AETIOLOGY OF MALOCCLUSION
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacademy.com
1www.ind...
ETIOLOGY OF MALOCCLUSION
 Etiological factors should be removed for
the success of treatment.
 In disease or pathology :...
ETIOLOGY OF MALOCCLUSION
 In majority of malocclusions it is not
possible to single out the causative factors,
except in ...
CLASSIFICATION OF
ETIOLOGIC FACTORS
 SALZMANN’S
 GRABER’S
 MOYERS
4www.indiandentalacademy.com
GRABERS ETIOLOGIC
CLASSIFICATION
GENERAL
GROUP
LOCAL
GROUP
MALOCCLUSION
5www.indiandentalacademy.com
General group: Those factors that operate
on the dentition from without (other cause)
Local group: Those factors that are
...
GENERAL FACTORS
 Heridity (Inherited pattern)
 Congenital defects
 Environment
 Predisposing metabolic climate and dis...
LOCAL FACTORS
 Anomalies of number of teeh
 Anomalies of tooth size
 Anomalies of tooth shape
 Abnormal labial freenum...
 Delayed eruption of permanent teeth
 Abnormal eruptive path
 Ankylosis
 Dental caries
 Improper dental resoration
9w...
Etiology of Malocclusion
Cleft palate Torticollis Cleidocranial
dysostosis
Cerebral
palsy etc.
Congenital defects
10www.in...
Etiology of Malocclusion
Trauma
Maternal diet
Metobolism
German measles
PRE-NATAL
Birth injury
Cerebral palsy
TMJ injury
P...
Etiology of Malocclusion
Endocrine
imbalance
Metabolic
disturbances
Infectious
disease (poliomylitis)
Predisposing metabol...
Abnormal pressure habits &
functional aberrations
Abnormal sucking
Thumb & finger sucking
Tongue thrust & sucking
Lip & Na...
HEREDITY
 Inherited disproportion between size of the
teeth and size of the jaws, which would
produce crowding or spacing...
SUPERNUMERARY TETTH
 Anomolies or extra teeth above the
normal number of 32
 occurs mainly in the maxilla and also in
an...
ANODONTIA
 TOTAL ANODONTIA - denotes complete
developmental absence of teeth in both
dentitions, & it is an extremely rar...
Partial anodontia or oligodontia
or Hypodontia
 Partial anodontia is the term used when one
or a number of teeth are abse...
ANOMALIES OF TOOTH SHAPE
 Peg laterals
 Gemination
 Fusion
 Hutchinsons incisors
 Talon cusp
 Mulberry molars
18www....
Anomalies of number
 Supernumerary tooth
 Missing teeth (Agenesis): Most commonly missing
teeth in the decreasing order ...
 Anodontia: The total absence of teeth
 Oligodontia: Congenital absence of many
but not all teeth
 Hypodontia: Absence ...
Ankylosis
 of deciduous teeth (Submerged tooth) or
permanent tooth causes loss of arch length.
21www.indiandentalacademy....
CAUSES Act on
Some Predisposing
Some Exiting
TIMES On
Prenatal or Postnatal
TISSUES Producing
Some Primarily and Some
Seco...
www.indiandentalacademy.com 23
Thank you
For more details please visit
www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Etiology mo /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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Etiology mo /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. AETIOLOGY OF MALOCCLUSION INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com 1www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. ETIOLOGY OF MALOCCLUSION  Etiological factors should be removed for the success of treatment.  In disease or pathology : Single etiologic factor.  In Malocclusion - Multiple factors i.e. Multifactorial. 2www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. ETIOLOGY OF MALOCCLUSION  In majority of malocclusions it is not possible to single out the causative factors, except in a few eg: Secondary to childhood fracture of the jaw. 3www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF ETIOLOGIC FACTORS  SALZMANN’S  GRABER’S  MOYERS 4www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. GRABERS ETIOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION GENERAL GROUP LOCAL GROUP MALOCCLUSION 5www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. General group: Those factors that operate on the dentition from without (other cause) Local group: Those factors that are immediately associated with the dentition 6www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. GENERAL FACTORS  Heridity (Inherited pattern)  Congenital defects  Environment  Predisposing metabolic climate and disease  Dietary problems (Nutritional deficiency)  Abnormal Pressure habits and functional aberrations  Posture  Trauma & Accidents 7www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. LOCAL FACTORS  Anomalies of number of teeh  Anomalies of tooth size  Anomalies of tooth shape  Abnormal labial freenum  Premature loss  Prolonged retention 8www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9.  Delayed eruption of permanent teeth  Abnormal eruptive path  Ankylosis  Dental caries  Improper dental resoration 9www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Etiology of Malocclusion Cleft palate Torticollis Cleidocranial dysostosis Cerebral palsy etc. Congenital defects 10www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Etiology of Malocclusion Trauma Maternal diet Metobolism German measles PRE-NATAL Birth injury Cerebral palsy TMJ injury POST-NATAL ENVIRONMENT 11www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Etiology of Malocclusion Endocrine imbalance Metabolic disturbances Infectious disease (poliomylitis) Predisposing metabolic climate & disease 12www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Abnormal pressure habits & functional aberrations Abnormal sucking Thumb & finger sucking Tongue thrust & sucking Lip & Nail biting Abnormal swallowing habits Respiratory abnor. Tonsils and Adenoids Psychogenic & Bruxism 13www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. HEREDITY  Inherited disproportion between size of the teeth and size of the jaws, which would produce crowding or spacing.  Inherited disproportion between size and shape of the upper and lower jaws which would cause improper occlusal relationships. 14www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. SUPERNUMERARY TETTH  Anomolies or extra teeth above the normal number of 32  occurs mainly in the maxilla and also in any other area of the dental arches  Frequently seen supernumerary tooth is the Mesiodens, occurs near the midline - is one of the main cause of malocclusion. 15www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. ANODONTIA  TOTAL ANODONTIA - denotes complete developmental absence of teeth in both dentitions, & it is an extremely rare condition  It is usually associated with the rare condition of ectodermal dysplasia 16www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Partial anodontia or oligodontia or Hypodontia  Partial anodontia is the term used when one or a number of teeth are absent.  Partial anodontia occurs more frequently in glandular dysfunction and particularly hypothyroidism. 17www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. ANOMALIES OF TOOTH SHAPE  Peg laterals  Gemination  Fusion  Hutchinsons incisors  Talon cusp  Mulberry molars 18www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Anomalies of number  Supernumerary tooth  Missing teeth (Agenesis): Most commonly missing teeth in the decreasing order of frequency: 1. Max. & Mand. third molars 2. Max. Lateral incosors 3. Mand. second premolars 4. Mandibular incisors 5. Max. second premolars 19www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20.  Anodontia: The total absence of teeth  Oligodontia: Congenital absence of many but not all teeth  Hypodontia: Absence of only a few teeth 20www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. Ankylosis  of deciduous teeth (Submerged tooth) or permanent tooth causes loss of arch length. 21www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. CAUSES Act on Some Predisposing Some Exiting TIMES On Prenatal or Postnatal TISSUES Producing Some Primarily and Some Secondarily RESULTS Alone or Combination 1. Heredity 2. Developmental defects 3. Trauma 4. Physical agents 5. Habits 6. Disease 7. Malnutrition 1. Continuous or Intermittent 2. May act at different ages 1. Neuromuscular 2. Teeth 3. Bone & Cartilage 4. Soft tissues 1. Malfunction 2. Malocclusion 3. Osseous dysplasia 22www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. www.indiandentalacademy.com 23 Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com

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