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DENTIN BONDING AGENTS

INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
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





Adhesion ~ the attraction between two atoms and
molecules at the contacting surfaces of different
materials; it c...




Etching ~ dissolution of the substrate, removed by
rinsing to enhance intimate contact of adhesives
with collagen.
W...
www.indiandentalacademy.com


% by volume
3%

12%

water
organic
mineral
85%

Inorganic
component is
homogenous,
regular rods and
prisms




Acid etching removes
approx 10 microns of
enamel
Creates microporous
layer 5-50 microns




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Human dentin is a heterogenous material composed
of a solid (circumpulpal) phase surrounding a
network of tubules...




Structurally dentin is
composed of mineral
crystals deposited between a
network of protein fibrils.
Approximately 90...
% by volume



45%
water
organic
mineral
33%

22%



Inorganic component
is heterogeneous,
peritubular and
intertubular ...
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Dentinal tubules
Diameter (microns)
• Number
• Tubular surface area
•

Pulp

DEJ

2.5
0.8
45,000 20,000
25%
3%

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

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Complex histologic structure and variable composition of
the dentin.
Whereas enamel is 92% inorganic hydrox...




Tooth surface instrumented with a rotary or manual
instrument
Composed of:





Pulverized hydroxyapatite
Altere...


To achieve a strong bond, it is necessary to either
strengthen this smear-layer in situ or to remove it
entirely.



I...


Removes smear layer.



Exposes a microporous scaffold of collagen fibrils
increasing the microporosity of intertubula...
Various acids used
Phosphoric
 Citric
 Maleic
 Nitric


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D
E
N
T
I HYDROPHILIC
N

Dentin
Bonding
Agent

COMPOSITE
HYDROPHOBIC

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Three categories of dentinal adhesives are proposed:


Category I includes adhesives with shear bond
strength values betw...


Polymerization shrinkage
2.9 to 7.1% by volume
 contraction gap
 17-20 MPa bond strength to overcome (Davidson et al)...
According to generations:

Evolution of

bonding

agents from

No etch to

total etch
and

self etch.
www.indiandentalacad...


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



First Generation.
Second Generation.
Third Generation.
Fourth Generation.
Fifth Generation.
Sixth Generatio...





Etching enamel
Etching/conditioning Dentin
Smear Layer Treatment
Handling properties

www.indiandentalacademy.com








These contained N-phenylglycine and glycidyl
methacrylate or NPG-GMA.
NPG-GMA is a bifunctional molecule or co...








In the late1970s, the second-generation systems
were introduced.
The majority of these incorporated halophosph...




Since dentin was not etched in these early bonding
systems bonding was with the smear layer.
Water immersion.

www.i...





Three step systems.
Dentin etching was introduced by Fusuyama.
Followed by a primer application.
Application of a...






The primer contains hydrophilic resin monomers
which include hydroxyethyl trimellitate anhydride,
or 4-META, and ...
Denthesive

www.indiandentalacademy.com




The fourth generation bonding system contains two
or more bottles.
One consists of the primer and the other the
adhe...
Etchant

Etchant

+

Primer

+

3 step total etch IV Generation
Primer
Primer
and
adhesive

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A...
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

Fusayama and colleagues tried to simplify bonding to
enamel and dentin by total etching the preparation with 40
percent...


Results from the polymerized methacrylate and
dentin.



The hybrid layer is defined as “the structure formed
in denta...
Hybrid zone

www.indiandentalacademy.com


The formation of resin tags and adhesive lateral
branches complete the bonding mechanism between
the adhesive material ...
All Bond 2

Pro-Bond

Liner Bond 2

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Scotch Bond


Unique feature is the combination of the priming
and bond resin application steps, resulting in a one
component formula...


These bonding systems create a mechanical
interlocking with etched dentin by means of resin
tags, adhesive lateral bran...
3 step total etch
Etchant

Etchant

IV Generation
+

+

Primer

Primer

+

Primer
and
adhesive

www.indiandentalacademy.co...
Gluma Comfort Bond
Adper Single Bond

Prime & Bond- NT

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Optibond Solo
Adhesive

Mean Shear Bond Strength
( MPa )

Single Bond

30.0±5.5

Opti Bond Solo

23.4±3.4

One-Step

22.5±3.8

Prime & B...







They are self etching adhesives ( Etch & prime
simultaneously).
They involve a somewhat different mechanism in
...
Sixth Generation
Type I
Etchant

Self
+
etching
primer

+

Primer

Adhesive

Sixth Generation
Type II

Etchant

+

All in ...
Clearfil SE Bond

Prompt L Pop

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Xeno III
Etchant

Etchant

+

Primer

+

Adhesive

Primer

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Adhesive

=

All in one
adhesive
I- Bond

G Bond

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Xeno IV
1.




Modify the smear layer & incorporate it into the
bond.
One step – Prime & Bond 2.1
Two step – Pro Bond

www.india...
2. Completely removes the smear layer:
 Two step – Clearfil Liner Bond 2.
 Three step – Clearfil Liner Bond.

www.indian...
3. Dissolves the smear layer than removing it.
 Prime & Bond 2.0.

www.indiandentalacademy.com


Difference in the degree of mineralisation.



Concentrations of both calcium and phosphorus in
both peritubular and i...


Dentin of primary teeth is more sensitive to the acid
etch/ conditioning procedure.



This leads to an increased thic...


Carious dentin is a combination of porous and nonporous zones.



The resultant deposition of Whitlockite may warrant
...





Simple to use.
Minimally irritating to the tissue.
Less technique sensitive.
Clinically satisfactory bond.

www.i...




Chemically bonding the resin molecule to the
collagenous structure of dentin rather than by means
of micromechanical...
Conclusion

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Thank You!............

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



Prime & Bond 2.0 – Total etch
Prime & Bond 2.1 – No etch
Prime & Bond NT – Nano-Technology

www.indiandentalacademy...


Drying the dentin will produce a relatively
impermeable amorphous layer:
Denatured collagen
 Collapse of collagen laye...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com






The total-etch technique permits the etching of
enamel and dentin simultaneously using phosphoric
acid for 15 to ...
Bonding Agent
Smear Layer

Smear layer not removed in second
generation adhesives

www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Leader in continuing dental education

www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Dentin bonding agents /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

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Dentin bonding agents /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. DENTIN BONDING AGENTS INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5.    Adhesion ~ the attraction between two atoms and molecules at the contacting surfaces of different materials; it can be chemical (ionic), physical (van der Waals’), and/or mechanical (micro- or macrointerlocking) Adhesive ~ monomer (or related) that penetrates and establishes intimate contact with the conditioned tissue substrate, polymerises, and forms a strong bond between such substrate and the restorative material Priming ~ cleaning, structural alteration, and increasing adhesiveness of the substrate. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6.   Etching ~ dissolution of the substrate, removed by rinsing to enhance intimate contact of adhesives with collagen. Wetting ~ the ability of a liquid to come into intimate contact with solid substrate; facilitates bonding www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8.  % by volume 3% 12% water organic mineral 85% Inorganic component is homogenous, regular rods and prisms
  9. 9.   Acid etching removes approx 10 microns of enamel Creates microporous layer 5-50 microns
  10. 10.    Human dentin is a heterogenous material composed of a solid (circumpulpal) phase surrounding a network of tubules. These tubules, measuring about 1 to 3 micrometer in diameter, contain elongated cell bodies that radiate from the the dental pulp organ throughout the entire dentin. Their average density is about 30 000 tubules/square mm.. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11.   Structurally dentin is composed of mineral crystals deposited between a network of protein fibrils. Approximately 90% of this network is type I collagen, the balance consisting of a sheath of phosphoproteins surrounding the collagen, and other proteins in small amounts. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. % by volume  45% water organic mineral 33% 22%  Inorganic component is heterogeneous, peritubular and intertubular dentin Low surface free energy - wets less easily
  13. 13. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Dentinal tubules Diameter (microns) • Number • Tubular surface area • Pulp DEJ 2.5 0.8 45,000 20,000 25% 3% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16.      Complex histologic structure and variable composition of the dentin. Whereas enamel is 92% inorganic hydroxyapatite by volume, dentine is (on average) only 45% inorganic. Also dentinal hydroxyapatite is randomly arranged in an organic matrix that consists primarily of collagen, which is permeated throughout by tubules. These contain vital processes of the pulp odontoblasts. Hence, vital dentine is a sensitive structure. The high water content provides competition with any adhesive biomaterial for bonding to dentine. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17.   Tooth surface instrumented with a rotary or manual instrument Composed of:     Pulverized hydroxyapatite Altered collagen Bacteria Saliva www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18.  To achieve a strong bond, it is necessary to either strengthen this smear-layer in situ or to remove it entirely.  In the latter, it is imperative to ensure an adequately adhesive restorative otherwise the open tubules may allow irritants or bacteria greater access to the pulp. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19.  Removes smear layer.  Exposes a microporous scaffold of collagen fibrils increasing the microporosity of intertubular dentin. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Various acids used Phosphoric  Citric  Maleic  Nitric  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. D E N T I HYDROPHILIC N Dentin Bonding Agent COMPOSITE HYDROPHOBIC www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Three categories of dentinal adhesives are proposed:  Category I includes adhesives with shear bond strength values between 5 and 7 Mpa;  Category II includes dentinal adhesives with shear bond strengths between 8 and 14 Mpa; and  Category III includes adhesives with shear bond strength values above 20 Mpa . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23.  Polymerization shrinkage 2.9 to 7.1% by volume  contraction gap  17-20 MPa bond strength to overcome (Davidson et al)  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. According to generations: Evolution of bonding agents from No etch to total etch and self etch. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25.        First Generation. Second Generation. Third Generation. Fourth Generation. Fifth Generation. Sixth Generation. Seventh Generation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26.     Etching enamel Etching/conditioning Dentin Smear Layer Treatment Handling properties www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27.     These contained N-phenylglycine and glycidyl methacrylate or NPG-GMA. NPG-GMA is a bifunctional molecule or coupling agent. This means that one end of this molecule bonds to dentin while the other bonds (polymerizes) to composite resin. The bond strengths of these early systems were only 1 to 3 MPa. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28.     In the late1970s, the second-generation systems were introduced. The majority of these incorporated halophosphorous esters of unfilled resins such as bisphenol- A glycidyl methacrylate, or bis-GMA, or hydroxyethyl methacrylate, or HEMA. The mechanism by which these bonded to dentin were postulated to be through an ionic bond to calcium by chlorophosphate groups. These were weak bonds with a range of 2-7 MPa. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29.   Since dentin was not etched in these early bonding systems bonding was with the smear layer. Water immersion. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30.     Three step systems. Dentin etching was introduced by Fusuyama. Followed by a primer application. Application of an unfilled resin. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31.    The primer contains hydrophilic resin monomers which include hydroxyethyl trimellitate anhydride, or 4-META, and biphenyl dimethacrylate, or BPDM. The primers contain a hydrophilic group that infiltrates the smear layer, modifying it and promoting adhesion to dentin, and the hydrophobic group of the primer creates adhesion to the resin. Dentin primers may be 6 % phosphate pentaacrylate, (PENTA) ; 30 % HEMA; and 64 % ethanol. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Denthesive www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33.   The fourth generation bonding system contains two or more bottles. One consists of the primer and the other the adhesive. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Etchant Etchant + Primer + 3 step total etch IV Generation Primer Primer and adhesive www.indiandentalacademy.com Adhesive Adhesive
  35. 35. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36.  Fusayama and colleagues tried to simplify bonding to enamel and dentin by total etching the preparation with 40 percent phosphoric acid.  The mineralized tissues of the peritubular and intertubular dentin are dissolved by the acidic action; the initial surface penetration exposes the collagen fibers.  In this area, for a depth of 2 to 4 micrometers, hybridization takes place, and resin tags can seal the tubule orifices firmly . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37.  Results from the polymerized methacrylate and dentin.  The hybrid layer is defined as “the structure formed in dental hard tissues (enamel, dentin, cementum) by demineralization of the surface and subsurface, followed by infiltration of monomers and subsequent polymerization.” Nakabayashi et al (1982) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. Hybrid zone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39.  The formation of resin tags and adhesive lateral branches complete the bonding mechanism between the adhesive material and etched dentin substrate. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. All Bond 2 Pro-Bond Liner Bond 2 www.indiandentalacademy.com Scotch Bond
  41. 41.  Unique feature is the combination of the priming and bond resin application steps, resulting in a one component formula.  Also rely heavily on wet bonding.  Most commonly used and probably the most successful system. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42.  These bonding systems create a mechanical interlocking with etched dentin by means of resin tags, adhesive lateral branches and hybrid layer formation.. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. 3 step total etch Etchant Etchant IV Generation + + Primer Primer + Primer and adhesive www.indiandentalacademy.com Adhesive Adhesive 2 step V Generation
  44. 44. Gluma Comfort Bond Adper Single Bond Prime & Bond- NT www.indiandentalacademy.com Optibond Solo
  45. 45. Adhesive Mean Shear Bond Strength ( MPa ) Single Bond 30.0±5.5 Opti Bond Solo 23.4±3.4 One-Step 22.5±3.8 Prime & Bond 2.1 21.1±5.0
  46. 46.     They are self etching adhesives ( Etch & prime simultaneously). They involve a somewhat different mechanism in that, as soon as the decalcification process is initiated, the infusion of the evacuated spaces by dentin bonding agent is begun. As a result, the potential for residual vacancies amongst the collagenous fibers is dramatically reduced or eliminated altogether. The bonding agent is either applied after the self etching primer or mixed together before single application. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Sixth Generation Type I Etchant Self + etching primer + Primer Adhesive Sixth Generation Type II Etchant + All in one adhesive Primer + www.indiandentalacademy.com Adhesive
  48. 48. Clearfil SE Bond Prompt L Pop www.indiandentalacademy.com Xeno III
  49. 49. Etchant Etchant + Primer + Adhesive Primer www.indiandentalacademy.com Adhesive = All in one adhesive
  50. 50. I- Bond G Bond www.indiandentalacademy.com Xeno IV
  51. 51. 1.   Modify the smear layer & incorporate it into the bond. One step – Prime & Bond 2.1 Two step – Pro Bond www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. 2. Completely removes the smear layer:  Two step – Clearfil Liner Bond 2.  Three step – Clearfil Liner Bond. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. 3. Dissolves the smear layer than removing it.  Prime & Bond 2.0. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54.  Difference in the degree of mineralisation.  Concentrations of both calcium and phosphorus in both peritubular and intertubular dentin are lower in primary teeth.  The tubular diameter and density in dentin of primary teeth is lesser than that in permanent teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55.  Dentin of primary teeth is more sensitive to the acid etch/ conditioning procedure.  This leads to an increased thickness of the hybrid layer and the subsequent lack of complete penetration of the adhesive resin into the demineralised dentin.  Ideally the concentration and duration of etch/ conditioning has to be re-calculated for primary teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56.  Carious dentin is a combination of porous and nonporous zones.  The resultant deposition of Whitlockite may warrant additional etching/ conditioning times compared to sound dentin. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57.     Simple to use. Minimally irritating to the tissue. Less technique sensitive. Clinically satisfactory bond. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58.   Chemically bonding the resin molecule to the collagenous structure of dentin rather than by means of micromechanical retention (as is done now). Incidentally, another approach to dentinal adhesion could center on the chemical bonding of the resin to the hydroxyapatite . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. Conclusion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. Thank You!............ www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63.    Prime & Bond 2.0 – Total etch Prime & Bond 2.1 – No etch Prime & Bond NT – Nano-Technology www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64.  Drying the dentin will produce a relatively impermeable amorphous layer: Denatured collagen  Collapse of collagen layer     Must remain moist to resist this impermeable layer. Pooled moisture should be removed by blotting and not with a blast of air. Dry dentin should be remoistened with a wet cotton pledget. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67.    The total-etch technique permits the etching of enamel and dentin simultaneously using phosphoric acid for 15 to 20 seconds. The surface must be left moist (“wet bonding”), however, in order to avoid collagen collapse . The application of a hydrophilic primer solution infiltrates the exposed collagen network forming the hybrid layer . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. Bonding Agent Smear Layer Smear layer not removed in second generation adhesives www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

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