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Dentin bonding agent /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
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Dentin bonding agent /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Definition of Dentin BondingDefinition of Dentin Bonding AgentsAgents The dentin bonding agents are di or multiThe dentin bonding agents are di or multi functional organic molecules that containfunctional organic molecules that contain reactive groups which interact with dentinreactive groups which interact with dentin and the monomer of the restorative resinand the monomer of the restorative resin INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. REQUIREMENTS DENTINREQUIREMENTS DENTIN BONDING AGENTSBONDING AGENTS When developing a clinically acceptable dentin bonding agentWhen developing a clinically acceptable dentin bonding agent following goals must be met.following goals must be met. Bond strength – The adhesive should be capable of achieving anBond strength – The adhesive should be capable of achieving an acceptable bond strength to withstand the stresses caused byacceptable bond strength to withstand the stresses caused by polymerization contraction of compostes. Optimum bond strengthpolymerization contraction of compostes. Optimum bond strength →→ 17 Mpa – 20 Mpa.17 Mpa – 20 Mpa. Biocompatibility of the material. The adhesion used should beBiocompatibility of the material. The adhesion used should be biocompatible with structures in contact with it.biocompatible with structures in contact with it. Long-term durability of the bond it is a highly desired factor.Long-term durability of the bond it is a highly desired factor. Prevents microleakage by reduced gap formation between toothPrevents microleakage by reduced gap formation between tooth structure and restorative material.structure and restorative material. Have to potential for sensitization of patients or operators.Have to potential for sensitization of patients or operators. Be compatible with a wide range of resins.Be compatible with a wide range of resins. Show no reduction in bond strength when applied to moist surface.Show no reduction in bond strength when applied to moist surface. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. ADHESIONADHESION DefinitionDefinition :: is a process of solid and / or liquid of oneis a process of solid and / or liquid of one material (adhesive/adherent) with anothermaterial (adhesive/adherent) with another (adhered) at a single interface. Most instance of(adhered) at a single interface. Most instance of dental adhesion are also called “Dentaldental adhesion are also called “Dental Bonding”.Bonding”. Adhesive is defined by the “American society forAdhesive is defined by the “American society for testing and materials” as a substance capable oftesting and materials” as a substance capable of holding materials together by surfaceholding materials together by surface attachment.attachment. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Adhesion (according to DCNA 1993)Adhesion (according to DCNA 1993) can be classified as:can be classified as: Chemical.Chemical. Mechanical.Mechanical. Physical.Physical. Physical adhesion is by Vander Waals or otherPhysical adhesion is by Vander Waals or other electrostatic interactions is relatively weak.electrostatic interactions is relatively weak. Chemical adhesion involves bonding at the atomic orChemical adhesion involves bonding at the atomic or molecular level.molecular level. Mechanical adhesion is based on retention by theMechanical adhesion is based on retention by the interlocking of one phase into the surface of the other.interlocking of one phase into the surface of the other. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Mechanical is can be due to:Mechanical is can be due to: Geomechanical effectsGeomechanical effects – These are– These are caused by mircosopie porosity orcaused by mircosopie porosity or roughness of the surface i.e.roughness of the surface i.e. mechanical locking provided due tomechanical locking provided due to undercuts, grooves.undercuts, grooves. Rheological effectsRheological effects – This is caused– This is caused by the flow of the materials in bothby the flow of the materials in both liquid or semi solid phase e.g. use ofliquid or semi solid phase e.g. use of adhesives or cements to hold twoadhesives or cements to hold twowww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Requirements for adhesion:Requirements for adhesion: These must beThese must be good wettinggood wetting inin order to produce good bonding.order to produce good bonding. Surface to be joined must beSurface to be joined must be cleaned.cleaned. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. CHEMISTRY OF ADHESIVECHEMISTRY OF ADHESIVE AGENTS (Op Dent Supp/1992; 5)AGENTS (Op Dent Supp/1992; 5) The dentin adhesives are characterizedThe dentin adhesives are characterized by containing monomers that haveby containing monomers that have hydrophilic or hydrophobic groups.hydrophilic or hydrophobic groups. The polymerized adhesive system shouldThe polymerized adhesive system should provide aprovide a stable linkstable link with structurewith structure and bulk of the restoration.and bulk of the restoration. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. HYDROPHOBIC –AWAY FROMHYDROPHOBIC –AWAY FROM WATERWATER HYDROPHILLIC-WATREHYDROPHILLIC-WATRE FRIENDLYFRIENDLY www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. Chemistry of adhesiveChemistry of adhesive agents can be explained asagents can be explained as follows:follows: ChemicalChemical adhesion.adhesion. Adhesion byAdhesion by coupling agentcoupling agent.. Adhesion byAdhesion by Grafting reactionGrafting reaction.. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Chemical adhesionChemical adhesion These are of two types:These are of two types: ByBy primary valence forcesprimary valence forces →→ which can be by:which can be by: Covalent bonds – strongestCovalent bonds – strongest Co-ordinative bondsCo-ordinative bonds Ionic bondsIonic bonds ByBy secondary valence forcessecondary valence forces →→ which can be:which can be: Intermolecular attraction (Vander Waals forces).Intermolecular attraction (Vander Waals forces). Hydrogen bonds.Hydrogen bonds. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Adhesion by coupling agentsAdhesion by coupling agents Coupling agents utilizing the conceptCoupling agents utilizing the concept ofof hydrophobic and hydrophilichydrophobic and hydrophilic groupsgroups are the monomers based on phosphateare the monomers based on phosphate or phosphonates.or phosphonates. Phosphate groupPhosphate group (hydrophilic)(hydrophilic) reactsreacts with calcium ions of dentin.with calcium ions of dentin. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. DENTIN BONDING AGENTSDENTIN BONDING AGENTS MAY ACTMAY ACT By way ofBy way of chemical reaction.chemical reaction. By their ability to penetrate not only theBy their ability to penetrate not only the dentinal tubules but also thedentinal tubules but also the intertubularintertubular substancesubstance of the surface layer of dentinof the surface layer of dentin known as “intertubular bonding”.known as “intertubular bonding”. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. PHYSICOCHEMICAL ASPECTSPHYSICOCHEMICAL ASPECTS It involves theIt involves the interfacial attractioninterfacial attraction betweenbetween the tooth surface and the adhesive.the tooth surface and the adhesive. Each treatment of the dentin leaves it to aEach treatment of the dentin leaves it to a specific conditionspecific condition that requires specificthat requires specific polarity and solubility parameters of thepolarity and solubility parameters of the ensuing treatment in the bonding procedure.ensuing treatment in the bonding procedure. If this requirement is met, the bonding systemIf this requirement is met, the bonding system will possesswill possess maximum efficacymaximum efficacy (Amussen and(Amussen and Uno, 1992).Uno, 1992). www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Factors affecting adhesionFactors affecting adhesion There must be anThere must be an intimate contactintimate contact between toothbetween tooth structure and restorative materials.structure and restorative materials. Salivary and / orSalivary and / or blood contamination.blood contamination. MoistureMoisture contamination from handpiece or air-watercontamination from handpiece or air-water syringes.syringes. OilOil contamination of handpieces or air-water syringes.contamination of handpieces or air-water syringes. Surface roughnessSurface roughness of tooth surface.of tooth surface. Mechanical undercutsMechanical undercuts in tooth preparation.in tooth preparation. Presence ofPresence of plaque, calculus, intrinsic stains orplaque, calculus, intrinsic stains or debris.debris. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Problems in bondingProblems in bonding EnamelEnamel is 92% inorganic (hydroxyapatite) by volumeis 92% inorganic (hydroxyapatite) by volume dentin has about 65% inorganic component and rest beingdentin has about 65% inorganic component and rest being collagen and water.collagen and water. DentinDentin is more hetrogenous in nature.is more hetrogenous in nature. HydroxyapatiteHydroxyapatite crystals incrystals in enamelenamel are regularly arranged,are regularly arranged, where as inwhere as in dentindentin are randomly arranged in an organicare randomly arranged in an organic matrix.matrix. Within theWithin the dentindentin there are many variations in thethere are many variations in the substrate –substrate – Change in volume of dentimal tubules (1%) near surfaceChange in volume of dentimal tubules (1%) near surface towards the pulp (22%) of surface.towards the pulp (22%) of surface.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Sclerosed dentinSclerosed dentin, if present is difficult to, if present is difficult to penetrate.penetrate. Presence ofPresence of smear layersmear layer reduces the bond strength.reduces the bond strength. Presence of surface deposits such asPresence of surface deposits such as plaque,plaque, calculus, pellicle etc.calculus, pellicle etc. Dentin isDentin is hydrophilichydrophilic while most adhesives arewhile most adhesives are hydrophobichydrophobic www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. MECHANISM OF BONDINGMECHANISM OF BONDING (LATEST DISCOVERIES)(LATEST DISCOVERIES) The adhesion agents bonds toThe adhesion agents bonds to dentin via thedentin via the chemical or micromechanicalchemical or micromechanical bond.bond. TheThe chemical bondchemical bond is generated between theis generated between the intertubular dentin and the primer throughintertubular dentin and the primer through the primer’s bifunctional molecules –the primer’s bifunctional molecules – “intertubular bonding”.“intertubular bonding”. TheThe micromechanical bondmicromechanical bond is obtainedis obtained through a double mechanism:through a double mechanism: The bonding agent penetration inside theThe bonding agent penetration inside thewww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Creation of resin –Creation of resin – Dentine into diffusingDentine into diffusing area.area. Called hybrid layer – This area isCalled hybrid layer – This area is created by the penetration of liquid resincreated by the penetration of liquid resin into the etched dentin, and its thicknessinto the etched dentin, and its thickness will be determined by the relation betweenwill be determined by the relation between the depth of action of the etching acid andthe depth of action of the etching acid and the penetration capacity of the resin itself.the penetration capacity of the resin itself. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Dentin Adhesive SystemDentin Adhesive System Components of dentin adhesive systems:Components of dentin adhesive systems: The three main components are:The three main components are: A)A) Conditioner.Conditioner. B)B) Primer.Primer. C)C) Bonding agents / adhesives.Bonding agents / adhesives. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Conditioner:Conditioner: Conditioning of dentin is defined as anyConditioning of dentin is defined as any alteration of the dentin done after the creation ofalteration of the dentin done after the creation of dentin cutting debris usually termed the smeardentin cutting debris usually termed the smear layer.layer. Objective:Objective: To create a surface capable of micromechanicalTo create a surface capable of micromechanical and possibly. Chemical bonding to a dentinand possibly. Chemical bonding to a dentin bonding agent.bonding agent. Principal effects of conditioner on the dentin are:Principal effects of conditioner on the dentin are: Physical changes.Physical changes.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. Physical changes: Increase or decrease in morphology of smearIncrease or decrease in morphology of smear layer.layer. Changes in the shape of dentinal tubulesChanges in the shape of dentinal tubules www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. .Chemical Changes:.Chemical Changes: - Modification of the function of organic matter (usually about 20% by volume). - Decalcification of the inorganic portion. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Chemical Changes:Chemical Changes: Modification of the function of organicModification of the function of organic matter (usually 20% by volume)matter (usually 20% by volume) Decacification of inorganic portion.Decacification of inorganic portion. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. Conditioning of dentin i) Chemical modification a. Acidic conditioner. b. Calcium chelators. ii) Thermal modifications a. Lasers. iii) Mechanical modifications Microabrasionwww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Conditioners employed i) 17% EDTA (Gluma). ii) 1% Nitric acid. iii) Tenure (Ferric oxalate). iv) Aluminium oxalates. v) 37% phosphoric acid (All bond-10%). vi) 2.5% maleic acid vii) 10% citric acid. Hard tissue lasers viz. Pulsed Nd: YAG lasers www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Smear layerSmear layer Subsequent to instrumentation of theSubsequent to instrumentation of the tooth,the natural deposits composed oftooth,the natural deposits composed of microcrystalline cutting debrismicrocrystalline cutting debris embeded with in the denaturedembeded with in the denatured collagen is formed on the cut surfacecollagen is formed on the cut surface known as smear layer.known as smear layer. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. The smear layer and smear plugs thus actsThe smear layer and smear plugs thus acts as barrier to the fluid movement to theas barrier to the fluid movement to the surface via the tubules and may also limitsurface via the tubules and may also limit the access of microorganisms and toxins tothe access of microorganisms and toxins to the pulp.the pulp. Removal of the smear plugs increase theRemoval of the smear plugs increase the permeability of dentin 5-20 times (Pashleypermeability of dentin 5-20 times (Pashley 1989) and the following fluid movement1989) and the following fluid movement would then be detrimental for adhesion .would then be detrimental for adhesion .www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. PrimersPrimers Primer is defined as a chemical capable ofPrimer is defined as a chemical capable of improving the wettability of adherents orimproving the wettability of adherents or capable of being corporated into the surfacecapable of being corporated into the surface of the substrate to form chemical bondof the substrate to form chemical bond across the interfaceacross the interface www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Role of primer:Role of primer: - Increase the surface wettability and spreadability of the monomer. - Stabilize the collagen fibers. - Restores the surface energy. - Enhances the monomer penetration. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Bonding AgentsBonding Agents 1) Bonding via the dentinal tubules to etched dentine. 2) Formation of precipitates on pretreated dentinal tubules with the adhesive resin bonding either chemically or mechanically. 3) Chemical union to the inorganic, organic or both the components. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Dentin bonding agents can be classified as- www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Polyurathanes Polyacrylic acids Organic phosphonatesOrganic phosphonates Mellitic anhydride plus methyl methacryate Hydroxyethyl methacrylate and glutaraldehyde Ferricoxalate www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. On the basis of chronology,On the basis of chronology, chemistry and shear bondchemistry and shear bond strength:strength: www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Category ICategory I Include dentinal adhesives which produces shear bond strength values of 5-6 MPa. Examples: - Scotchbond dual cure. - Dentin adhesit. - Gluma. The failures occurred at the interface or in the resin www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. Category IICategory II Included the experimental and commercial products derived from Bowen’s work with ferric and aluminum oxalates and have produced shear bond strength values between 8-14 MPa. Examples: - Tenure. - Mirage bond. As the strength increased, wettability also increased. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Category III:Category III: Included dentinal adhesives which produced shear bond strength values of about 1720 MPa Examples: - Superbond - Scothchbond-2 Scotchbond multipurpose www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. On the basis ofOn the basis of Generation:Generation: Seven generations are available.Seven generations are available. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. First generation dentin bonding agents i) Glycophosphoric acid dimethacrylate. ii) Cyanoacrylates. iii) N-phenyl glycine and glycidyl methacrylate (NPG-GMA). iv) Polyurethane. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39.  This mainly consisted of a surface activeThis mainly consisted of a surface active compomer viz. NPG-GMA, added to BIS-compomer viz. NPG-GMA, added to BIS- GMA resin to facilitate adhesion.GMA resin to facilitate adhesion.  The NPG-GMA acted as an adhesionThe NPG-GMA acted as an adhesion promoter between the tooth structure andpromoter between the tooth structure and resin material by chelating with surfaceresin material by chelating with surface calcium.calcium. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. Disadvantages of 1Disadvantages of 1stst generationgeneration bonding agents:bonding agents: 1. Hydrolysis of glyco-phosporic acid dimethacrylate in the oral environment. 2. Difficulty in bulk polymerization of the cyanoacrylates. 3. Instability of NPG-GMA in solution. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. Second Generation Dentin Bonding System: The agents used were: i) Halophosphorous esters of Bisphenyl A glycidal methacrylation (BIS-GMA). ii) Polyurethans: It requires the presence of a smear layer. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. Bonding mechanisms involves improvedBonding mechanisms involves improved wetting of the surface and ionic interactionwetting of the surface and ionic interaction between the phosphate group and calciumbetween the phosphate group and calcium of the tooth.of the tooth. eg.Clearifileg.Clearifil www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. Disadvantage:Disadvantage: It was not possible to achieve a long-lasting bond possibly due to: a) Low bond strength. b) Hydrolysis of the phosphate calcium bond. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. Third Generation Bonding Systems: - This generation DBA requires either removal, modification or dissolution of the smear layer. These agents used a conditioning step on the dentin in conjunction with a bonding agent. - The chemistry of these agents is more diverse than 2nd generation systems and includes various agents for conditioning the dentin. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. example of third generation is Oxalate . Scotch Bond XR PRIMERXR PRIMER www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Disadvantages of 3Disadvantages of 3 generation system:generation system: 1) increased chair side complexity. 2) More time consuming. 3) Technique sensitive. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Fourth Generation Bonding System The fourth generation bonding systems are based on the complete removal of smear layer. - It allows the use of both conservative and alt etch technique. - Also know as universal bonding systems as these bond to dentin, enamel, amalgam, porcelain, composite. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Mechanism of bonding - Diffusion and impregnation of resin into the substrate of partially decalcified dentin followed by polymerization creating a hybrid resin reinforced layer. - The hybrid layer formed is an acid resistance mixture of polymerize and tooth structure components creating a resin / dentin composite. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. Probond:Probond: a) Primer : Acetone / ethanol PENTA b) Resin: UDMA PENTA Glutaraldehyde www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. Liner bond 2 (Kurary, Japan) This system introduced the concept of no rinse self- etching primer. a) Primer: Pheny P HEMA 5-NMSA b) Bonding resin BIS-GMA Colloidal silica MDP www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Amalgam bond:Amalgam bond: ) Conditioner: 10% citric acid 3% ferric chloride b) Primer: HEMA with water c) Resin: 4 META - MMATBB (Methyl methacrylate tri-N-butylchlorine) www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. All bond: All bond is a unique development in the field of adhesive dentistry. It is a universal bonding system that will bond composite to all dental related surface. Dentin, enamel, metal alloy amalgam, porcelain and composite. It is also the only system that allows the use of both the conservative and all etch techniuqe.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. Mechanism of bonding: - Bonding occur by hybridization. - Research by Nakayabashi has shown that strong bond is formed between dentin and resin when a monomer such as 4-META, penetrates the tissue and polymers. The resin impregnation creates a transitional “Hybrid layer that is neither resin not tooth, but a hybrid o the two. This direct chemical interaction which the inter tubular dentin is the key to bond strength www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. Advantages of All-Bond - Bond strength – 18MPa. - Leaves no residue on dentine surface (because of semi-gel form). - Wets better. - Rinse easier. - Bonds to wet surface. All-bond provides a special resin called “Pre-bond” to be used in place of light curing bonding resin when cementing inlays, onlay or crown www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. Fifth Generation DentinFifth Generation Dentin Bonding SystemsBonding Systems The distinct characteristic of the so-called fifth generation is the combination of the primer and bonding resin application steps to achieve bonding with a one component resin formula. (One bottle bonding system). These systems rely on the hybridization of dentine for achieving adhesion. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES 1) One step. 2) Single step system. 3) Bond strength – 27-29 MPa. 4) High resistance to microleakage. 5) It has low film thickness 10-20 µm and so it is effective for indirect procedures as well. 6) Bonds to moist dentine. 7) Chemistry same as All bond. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. Advantages of VAdvantages of Vthth generation:generation: - Increased bond strength. - Less technique sensitive. - Reduce treatment time. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. Sixth Generation DentinSixth Generation Dentin Bonding SystemBonding System Example – Clearfil bond 2 system (Kurrary Co.). - In this etchant and primer are combined. Also known as self etching primer. - It contains phosphate derivatives of hydrophilic monomer such as phenyl-P (20-205%). www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. Biocompatibility of Dentin Bonding Agents www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. First generation DentinFirst generation Dentin bonding agentbonding agent - A very limited number of reports have been published on the biocompatibility of the first generation DBA (which may be due to their inferior physical properties). - Van Leeuwen et al showed no severe reactions even in extremely deep caries in their study carried out on monkey teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. Second generation DBASecond generation DBA - The most of the studies are carried out using Scotch bond. - Scotch bond might have an adverse effect on the pulp tissue when placed in contact with vital tooth and proper pulpal protection was recommended. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. Third generation:Third generation: Test carried out showed that the bondingTest carried out showed that the bonding material as well as the individual componentsmaterial as well as the individual components were not toxic.were not toxic. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. It involves a time consuming procedure.It involves a time consuming procedure. Long term durability of bonding is yetLong term durability of bonding is yet under speculationunder speculation High cost factor involved limits its use inHigh cost factor involved limits its use in every patient.every patient. Shelf life is limited and storageShelf life is limited and storage conditioners have to be critical.conditioners have to be critical. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. Conclusion:Conclusion: The reliability of dentine bonding has improved during 1990s and as a result the number of minimally invasive techniques available to the restorative dentist have increased. It may be anticipated that the effectiveness of adhesive technique to be dentin will improve further and that in due course all restorations including crowns, will be placed using an adhesive procedure and that reattachment technique will become the accepted mode of treatment for fractured cusps and teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. ConclusionConclusion The reliability of DB has improved duringThe reliability of DB has improved during 1990s and as a result minimally invasive1990s and as a result minimally invasive technique available to restorative dentisttechnique available to restorative dentist have increased.have increased. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com

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