- minerals and water
seminar relates to these nutrients, their
functions and sources and how they relate to
oral health and diseases.
Various factors which have an impact on the
nutritional status of the elderly are also
Current nutritional requirements of various
- Defined as the kinds of food on which a
person or group lives.
- the science of how the body utilizes food
to meet requirements for development
growth, repair and maintenance.
Balanced diet :
- defined as one which contains a variety f foods
in such quantities and proportions that the need for
energy, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, fats,
carbohydrates and other nutrients is adequately met
for maintaining health, vitality and general well being
and also makes a small provision for extra nutrients
to withstand short duration of leanness.
- the average daily dietary intake of a
nutrient that is sufficient to meet the
requirement of nearly all healthy people.
- measured as the heat output under
physical and mental rest in an adult male in
post absorptive condition (12 hrs after food
intake ), is 35kcl/hr/sq.mt body surface area.
- 60 % of daily energy requirement
As a “ spare protein ”
Aid in fat metabolism.
Formation of structural elements.
( cartilage, nervous tissue and bone )
of non-essential amino acids.
Excellent source of energy. ( 9 Kcal/gm )
As adipose tissue protects internal organs,
regulates body temperature and acts as a
store for energy.
Vehicle for fat soluble vitamins.
Palatability and satiety.
Decreases serum cholesterol.
Essential component of membranes and
polymers of amino acids.
20 different alpha-aminoacids serve as
building blocks of protiens.
AA -Basic structure : -- amino group
-- carboxyl group
Particularly seen in age group of 1-5 yrs.
2 types of protein energy malnutrition
-- inadequate protein
-- inadequate protein + calorie
Functions of proteins :
Major structural component of cellular membranes.
Help in body immunity.
Influence and control osmotic pressure of body
Help in movement of muscle fibers.
As carrier proteins.
As molecular receptors and nucleoproteins …
Vitamin deficiencies in adults are subclinical
and their symptoms are usually stress
Individuals prone to HYPOVITAMINOSIS :
Under drug therapy
Low calorie intake
A, D, E, K
Balanced diet :
A balanced diet has become an accepted means to
safeguard a population from nutritional deficiencies.
Principles governing a balanced diet
Daily requirement of protein must be met –
amounts to 15-20% of the daily energy intake.
Fat requirement – 20-30% of daily energy intake
Carbohydrates rich in natural fiber and micronutrients should constitute the remaining food
Prosthetic considerations :
Geriatric nutrition :
Since the prosthodontist works primarily with the
middle and older age groups,,he is most concerned
with the general health and well being of the older
It is a common tendency to become so engrossed
with the technical details of the denture construction
that we loose sight of the patient as a whole.
problems may be difficult to
handle in older people as eating habits of a
liftime are not easily changed.
The prosthodotist who gives some thought to
the importance of NUTRITION , can help the
older patient make the most of his limited
functional resources , and can spare the
patient many f the consequences of nutritive
The most common oral complains of this age group
results from the fact that aged mucosa is friable and
easily injured .
There is also good evidence that prosthetic failures
are often, the result of tissue deficiencies rather then
It is therefore obvious, that the dentist gives
importance to the DIET AND NUTRITION of this age
Calorie requirement of the elderly
With age the calorie requirements for general bodily
processes continually decreases.
The average adult calorie requirements are :
10% less at age 60
20% less at age 70
25% less over age 90
The dentist should therefore advise the older patients to
curtail foods with high fuel or calorie value ;because
“AN OBESE PERSON IS A SICK PERSON ,AND SICK
PEOPLE ARE POOR DENTURE PATIENTS”.
IMPORTANCE OF PROTEINS
the patient becomes older , the amount of
protein required per kg of body weight is
1.4gm/k body weight is optimum.
Too much protein never damages the health
of the elderly person.
Milk is an ideal source of proteins for this age
Importance of vitamins
Intake should be increased for the following
Provide nervous stability.
Provide resistance to bacterial infections.
Improve digestive efficiency by aiding the use of
carbohydrates and utilization of mineral elements.
The intake of vitamin A, B-complex, C and D
should be increased mainly .
Importance of minerals
of of considerable importance to the
Ca loss contributes to bone fragility .
They often experience a rapid and excessive
ridge resorption, under complete dentures
which may be related to negative Ca
balance; which is also one of the prime
causes o OSTEOPOROSIS.
Thus the inclusion of Ca and PO4 in the diet is
absolutely important as the prime mineralizing
substance of bone .
Minute quantities of trace minerals are also
important , which include: cu, mn, zn, mg, I2, K,
Ca levels may be improved by increasing the intake
of milk and milk products plus a VIT D supplement of
Acidulated milk with a soft curd is especially
Geriatric nutrition and osteoporosis
Results from the loss of bone, especially the spongy spicules of bone
which support the weight bearing parts of the skeleton.
Common in the- aging person
Lack of Ca intake .
Lack of Ca absorption.
Lack of blood circulation.
Low estrogen levels.
The prosthodontists are in a strategic position to intercept
early evidence of osteoporosis and educate the patient towards good
The essential requirements of the daily diet having been described ,
the simplest and the most practical nutritional system to follow is the
BASIC SEVEN , which provides an excellent scheme for a daily plan
on eating and which could be used by the prosthodontist to check the
adequacy of the patients diet.
The basic seven consists of the following 7 food groups:
Group 1 : green and yellow vegetables.
Group 2 : citrus fruits, tomatoes, raw cabbage or salad green .
Group 3 : potatoes and other vegetable fruits.
Group 4 : milk and milk products.
Group 5 : meat , poultry , fish , eggs (if expensive increase
group 4 ) .
Group 6 : enriched or whole grain cereals and bread.
Group 7 : butter or margarine ( if expensive increase group 1 and 4 )
NUTRITION FOR NEW DENTURE
DIET FOR THE FIRST DAY :
A liquid diet which may consist of fruit juices, milk,
DIET FOR THE SECOND AND THIRD DAY :
Soft food that requires a minimum of chewing like
milk , eggs, noodles,etc.
DIET FOR THE FOURTH AND LATER :
As the sore spots have healed firmer foods can be
Dietary counseling of patients
undergoing prosthodontic treatment