Digital photography /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

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Digital photography /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. DIGITAL P HOTOGR HY AP www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. R ECENT ADVANCES IN DIAGNOSTIC AIDS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Dental photography • Patient education • Legal record for facial features before and after dental treatment • Excellent tool for teaching • Excellent tool for communication www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Digital photography • • • • • • Basics of digital photography Classification of digital cameras Features to consider in digital cameras Conventional versus digital photography Common errors in clinical photography Gold standard in clinical photography www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. B asics of digital photography • First used in 1981 • Commercially available since 1991(marketed by auto trader). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. Digital images • Pixels – picture elements www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. green red blue www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. • Pixelation evident www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. • Resolution – no of pixels in the image. • Increase in pixels – increases the detail of the image. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Non f ilm cameras IMAGE SENSORS - CCD ( CHARGED COUPLED DEVICE) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Non f ilm cameras - CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductors) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. HOW THEY WOR K www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. K NOW YOUR DIGITAL CAMER A www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Lens Telephoto lens Macro lens www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Lens • Rotatable www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Shutter speed • Shutter speed – the length of time the shutter is open and light strikes the image sensor • Bright lens and high shutter speed – ideal • Higher shutter speed – grater the image quality • Cameras should have a range of high and low shutter speeds. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. B urst • Sequential shooting • Overcome shutter lag www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. White balance • Used to keep color as natural as possible. • Level of one color is more camera adjusts automatically. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Exposure • Amount of light required to take a photo. • Too much light • Less light. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Exposure compensation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Flash • Adjustment for convenience • Ring flash www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. Flash Ring flash www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. Zoom • Must in any digital camera • Closer to the subject without moving physically closer. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Focal length • The distance between the rear nodal point of the lens and the focal plane when focus is set at infinity. • Nodal point – where the rays of light appear to have come after passing through the lens. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. • HOW MUCH THE CAMERA SEES ( ANGLE OF VIEW OF THE LENS). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. ZOOM • OPTICAL ZOOM • DIGITAL ZOOM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Optical zoom • Zoom lens is lens determined so that its focal length can be varied over a predetermined range. • The image is optically modified so that it can show a smaller o larger field of view. • This allows to replace a no of single focal length lenses. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. • Does not change the resolution of the image or the image size, the no of pixels used to describe the image are same. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Digital zoom • Digital cameras with a single focal length lens. Offers possibility of mimicking a zoomed image. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. • No of pixels used to capture a image are the same as original non zoomed image. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. Dif f erence between optical and digital zoom • Optical zoom – bring object closer ( like a telescope) • Digital zoom is merely a cropping tool. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. Conf usion • for eg- 10 x optical zoom becomes 60 x if 6x digital zoom is tacked on the focal length of the lens. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. • Smart zoom www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. Aperture settings • AMOUNT OF LIGHT ENTERING THE CAMERA AND HITTING THE SENSOR. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Depth of the f ield • THE AREA AHEAD OF AND BEHIND THE AREA IN FOCUS. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Digital cameras CLASSIFICATION • CONSUMER • PROSUMER • PROFESSIONAL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. • • • • • Inexpensive Entry level Mid range High end Professional. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. P rosumer • Lies between consumer and professional cameras. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. • Features – macro lens www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. • Features – High quality image www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. • Features –Lcd with preview facility www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. Drawbacks • FLASH – POINT FLASH. - RING FLASH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. Drawbacks VIEW FINDERS – GALLILEAN TELESCOPE VIEW FINDER - LCD www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. Drawbacks FOCUSING SYSTEM – LACK OF IMAGE SHARPNESS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. P essional cameras rof • • • • Expensive High end features. Ideal for intra oral photography. Fuji fine pix f1 pro – perfect for orthodontic purposes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. Features to be considered www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. • LCD www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. MAINS ADAPTOR www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. AUTO FOCUS AND P ECISION R www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. • CCD RESOLUTION AND QUALITY • CUR ( clinically useful resolution) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. • FLASH CAPABILITY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. Exposure parameters • Lens opening • Shutter speed( lens opening in fraction of a second) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. • SOFTWARE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. • RESOLUTION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. P ractical considerations • DOWNLOADING OF IMAGES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. • REPRODUCTION • STORAGE AND FILLING www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. • BATTERIES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. ACCESSOR IES • MEMORY CARDS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. • • • • BAGS AND STRAPS TRIPODS CLEANING KIT CARD READER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. CONVENTIONAL VER SUS DIGITAL P HOTOGR HY AP www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. NON FILM CAMER A www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. IMAGE STOR AGE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. NO R ECUR ING COSTS R www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. R OOM FOR EXP IMENTATION ER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. FUNCTIONALITY IN A SMALL P ACK AGE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. LCD ELIMINATES GUESS WOR K www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. DUR ILITY AB www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. SCALAB ILITY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. SHAR ING www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. DR AWB ACK S • HIGH INITIAL COST www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. • BATTERY LIFE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. • NON STANDARDIZATION • LEARNING CURVE (Technophoia). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. DIGITAL P HOTOGR HY AP www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. COMMON ER OR IN R S CLINICAL P HOTOGR HY AP www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. Two groups • Inappropriate choice of equipment. • Errors in recording medium and inappropriate positioning of subjects www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. Camera • Macro facility ( 1:1 images) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. Camera • Ring flash www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. Camera • Orientation of camera – Extra-oral ( portrait) – Intra oral ( landscape) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. Camera • Lens setting www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. R etractors • Two set of double ended retractors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. INTR OR SHOTS A AL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. B UCCAL SHOTS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. OCCLUSSAL SHOTS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. MIR OR R S • LONG HANDLED AND FRONT SILVERD GLASS - IDEAL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. R EAR SILVER ED VER SUS FR ONT SILVER ED GLASS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. MIR OR R S www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. AP TUR COMP ER E ENSATION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. TECHNICAL P OB R LEMS • DEPTH OF FIELD www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. • PROSUMER CAMERAS – APERTURE TO BE REDUCED TO F 11. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  101. 101. • APPROX 1/3 IN FRONT AND 2/3 BEHIND THE FOCAL POINT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  102. 102. P essional cameras rof www.indiandentalacademy.com
  103. 103. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  104. 104. Auto f ocus problems • Auto focus versus manual focus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  105. 105. Intra oral www.indiandentalacademy.com
  106. 106. • FOCUSSING USING TTL FACILITY. • 20 CM IS A GOOD DISTANCE. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  107. 107. Extra oral photography www.indiandentalacademy.com
  108. 108. SHADOW • POINT FLASH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  109. 109. EXTR OR A AL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  110. 110. Extra- oral www.indiandentalacademy.com
  111. 111. Alternatives • Rotating camera through 1800 • Illuminated backdrop screen • Dark non reflective background preferably velvet www.indiandentalacademy.com
  112. 112. INTR OR A AL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  113. 113. Overcoming shadows – 1800 turning www.indiandentalacademy.com
  114. 114. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  115. 115. OCCLUSSAL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  116. 116. Solution- f ocus away f rom patient www.indiandentalacademy.com
  117. 117. SYMMETR ICAL IMAGES • GRID LINES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  118. 118. CAR P OB D R LEMS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  119. 119. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  120. 120. CCD R LEMS OB www.indiandentalacademy.com
  121. 121. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  122. 122. DIGITAL IMAGE • FIT FOR PURPOSE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  123. 123. P OSITIONING ER OR R S www.indiandentalacademy.com
  124. 124. Extra oral photographs • Portrait www.indiandentalacademy.com
  125. 125. Extra oral photographs • Portrait www.indiandentalacademy.com
  126. 126. Extra oral photographs • Background www.indiandentalacademy.com
  127. 127. Extra oral photographs • Background www.indiandentalacademy.com
  128. 128. Extra oral photographs • Background www.indiandentalacademy.com
  129. 129. P OFILE AND THR QUAR R EE TER VIEWS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  130. 130. P OSITIONING ER OR R S www.indiandentalacademy.com
  131. 131. P OSITIONING ER OR R S www.indiandentalacademy.com
  132. 132. P OSITIONING ER OR R S www.indiandentalacademy.com
  133. 133. P OSITIONING ER OR R S www.indiandentalacademy.com
  134. 134. P OSITIONING ER OR R S www.indiandentalacademy.com
  135. 135. P OSITIONING ER OR R S www.indiandentalacademy.com
  136. 136. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  137. 137. INTR OR P A AL HOTOGR HS AP • LANDSCAPE VIEW www.indiandentalacademy.com
  138. 138. • Change in cant of occlusal plane www.indiandentalacademy.com
  139. 139. • Inappropriate selection of cheek retractors. • Saliva not aspirated www.indiandentalacademy.com
  140. 140. B UCCAL VIEWS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  141. 141. MIR OR VIEWS R • OCCLUSSAL SHOTS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  142. 142. MIR OR VIEWS R • OCCLUSSAL SHOTS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  143. 143. Just one more photograph www.indiandentalacademy.com
  144. 144. LCD www.indiandentalacademy.com
  145. 145. Standardizing dental photography • Natural head position. • Frontal views. • The line from the outer canthus of eye to superior attachment of ear from should be parallel to Frankfort horizontal plane. • The inter pupilary line should be parallel to horizontal plane • The distance from outer canthus of eye to the hair line should be equal on both side www.indiandentalacademy.com
  146. 146. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  147. 147. CAMER LENS AND P A OSITION • Focal length of the lens should be the same (100 or 105mm) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  148. 148. CAMER LENS AND P A OSITION • Have consistent subject – camera distances (use of tripod) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  149. 149. CAMER LENS AND P A OSITION • Camera position is one in which a line from middle of lens to eye is parallel to horizontal plane www.indiandentalacademy.com
  150. 150. GOLD STANDAR IN D P HOTOGR HY AP • Journal of orthodontics june 2002 - j sandler and a murray www.indiandentalacademy.com
  151. 151. • Survey carried out in angle society. • Seventy questionnaires were used • Following questions were asked. – which intraoral and extraoral photographs they currently take? – when during the treatment the photographs are taken? – which staff member takes the photographs? – what medium is used to record the images? www.indiandentalacademy.com
  152. 152. R outine use of photography 96% take pre and post treatment photographs. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  153. 153. Extra oral photographs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  154. 154. Intra oral photographs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  155. 155. mid treatment photographs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  156. 156. Who takes the photographs? www.indiandentalacademy.com
  157. 157. P hotographic medium www.indiandentalacademy.com
  158. 158. Gold standard • Nine pretreatment and nine post treatment photographs are a must. • mid treatment photographs at change of every arch wire . • Up to 36 photographs are considered a reasonable number for full photographic documentation of the case. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  159. 159. Need f or photographs • Extra oral full face view ( lips at rest ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  160. 160. Need f or photographs • Extra oral – full face view ( smiling) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  161. 161. Need f or photographs • Extra oral – three quarter view www.indiandentalacademy.com
  162. 162. Need f or photographs • Extra oral – profile view www.indiandentalacademy.com
  163. 163. Need f or photographs • Intra oral front intra oral view. buccal intra oral shots. upper and lower buccal shots. overjet view ( optional ). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  164. 164. Orthodontics current principles and techniques - GRABER AND VANARSDALL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  165. 165. Orthodontics current principles and techniques - GRABER AND VANARSDALL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  166. 166. Conclusion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  167. 167. R ECENT ADVANCES IN DIAGNOSTIC AIDS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  168. 168. www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

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