Craniometry and Functional CraniologyCraniometry and Functional Craniology
Part II:Part II:
Functional Craniology: Kinemat...
Lecture outlineLecture outline
1. Introduction: definition, scope, and objectives
2. Kinematics and dynamics
3. Biomechani...
Functional CraniologyFunctional Craniology
• Definition: The study of the craniofacial complex in relation to the fields o...
DynamicsDynamics
The interpretation and description of the
biological processes of the changes in size,
shape, and locatio...
The description of measurement.
The description of the changes in size, shape, and location based on
observations and meas...
What is the true meaning of a measurement?
How to see beyond the numbers? And what are we looking for?
What makes the chan...
Deformation: Change of form due to the loading of forces
Stress: the force per unit area
Strain: the dimensional change ex...
ForceForce
Compression, Tension, Shear, Bending, Torsion
1) Two basic forces: Compression & Tension
2) A combination of co...
Original status
Compression
Tension
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Original statusShear Bending
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Original status Torsion
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www.indiandentalacademy.com
Facial Deformation
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Facial Deformation
Source: Dr. Wisanu Charoenkul
Skeletal Class III, concave profile
Source: Dr. Sonia Abraham
Skeletal Cl...
Cephalic Form, Facial Form,
and Arch Form
Dolichocephalic (long and narrow head)
Leptoprosopic (long and narrow face)
Doli...
Source: Dr. Christel Hummert
FM
Female
13y 6m
Mouth breather; Enlarged pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid)
*
www.indiandentalacade...
Form (Structure) and FunctionForm (Structure) and Function
Function determines form (structure).
Function controls form (s...
Cranial SuturesCranial Sutures
1. Edge-to-edge suture
⇒ No force loading
2. Beveled suture
⇒ Shear force [Squamosal suture...
““Form Follows Function”Form Follows Function”
1. Plane (gliding) joint
⇒ Sliding motion of all directions
2. Hinge joint
...
Synovial Joints (II)Synovial Joints (II)
3. Pivot joint
⇒ Rotation
4. Ellipsoidal (condyloid) joint
⇒ flexion/extension,
a...
Synovial Joints (III)Synovial Joints (III)
5. Saddle joint
⇒ Similar to ellipsoidal joint,
but freer
6. Ball and socket jo...
Functional Structure of SkullFunctional Structure of Skull
(From a mechanical point of view)(From a mechanical point of vi...
Functional Structure of SkullFunctional Structure of Skull
(From a mechanical point of view)(From a mechanical point of vi...
Sagittal crests and temporal muscle orientationsSagittal crests and temporal muscle orientations
Hominids compared to pong...
Bone remodelingBone remodeling
Deposition: the biological process of laying down the bone
Resorption: the biological proce...
Deposition (+); Resorption (-); Direction of growth (arrow)
The Growth of the Coronoid ProcessThe Growth of the Coronoid P...
The Growth of MandibleThe Growth of Mandible
Deposition (blue arrow); resorption (white arrow)www.indiandentalacademy.com
The Remodeling (Growth) Direction:The Remodeling (Growth) Direction:
The “V” PrincipleThe “V” Principle
www.indiandentalac...
Drift vs DisplacementDrift vs Displacement
Drift: the growth movement of an enlarging portion of a bone by the remodeling....
Head (craniofacial complex) is a region, where a series of
functions are carried out.
These functions include vision, hear...
Functional Matrix HypothesisFunctional Matrix Hypothesis
((Moss’ HypothesisMoss’ Hypothesis))
““The functional matrix is p...
Functional Matrix HypothesisFunctional Matrix Hypothesis
((Moss’ HypothesisMoss’ Hypothesis))
““The origin, development an...
THE FUNCTIONAL MATRIX HYPOTHESIS
One Function
Functional Cranial Component
Functional Matrix Skeletal Unit
1. Periosteal M...
Types of Functional MatrixTypes of Functional Matrix
1. Periosteal matrix
(e.g., muscles)
Active growth
Deposition and res...
Growth
Active growth (Periosteal)
+
Passive growth (Capsular)
=
Total growth
Craniofacial Growth
Active growth process
1) ...
Use of the “Functional Matrix” in the therapy ofUse of the “Functional Matrix” in the therapy of
orthodontics, dentofacial...
Introduction: definition, scope, and objectives
Kinematics and dynamics
Biomechanics: forces, deformation, stresses, strai...
ReferencesReferences
Enlow, D.H. (1990). Handbook of Facial Growth (3rd
edition). Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania: W.B. Saunder...
AcknowledgmentsAcknowledgments
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Thank you
For more details please visit
www.indiandentalacademy...
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Craniology/certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
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  • New Imaging device for soft tissue and surface structures
  • Craniology/certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

    1. 1. Craniometry and Functional CraniologyCraniometry and Functional Craniology Part II:Part II: Functional Craniology: Kinematics and DynamicsFunctional Craniology: Kinematics and Dynamics INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
    2. 2. Lecture outlineLecture outline 1. Introduction: definition, scope, and objectives 2. Kinematics and dynamics 3. Biomechanics: forces, deformation, stresses, strains 4. Form and Function 5. Bone remodeling and growth directions 6. Moss’ Hypothesis: Functional Matrix Hypothesis 7. Clinical applications www.indiandentalacademy.com
    3. 3. Functional CraniologyFunctional Craniology • Definition: The study of the craniofacial complex in relation to the fields of functional anatomy, comparative anatomy, embryology, and growth and development. • Scope: anatomy, embryology, histology, physiology, growth and development of the head and neck regions; theories of craniofacial growth; craniometry and cephalometry; and others • Objectives: 1) to relate the function to the morphology of the craniofacial complex. 2) to apply the theories of craniofacial growth and biomechanics to better understand the morphology, ontogeny and phylogeny of the craniofacial complex 3) to provide the scientific basis for the clinical applications in the treatment of craniofacial anomalies. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    4. 4. DynamicsDynamics The interpretation and description of the biological processes of the changes in size, shape, and location of the craniofacial complex. KinematicsKinematics The measurement and description of the changes in size, shape, and location of the craniofacial complex. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    5. 5. The description of measurement. The description of the changes in size, shape, and location based on observations and measurements. The why, who, how, which and where, and what in measurement. KinematicsKinematics 1) The history, scope, definition, and objectives of anthropometry 2) Introduction to craniometry and cephalometry 3) Define anatomical landmarks 4) Define anthropometric, craniometric, cephalometric measurements 5) Measuring devices and technical assessments 6) Data analysis, result descriptions a) qualitative vs quantitative b) absolute vs relative c) statistical analysis www.indiandentalacademy.com
    6. 6. What is the true meaning of a measurement? How to see beyond the numbers? And what are we looking for? What makes the changes in size, shape, and location of an organism or a structure (the transformation)? What are the modern hypotheses, paradigms, and syntheses in understanding these kinematic changes? DynamicsDynamics 1) Introduction to functional craniometry 2) Basic principles in growth and development, especially in osteology and biomechanics. 3) The functional, biological, and mechanical interpretations of the transformation of an organism or a structure. 4) The evolutionary significance: the adaptation and the selection 5) Clinical applications www.indiandentalacademy.com
    7. 7. Deformation: Change of form due to the loading of forces Stress: the force per unit area Strain: the dimensional change expressed as a fraction (ratio) of the subject’s original size Terminology used in BiomechanicsTerminology used in Biomechanics Force: compression, tension, bending, shear, and torsion www.indiandentalacademy.com
    8. 8. ForceForce Compression, Tension, Shear, Bending, Torsion 1) Two basic forces: Compression & Tension 2) A combination of compression and tension: Shear & Bending 3) A combination of the above four forces: Torsion Compression: compression is the direct expression of the force, which pushes everything towards the center of an object. Tension: the opposite of compression; the force which pulls everything away from the center; where there is a compressive force, there must be a tensile force. Shear: shear is present, when two forces are thrusting in opposite directions but offset and slide past each other. Torsion: a result of all the other four forces. Torsion is twist. Torsion is actually a specialized bending, a circular bending. Bending: is found between the pulling of tension and the pushing of compression. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    9. 9. Original status Compression Tension www.indiandentalacademy.com
    10. 10. Original statusShear Bending www.indiandentalacademy.com
    11. 11. Original status Torsion www.indiandentalacademy.com
    12. 12. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    13. 13. Facial Deformation www.indiandentalacademy.com
    14. 14. Facial Deformation Source: Dr. Wisanu Charoenkul Skeletal Class III, concave profile Source: Dr. Sonia Abraham Skeletal Class II, convex profile www.indiandentalacademy.com
    15. 15. Cephalic Form, Facial Form, and Arch Form Dolichocephalic (long and narrow head) Leptoprosopic (long and narrow face) Dolichuranic (V shape, narrow maxillary arch) Source: Dr. Christel Hummert FM, female,13y 6m www.indiandentalacademy.com
    16. 16. Source: Dr. Christel Hummert FM Female 13y 6m Mouth breather; Enlarged pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid) * www.indiandentalacademy.com
    17. 17. Form (Structure) and FunctionForm (Structure) and Function Function determines form (structure). Function controls form (structure). Function regulates form (structure). Form (structure) isForm (structure) is the realization of information andthe realization of information and the product of the functional attributes.the product of the functional attributes. Form (structure) follows Function. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    18. 18. Cranial SuturesCranial Sutures 1. Edge-to-edge suture ⇒ No force loading 2. Beveled suture ⇒ Shear force [Squamosal suture] 3. Serrated suture ⇒ Intermittent tension force [Sagittal suture] ““Form Follows Function”Form Follows Function” 4. Beveled and serrated suture ⇒ Intermittent tension and shear force 5. Butt-ended sutures ⇒ Intermittent compressive force www.indiandentalacademy.com
    19. 19. ““Form Follows Function”Form Follows Function” 1. Plane (gliding) joint ⇒ Sliding motion of all directions 2. Hinge joint ⇒ Flexion/extension Synovial Joints (I)Synovial Joints (I) Illustrations: http://www.science.ubc.ca/~biomania/tutorial/bonejt/intro.htm [ Humeroulnar joint][ Intermetatarsal joint] www.indiandentalacademy.com
    20. 20. Synovial Joints (II)Synovial Joints (II) 3. Pivot joint ⇒ Rotation 4. Ellipsoidal (condyloid) joint ⇒ flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, circumduction, but no rotation ““Form Follows Function”Form Follows Function” Illustrations: http://www.science.ubc.ca/~biomania/tutorial/bonejt/intro.htm [Temporomandibular joint][Radioulnar joint] www.indiandentalacademy.com
    21. 21. Synovial Joints (III)Synovial Joints (III) 5. Saddle joint ⇒ Similar to ellipsoidal joint, but freer 6. Ball and socket joint ⇒ flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, circumduction, and rotation ““Form Follows Function”Form Follows Function” Illustrations: http://www.science.ubc.ca/~biomania/tutorial/bonejt/intro.htm [Glenohumeral joint][First carpometacarpaljoint] [Glenohumeral joint][First carpometacarpal joint] www.indiandentalacademy.com
    22. 22. Functional Structure of SkullFunctional Structure of Skull (From a mechanical point of view)(From a mechanical point of view) 1) Fronto-nasal pillar 2) Zygomatic arch pillar with vertical branch 3) Zygomatic arch pillar with horizontal branch 4) Basal arch in upper jaw 5) Basal arch in lower jaw 6) Occipital pillar 7) Pterygoid-palate pillars In the force loading areas, pillar- like struts serve as mechanically efficient reinforcements to resist and dissipate pressure and traction, especially to the masticatory force. 1 2, 3 4 5 6 www.indiandentalacademy.com
    23. 23. Functional Structure of SkullFunctional Structure of Skull (From a mechanical point of view)(From a mechanical point of view) • In the non- or less force loading areas, adipose tissue and pneumatic cavities fill those mechanically neutral areas. 1) Paranasal sinuses a) Frontal sinus b) Ethmoid sinus c) Sphenoid sinus d) Maxillary sinus 2) Accessory tympanic spaces e) Mastoid air cells a b c d e www.indiandentalacademy.com
    24. 24. Sagittal crests and temporal muscle orientationsSagittal crests and temporal muscle orientations Hominids compared to pongidsHominids compared to pongids Temporal muscle fibers oriented towards the posterior teeth; emphasis on the posterior teeth in mastication and dietary adaptation Hominid: Australopithecine Pongid: male gorilla Temporal muscle fibers oriented towards the anterior teeth; emphasis on the anterior teeth in mastication and dietary adaptationwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    25. 25. Bone remodelingBone remodeling Deposition: the biological process of laying down the bone Resorption: the biological process of removing the bone Direction of growth: 1) the direction of drift 2) the direction of displacement 3) the net direction of drift and displacement. Drift: Growth movement of an enlarging portion of a bone by the remodeling. The combinations of deposition and resorption result in growth movement toward the depository surface. Displacement: The growth movement of a whole bone as a unit. The bone is carried away from its articulation in relation to other bones. Remodeling: A basic part of bone growth involves simultaneous deposition and resorption on all inner and outer surfaces of the entire bone. It provides regional changes in shape, dimensions, and proportions. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    26. 26. Deposition (+); Resorption (-); Direction of growth (arrow) The Growth of the Coronoid ProcessThe Growth of the Coronoid Process www.indiandentalacademy.com
    27. 27. The Growth of MandibleThe Growth of Mandible Deposition (blue arrow); resorption (white arrow)www.indiandentalacademy.com
    28. 28. The Remodeling (Growth) Direction:The Remodeling (Growth) Direction: The “V” PrincipleThe “V” Principle www.indiandentalacademy.com
    29. 29. Drift vs DisplacementDrift vs Displacement Drift: the growth movement of an enlarging portion of a bone by the remodeling. Displacement: The growth movement of a whole bone as a unit. Direction of growth: the net growth direction of drift plus displacement. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    30. 30. Head (craniofacial complex) is a region, where a series of functions are carried out. These functions include vision, hearing, speech, mastication, swallowing & digestion, respiration, neural integration, and others. The successful execution of a function requires biomechanical protection and support. Moss’ craniofacial growth theory: Function of the craniofacial complex region is performed by the Functional Cranial Components (F.C.C). www.indiandentalacademy.com
    31. 31. Functional Matrix HypothesisFunctional Matrix Hypothesis ((Moss’ HypothesisMoss’ Hypothesis)) ““The functional matrix is primary and theThe functional matrix is primary and the presence, size, shape, spatial position, andpresence, size, shape, spatial position, and growth of any skeletal unit is secondary,growth of any skeletal unit is secondary, compensatory, and mechanically obligated tocompensatory, and mechanically obligated to changes in the size, shape, spatial position ofchanges in the size, shape, spatial position of its related functional matrix” (Moss, 1968)its related functional matrix” (Moss, 1968) www.indiandentalacademy.com
    32. 32. Functional Matrix HypothesisFunctional Matrix Hypothesis ((Moss’ HypothesisMoss’ Hypothesis)) ““The origin, development and maintenance ofThe origin, development and maintenance of all skeletal units are secondary, compensatoryall skeletal units are secondary, compensatory and mechanically obligatory responses toand mechanically obligatory responses to temporally and operationally prior demandstemporally and operationally prior demands of related functional matrices.”of related functional matrices.” www.indiandentalacademy.com
    33. 33. THE FUNCTIONAL MATRIX HYPOTHESIS One Function Functional Cranial Component Functional Matrix Skeletal Unit 1. Periosteal Matrix -------------------------------> 1. Microskeletal 2. Capsular Matrix --------------------------------> 2. Macroskeletal a. Masses b. Functioning spaces www.indiandentalacademy.com
    34. 34. Types of Functional MatrixTypes of Functional Matrix 1. Periosteal matrix (e.g., muscles) Active growth Deposition and resorption Affect size and/or shape 2. Capsular matrix (e.g., brain, oral cavity) Passive growth No deposition No resorption Affect location www.indiandentalacademy.com
    35. 35. Growth Active growth (Periosteal) + Passive growth (Capsular) = Total growth Craniofacial Growth Active growth process 1) Sutural growth 2) Bone remodeling 3) Cephalic cartilage growth Passive growth process 1) The growth of neural, orbital, CSF, and other masses and real substances 2) The expansion of oro-naso- pharygeal and other functioning spaces www.indiandentalacademy.com
    36. 36. Use of the “Functional Matrix” in the therapy ofUse of the “Functional Matrix” in the therapy of orthodontics, dentofacial orthopedics, andorthodontics, dentofacial orthopedics, and orthognathic and craniofacial surgeryorthognathic and craniofacial surgery 1. Orthodontics Periosteal Matrix ------------> Skeletal Unit [Teeth] [Alveolar Bone] 2. Dentofacial Orthopedics and Orthognathic Surgery Capsular Matrix -------------> Multiple Skeletal Units [Functional Appliances] [Jaw Bones] Capsular Matrix -------------> Multiple Skeletal Units [Distraction osteogensis: e.g., hemifacial microsomia] [Jaw Bones] 3. Craniofacial surgery Capsular Matrix -------------> Multiple Skeletal Units [Craniotomy: e.g. Crouzon Syndrome] [cranial bones] [Distraction osteogensis: e.g., Treacher Collin Syndrome] [facial and jaw bones] www.indiandentalacademy.com
    37. 37. Introduction: definition, scope, and objectives Kinematics and dynamics Biomechanics: forces, deformation, stresses, strains Form and Function Bone remodeling and growth directions Moss’ Hypothesis: Functional Matrix Hypothesis Clinical applications www.indiandentalacademy.com
    38. 38. ReferencesReferences Enlow, D.H. (1990). Handbook of Facial Growth (3rd edition). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: W.B. Saunders Company. Proffit, W.R. (2000). Contemporary Orthodontics (3rd edition). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby, Inc. Moyers, R.E. (1988). Handbook of Orthodontics (4th edition). Chicago, Illinois: Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc. Ranly, DM (1980). A Synopsis of Craniofacial Growth. Norwalk, CT: Appleton- Century-Croft. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    39. 39. AcknowledgmentsAcknowledgments www.indiandentalacademy.com Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com

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