONENT CREATES AN UNSET COMPOSITE WITHPACKABLE BEHAVIOUR. THIS IS BECAUSE OF FRICTION CAUSED BY SLIDING
  27. 27. ALERT FILLER USED IS CRUSHED BARIUMBOROALUMINOSILICATE + COLLOIDAL SILICA. THESE ARE CHOPPED MICROGLASS FILLER +CONVENTIONAL HYBRID FILLERS. THE OVERALL CONSISTENCY IS SIMILAR TI THAT OFTRITURATED AMALGAM.
  28. 28. SUREFIL FILLER USED IS CRUSHED MIDIFILLER,MINIFILLER, MICROFILLER. THESE FILLER PARTICLES ARE MADE OFBARIUMFLOURO ALUMINOSILICATE GLASS + SILICA. THIS PERMITS HIGH PACKING DENITY ANDAMALGAM LIKE PROPERTIES.
  29. 29. FLOWABLE COMPOSITES LOWER FILLER CONTENT THAN PACKABLECOMPOSITES. 0.04 – 1.00 UM. 20 -25 % LESS THAN TRADITIONALCOMPOSITES. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES INFERIOR. FILLER CONTENT WAS REDUCED TO LET THEMATERIAL FLOW READILY, SPREADUNIFORMLY & INTIMATELY ADAPT TO CAVITY
  30. 30. COMPOMERS THESE MATERIALS CONTAINFUNCTIONAL GROUP OF POLY ACRYLIC ACID +METHACRYLATE, FILLERS TO WHICH GLASSPARTICLES ARE ADDED. THERE FILERS HAVE FLOURIDE RELEASEPROPERTY. Eg. DYCRAT – CALCIUM FLOUROAMINO SILICATEGLASS - FINELY MILLED GLASS
  31. 31. SMART COMPOSITES THESE CONTAIN BARIUM, ALUMINIUM,FLOURIDE SILICATE GLASS FILLER WITHYTTERBIUM TRI FLOURIDE, SILICON DIOXIDEAND ALKALINE GLASS. FILLER CONTENT 80% BY WEIGHT 60% BY VOLUME. FLOURIDERELEASE IS LOWER THAN GLASSIONOMER BUT MORE THAN COMPOMERS.
  32. 32. ORMOCERS THESE ARE ORGANICALLY MODIFIEDCERAMICS. FILLER USED IS SILICON OXIDE. THESE ARE MODIFIED BY ADDING FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITESPOLYMERIZABLE SIDE CHAINS.  FILLER HERE ARE THE IMPREGNATEDFIBERS. GENERALLY 10-15 UM, CAN BE SUPPLIED AS, PARALLEL GLASS FIBERS WOVEN FIBERS
  33. 33. NANOFILLERS 0.005 – 0.01 UM. THAT IS BELOW THE WAVELENGTH FORVISIBLE LIGHT (0.02 – 2UM), AS THESE PARTICLES DO NOT INTERACTWITH VISIBLE LIGHT THEY DO NOT PRODUCESCATTERING OR SIGNIFICANT ABSORPTION. THE FILLERS HERE ARE NON-SILICATEBASED, AS THEY DO NOT AGGLOMERATE,UNLIKE THE SISLICA BASED FILLERS.
  34. 34. Current resin-based filling materials shrink, leak,and wear away. This process allows decay to develop,
  35. 35. The new nanofiller and liquid-crystal filling materialreduce leakage by preventing shrinkage and resisting wear. Before the cavity is filled with this resin, a new treatment is applied to the pulp chamber to encourage
  36. 36. REFRACTORY MATERIAL A material that withstands high temperature withoutdecomposing or disintegrating. Resists heat & force of casting. Expands and compensates for casting shrinkage. Silica
  37. 37. Quartz, Cristoballite, Tridymite, FusedQuartz inverts Low form High form(Alpha quartz) 575 0 C ( Beta quartz) Cristoballite 200 0 C to 270 0 C Tridymite 2 inversions at 117 0 C & 163 0 C. Density decreases as alpha form converts to beta form, with resulting increase in linear expansion. Fused quartz is amorphous & glass like & exhibits noinversion at
  38. 38.  IN ADMIXED ALLOY, WHICH IS MADE OF 2PARTS BY WEIGHT OF AgSn LATHE CUT ALLOYAND 1 PART OF AgCu EUTECTIC ALLOY . HERE AgCu ALLOY ACTS AS THE FILLER.THIS HELPS IN STRENGTHENING OF SILVERMATRIX.TOTAL AMOUNT OF COPPER IS 9-20%.COPPER GIVES STRENGTH REDUCES FLOW & CREEP INCREASES SETTINGEXPANSION
  39. 39.  ELECTROLYTE PRECIPITATE GOLD, ALLOYEDWITH CALCIUM. HERE CALCIUM ACTS AS FILLER. 0.1% CALCIUM. ITS PURPOSE IS TO PRODUCE STRONGERRESTORATIONS BY DISPERSIONSTRENGTHENING. OTHER FILLERS THAT CAN BE ADDED ARE PALLADIUM PLATINUM INDIUM
  40. 40.  PALLADIUM IS GENERALLY USED AS THEFILLER HERE. IN CLASS I ALLOYS 1-5% PALLADIUM CLASS II ALLOYS 60% PALLADIUM CLASS III ALLOYS MAINLY COMPOSED OF PALLADIUM PALLADIUM GIVES STRENGTH TO THECASTING ALLOYS.
  41. 41. ZINC OXIDE EUGENOL PASTE 25% TALC FILLER USED. THESE ARE SMALL PARTICLES OF INERTMATERIALS ADDED TO GIVE STRENGTH TO MATERIAL REDUCES PLASTICITY OTHER FILLERS ADDED ARE FRENCH CHALKDIATOMACEOUS EARTH SOAP
  42. 42. AGAR BORAX IS USED TO GIVE STRENGTH OTHER FILLERS ADDED ARE CLAYDIATOMACEOUS EARTH SILICA WAX RUBBER THESE ARE ADDED TO CONTROL STRENGTH
  43. 43. ALGINATE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILLER THESE GIVE STRENGTH STIFFNESS SMOOTH TEXTURE ENSURE FORMATION OF ASMOOTH, NON-TACKY GEL FORMS SOL BY DISPERSINGALGINATE
  44. 44. POLYSULFIDES TITANIUM DIOXIDE ZINC SULFATE COPPER CARBONATE CONDENSATION SILICONE ADDITION SILICONE POLY ETHER COLLOIDAL SILICA
  45. 45. INLAY WAX INLAY WAX IS A COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS WAXESWITH CONTROLLED PROPERTIES OF THERMALEXPANSION AND CONTRACTION. PARAFFIN WAX IS THE MAJOR INGREDIENT OF 40 – 60%, BUT LIKELY TO FLAKE WHEN TRIMMED AND DOESNOT PRESENT SMOOTH SURFACE. GUM DAMMAR IMPROVES SMOOTHNESS, INCREASESTOUGHNESS AND RENDER IT MORE RESISTAMT TOCRACKS. CARNAUBA WAX ALSO ADDS TO GLOSSINESS AND HASHIGH MELTING POINT. CERESIN REPLACES PART OF PARAFFIN WAX TO
  46. 46. CERAMICS PURE QUARTZ THIS WILL IMPART STRENGTH FIRMNESS TRANSLUCENCY ALUMINA AND LEUCITE FILLERSINFILTRATRED TO GIVE STRENGTH INHIBIT CRACK PROPAGATION
  47. 47. ZINC PHOSPHATE CEMENT FILLER USED IS SILICA. 1.4 % AS FILLER CONTEMT IS INCREASED ₫STRENGTH OF THE CEMENT ALSO INCREASES TO ABOUT 17,000 PSI. ₫FLUID AND WATER SORPTION REDUCES ₫LESS SOLUBILTIY & DISINTEGRATION
  48. 48. ZINC POLYCARBOXYLATE CEMENT FILLER USED IS STANNOUS FLOURIDE. AS FILLER CONTENT IS INCREASED ₫STRENGTH OF THE CEMENT ALSO INCREASES TO ABOUT 7,000 - 9,000 PSI. ₫FLUID AND WATER SORPTION REDUCES. ₫LESS SOLUBILTIY & DISINTEGRATION.₫ IMPARTS ANTICARIOGENIC PROPERTY.
  49. 49. ZINC OXIDE EUGENOL CEMENT IN CONVENTIONAL CEMENT, USE OF ZINCACETATE AS FILLER HELPS INCRESING THESTRENGTH. IN EBA CEMENT, CERTAIN FILLERS LIKEQUARTZ, FUSED QUARTZ, ALUMINA,DICALCIUM PHOSPHATE, LEAD OXIDE,MERCURIC OXIDE, ETC ARE ADDED TO IMPROVETHE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES. IN RESIN MODIFIED ZOE, POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE RESIN INFILTRATED TO
  50. 50. GLASS IONOMER CEMENT FILLER USED HERE IS 35 – 50 % SILICA OTHERS, CALCIUM (15-20%), SODIUM (3-6%) &ALUMINIUM (1.5-2.5%) FLOURIDE GIVES GIC A STRENGTH OF 150 – 200 MPA. RESIN MODIFIED GIC SILICA FILLER USED, ONLY THE POLY ACRYIC ACIDHAS, A DIMETHACRYLATE MONOMER GRAFTED IN IT. POLYACID MODIFIED GICMETHACRYLATE GROUP + POLYACRYLIC ACID, FILLERSTO WHICH GLASS PARTICLE ADDED
  51. 51.  CALCIUM HY.DROXIDE AND MTA USED ASRETROGRADE FILLING MATERIALS HAVETITANIUM OXIDE (12- 14 %)AS FILLER. GUTTA PERCHA USES ZINC OXIDE AS FILLER(66 %). RESILON CONTAINS FILLER CONTENT OFABOUT 70% THAT COMPRISES OF CALCIUMHYDROXIDE, BARIUM SULFATE, BARIUM GLASS& SILICA.
  52. 52. The effect of ceramic and porous fillers on the mechanical properties of experimental dental composites. Dent Mater. 2005 Jul 28Rare earth oxide-containing fluorescent glass filler for composite resin. Dent Mater J. 2005 Mar;24(1):49-52.
  53. 53. An application of nanotechnology in advanced dental materials. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003 Oct;134(10):182-90. Distribution of nanofillers from a simplified-step adhesive in acid- conditioned dentin. J Adhes Dent. 1999;1(2):103-17.

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