Embryology1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

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Embryology1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Embryology www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  2. 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  3. 3. EMBRYOLOGY Definition: It is the study of the formation and development of the embryo or fetus from the moment of its inception up to the time when it is born as an infant. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  4. 4. Embryogenesis is divided into three phases ► Pre implantation period (first 7 days) ► Embryonic period (next 7 weeks) ► Fetal period (3 – 9 months) www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  5. 5. First week of development ► Ovulation ► Fertilization ► Cleavage ► Blastocyst formation www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  6. 6. Fertilization ► It is the process by which male and female gametes fuse . ► It occurs in ampullary region of the uterine tube. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  7. 7. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  8. 8. Cleavage ► Development of zygote from two cell stage to the morula www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  9. 9. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  10. 10. Blastocyst formation www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  11. 11. Second week of development (bilaminar germ disc) www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  12. 12. Day -8 ► Trophoblast proliferates to form -- Inner cytotrophoblast --Outer syncytiotrophoblast www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  13. 13. Bilaminar germ disc (day -8) ► Embryoblast differentiates into two layers --Hypoblast -- Epiblast www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  14. 14. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  15. 15. Lacunar stage (day-9) www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  16. 16. Day-11 and 12 www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  17. 17. Two types of extraembryonic mesoderm ► Extraembryonic somatopleuric mesoderm ► Extraembryonic splanchopleuric mesoderm www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  18. 18. Secondary yolk sac formation www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  19. 19. ► The second week of development is known as week of two ► The trophoblast differentiates into -2 --the cytotrophoblast --the synctiotrophoblast ► The embryoblast forms two layers --epiblast -- hypoblast www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  20. 20. Third week of development (trilaminar germ disc) ► Gastrulation ► Formation of the notochord ► Neurulation www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  21. 21. Gastrulation ► Definition: it is process that establishes all three germ layers i.e. -- ectoderm -- mesoderm --endoderm www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  22. 22. Migration of cells b/w hypoblast and epiblast www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  23. 23. Formation of notochord ► Primitive streak ► Primitive node ► Canalization of cord cells www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  24. 24. Primitive streak and node www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  25. 25. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  26. 26. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  27. 27. Neurulation ► End of 3 week ► Formation of neural tube and neural plate www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  28. 28. Formation of neural tube www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  29. 29. Neural crest cells ► Ectomesenchymal tissue termed neural crest cells appears in the intermediate zone between the surface ectoderm and the neural tube during neurulation. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  30. 30. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  31. 31. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  32. 32. Characteristics of neural crest cells. Pluripotent cells Migration Cyto-differentiation www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  33. 33. Derivatives of neural crest cells. Connective tissue- Ectomesenchyme of facial prominences and branchial arches - Bones and cartilages of facial visceral skeleton - Dermis of face and neck - Stroma of salivary ,thymus ,thyroid, parathyroid and pituitary gland - Corneal mesenchyme - Aortic arch arteries www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  34. 34. -Dental papilla -Portions of periodontal ligament ,Cementum Muscle tissue-Ciliary muscles -Covering connective tissue of branchial arch muscles Nervous tissue-Leptomeninges. -Schwann sheath cells www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  35. 35. Sensory ganglia-Autonomic ganglia. -Spinal dorsal root ganglia. -Sensory ganglia. ANS-Sympathetic ganglia. -Parasympathetic ganglia. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  36. 36. Migration of neural crest cells. ► Active migration ► Passive migration www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  37. 37. Factors affecting migration ► Extra cellular molecules: like fibronectin ► Vitamin A ► 13 cis-retinoic acid ► Mutant genes www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  38. 38. Factors effecting the normal growth of neural crest derivatives ► Number of cells leaving the neural tube ► Rate of migration ► Proportion of dividing ► Minimal period between successive divisions ► Number of cells that die www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  39. 39. Characteristics of neural crest cells ► Regulation www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  40. 40. Significance of neural crest cells ► In craniofacial region Differentiate to form most of the connective tissue of head - ectomesenchyme www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  41. 41. Source and pattern of migration to the developing face and branchial arch system www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  42. 42. Significance in development of dentition ► Neural crest is primary material for odontogenesis. ► Interaction between neural crest, pharyngeal endoderm and oral ectoderm produces the dental lamina. ► Neural crest provides material for dentin, pulp and cementum. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  43. 43. Branchial arches or pharyngeal arches www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  44. 44. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  45. 45. Each pair of branchial arches contain a basic set of structure ► Cartilage component ► Muscular component ► Vascular component ► Nervous component www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  46. 46. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  47. 47. First branchial arch (mandibular arch) www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  48. 48. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  49. 49. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  50. 50. COMPONENTS OF 1st ARCH ► Cartilage : MECKEL’S CARTILAGE --Arises 41st – 45th Day I.U --It provides a template for subsequent development of the mandible. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  51. 51. Structures formed by cartilaginous component www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  52. 52. Derivatives of Meckel’s Cartilage : Mental Ossicle (Endochondral oss.) ► Head and neck of Malleus.. ► Ant. Ligament of the Malleus. ► Sphenomandibular Ligament. ► www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  53. 53. Muscles of first pharyngeal arch ► ► ► Muscles of mastication Ant. Belly of digastric Tensor tympani and palatini www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  54. 54. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  55. 55. Nerve supply ► Mand. Branch of trigeminal nerve ► Sensory component supplies : Mandible and covering mucosa. : Mandibular teeth including gingiva : Mucosa of ant. 2/3 of Tongue. : Floor of the mouth. : Skin of the lower third of Face. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  56. 56. Nerve supply www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  57. 57. Second branchial arch Components: ► (Hyoid Arch ) Cartilage : Reichert’s Cartilage (45th – 48th I.U) -- Stapes -- Styloid process of the temporal bone. -- Stylohyoid ligament. -- Lessor horn of sphenoid. -- Cranial part - Body of Hyoid. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  58. 58. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  59. 59. ► Muscles : -- Stapedius -- Stylohyoid -- Post. Belly of Digastric -- auricular -- muscles of facial expression . www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  60. 60. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  61. 61. ► Nerve : -- Facial / VII Cranial nerve. -- Chorda tympani nerve (Ant 2/3rd of Tongue) ► Artery : -- Stapedial artery -- Transient i.e. disappears during fetal life www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  62. 62. Nerve supply www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  63. 63. Development of tongue www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  64. 64. Development of tongue www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  65. 65. Nerve supply www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  66. 66. Clinical correlation ► Tongue tie ► Macroglossia ► Microglossia ► Bifid tongue ► Fissured tongue ► Rhomboid tongue www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  67. 67. Position of pharyngeal arches www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  68. 68. Development of the face www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  69. 69. ► Dev. Of the face starts at the end of 4 week ► Facial prominences --maxillary prominence --mandibular prominence - lat. Nasal prominence --med. Nasal prominence --frontonasal prominence www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  70. 70. Facial prominences www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  71. 71. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  72. 72. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  73. 73. ► Upper lip -- 2 med. Nasal prominence -- 2 max. prominence ► Lower lip and jaw -- Mand. Prominences ► Nose -- Five facial prominence www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  74. 74. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  75. 75. Development of palate www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  76. 76. ► Primary palate ► Secondary palate ► Primary palate --intermaxillary segment -- labial component -- upper jaw -- palatal component www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  77. 77. Intermaxillary segment and maxillary process www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  78. 78. 6.5 week old embryo www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  79. 79. 7.5 week old embryo www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  80. 80. 10 – week embryo www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  81. 81. Clinical correlates Facial clefts 1. Failure of fusion of maxillary prominence with medial nasal process ► Anterior to incisive foramen --lat. Cleft lip --cleft upper jaw --cleft b/w pri. And sec. palate www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  82. 82. ► Post. to incisive foramen -- cleft palate --cleft uvula 2 . Failure of fusion of maxillary process -- oblique facial cleft 3. Incomplete merging of 2 medial nasal prominences --Median cleft lip www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  83. 83. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  84. 84. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  85. 85. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  86. 86. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  87. 87. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  88. 88. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  89. 89. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  90. 90. www.indiandentalacdemy.com
  91. 91. Thank you www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacdemy.com

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