CONTACTS AND CONTOURS INCONSERVATIVE DENTISTRY     INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY      Leader in Continuing Dental Education       ...
   Wheeler, R.C 1961,Goldman 1969, Dunmett    C.O 1966, stressed the relationship of tooth    contours to the surrounding...
   Brauer JC, Richard RC 1964 illustrated the    serious complication arising from improper    location and degree of fac...
   Ralph.A. et al in their study in 1973, stated    that greater the degree of facial and lingual    bulge the more plaqu...
WHAT IS CONTACT ? Proximalcontact area is the term used to denote the area of proximal height of contour at the mesial an...
Formation of contact area: When teeth erupt, initially a contact  point. This becomes an area due to wear of  one proxim...
Functions of interproximal contact areas:1. To   maintain a stable dental arch.2.The prevention of food impaction in  inte...
According to their shape     1.   Tapering teeth     2.   square type     3.   ovoid type             www.indiandentala...
Contact                                    Tapering type [wide crowns and                                           narrow...
Contact                               Square type teeth[boxed]                                      Starts  at incisal ri...
Ovoid type[transitional] Contact1. Between incisors                       Slightly  lingual to the incisal ridge,        ...
Facial and lingual contours:  In vertical direction all tooth crowns will  exhibit some convex curvatures  occlusal to th...
   Facial and lingual contours protect the free    gingival margin from the traumatic effects of    mastication.      Ma...
    In maxillary anterior teeth -incisal one half to    two thirds of the lingual surface displays    some concavities - ...
Interproximal spaces: Triangular  shaped spaces normally filled by gingival tissue. The base of the triangle is alveolar...
Embrasures   When teeth are in proximal contact, the    spaces that widen out from contact are    known as embrasures.  ...
   The embrasure form serves two purposes   1.    Makes spill way for the escape of the    food during mastication.   2...
Embrasures in tapering teeth;  1. wide variations are seen 2. incisal and labial are negligible 3. gingival and lingual ...
Embrasures in square type teeth: 1.   Incisal, occlusal , lingual and  buccal embrasures are nil 2.   Gingival embrasure...
Embrasures in ovoid type teeth: 1.   labial, buccal, incisal, and occlusal  embrasures are wider and deeper than  the oth...
   Marginal ridge:         Marginal ridges are the rounded    elevations of enamel that form the mesial and    distal ma...
A    marginal ridge should always be    formed in two planes bucco-lingually,    meeting at a very obtuse angle.    This...
A    marginal ridge with these    specifications is essential for The balance of the teeth in the arch, prevent food im...
 Thisdiagram illustrates how a proper marginal ridge will perform these functions         www.indiandentalacademy.c
 Proceduresfor the formulation of proper contacts and contours          www.indiandentalacademy.c
Intra oral proceduresTwo operative procedures must accompany or precede the restorative procedure:1.     Teeth movement2. ...
Tooth movement:     It is the act of either separating the    involved teeth from each other, bringing    them closer to ...
Objectives of tooth movement   1. To bring drifted , tilted or rotated teeth to    their indicated physiologic position ...
 5.      To move teeth from non functional or    traumatically functional location to a    physiologically functional one...
Rapid or immediate tooth movement:     This is mechanical type of separation     Creates either proximal separation at  ...
 Indications:  Indications 1.      As preparatory to slow tooth movement   2. To maintain the space gained by the slow ...
Rapid or immediate tooth movement can be done by one of the following methods:I. wedge method:      separation -by the ins...
Types of separators: 2. Elliots separator:            . Indicated for short duration separation that does not necessitate...
Wooden or plastic wedges:                  wedges   These are triangular shaped wedges , usually    made of medicated woo...
TRACTION METHOD:   This is done with mechanical devices    which engages the proximal surface    of the teeth to be separ...
Examples of traction  method include:A. non- interfering true  separator: Indicated when continuous  stabilized separatio...
B. Ferrier double bow  separator: separation can be  stabilized through out  the operation.Advantage separation is share...
SLOW OR DELAYED TOOTH MOVEMENT:INDICATONS : When teeth have drifted or tilted  considerably, rapid movement of the teeth ...
Methods:Separating wires: Thin pieces of wire are introduced  gingival to the contact then wrapped  around contact area....
 The    wires are then tightened    periodically to increase separation.    This is very effective method of    slow too...
Oversized temporaries:           temporaries Resin temporaries that are over sized  mesio-distally may achieve slow  sepa...
Orthodontic appliances:   For tooth movement of any magnitude,  fixed orthodontic appliances are the  most effective and ...
    After repositioning of the tooth by    delayed tooth movement    techniques, it is necessary to use    one or more of...
MATRICING:MATRICING     Matricing is a procedure where a    temporary wall is created opposite to    the axial walls, sur...
OBJECTIVES: The matrix should: 1.      Displace the gingiva and rubber  dam away from the cavity margin . 2.      Assure ...
classification of matrices: Metal: firm , used for amalgam Mylar: easily moldable and light cure through Plastic: rigid...
universal matrix : Designed by B.R  Tofflemire . Ideally indicated when 3  surfaces of posterior  teeth are prepared. C...
 Matrix bands of various occluso gingival  widths are available. The uncontoured bands are available in  2 thicknesses, ...
 theband positioned 1mm apical to the gingival margin and 1-2 mm above the adjacent marginal ridge. substantialdifferenc...
Ivory no.1: The band encircles  posterior proximal  surface ,indicated in  unilateral class II cavities.Ivory matrix no 8...
Black’s matrices; Recommended for the  majority of small and medium  size cavitiesProcedure; Cut a metallic band so that...
   Black’s matrix with a    gingival extension   Extension is created in the    occluso-gingival width of the    band to...
Soldered band or seamless copper band matrix;   These are indicated for badly broken down    teeth especially those recei...
Procedure; A stainless steel band is cut  according to the measured diameter  of the crown of the tooth. Then two ends a...
 With  curved scissors, festoon the band  so its gingival periphery corresponds to  the gingival curvature and CEJ. With...
   Band in the contact area are reduced to    paper thinness using a coarse sand    paper disc.   Band seated on the too...
The anatomical matrix: This is the most efficient means of  reproducing contact and contour.Procedure: A piece of 0.001-...
   Wedge is selected and then placed.   small cones of compound are warmed    and then forced in to the buccal and    li...
 Automatrix [ Roll-in band matrix ]    This is a retainer less matrix system    with 4 types of bands that are designed ...
Advantages: 1.      convenience 2.      improved visibility because of  absence of a retainer 3.      ability to place ...
 disadvantages; 1.      theband is flat and difficult to  burnish and is some times unstable  even when wedges are in pl...
Procedure:   Band should be slightly larger than the    circumference of the tooth.     The band is tightened with a    ...
www.indiandentalacademy.c
T – Shaped Matrix:   These are pre made T – shaped brass    or stainless steel matrix bands.    The longer arm of the ma...
S-Shaped matrix band:   Ideal for class III , is also    used in class II.Procedure.Procedure Matrix band of 0.001-    0...
Mylar strip:   Class III direct composite restorations with    normal alignment.Procedure:   mylar strip burnished with ...
Matrix for class III preparations in teeth with irregular alignment:     Suitable plastic strip contoured and    adapted....
Matrix for small preparations in contact with each other:      An appropriate plastic    strip is folded with one    end ...
   The matrix is than placed between the teeth.    For labial approach the strip held over the    lingual surface.   Aft...
Matrices for class IV preparations for direct tooth colored materials.   A suitable plastic strip is    folded at an angl...
   One side of the strip is cut so that it is as wide    as the length of the tooth .   the other side is cut so that it...
   The strip with a wedge in place is adapted to    the tooth.   The angle formed by the fold of the strip    approximat...
Aluminium foil incisal corner matrix:      These are ‘stock’ metallic matrices    shaped according to the proximo-incisal...
Procedure:      A corner matrix closest in    size and shape of the tooth    is selected.   Trimmed gingivally, so that ...
   Loosely place the wedge, allowing for the    matrix band thickness.   Partially fill the preparation and corner of   ...
Transparent crown form matrices:  These are ‘stock’ plastic crowns  which can be adapted to the tooth  anatomy. This typ...
Anatomic matrix:   Study model for    affected teeth together    with at least one intact    adjacent tooth on each    si...
   A plastic template is    made for the restored    tooth on the model    using the combination    of heat[ to    thermo...
   The template is trimmed.    It should seat on atleast one    unprepared tooth on each side.   matrix should be vente...
Matrices for class V amalgam    restoration:      Matrices are indicated in the following    situation   1.      sub ging...
Window matrix :   Tofflemire matrix or copper band    matrix     The contra angle retainer is    applied at the side of ...
S- Shaped matrix:   Indicated for proximal extension of class V    preparation.              www.indiandentalacademy.c
Other options in lieu of matrices in extremely wide class V Cavities:   The cavity is prepared in two stages – a    mesia...
Matrices fro class V preparations for direct tooth colored restorations:Anatomic matrix for non light cured , direct tooth...
 A mix of restorative material is made and  placed in to the cavity, and the compound  matrix is placed in to the positio...
Aluminium or copper collar for non-light  cured direct tooth coloured restorations:    Aluminium or copper bands are pre ...
Anatomic matrix for light cured and non light cured , direct tooth coloured materials:    Study models for the defected t...
Didner wax contouring instrument for class V cavities: When a Didner instrument is to be used , a    cup that is suitable...
Wedges:  wedges perform the following functions 1.  Assure  close adaptability of the band 2. Occupy the space designed ...
 1.      createsome separation to  compensate for the thickness of the  matrix band. 2.   establish atraumatic retractio...
    Although wedges are supplied in different    sizes, because of variations in configurations    of gingival embrasures...
   The advantage of resin wedges is that they    can be plastically molded and bent to    correspond with the configurati...
   WedgeWands:   anatomically-contoured, disposable, plastic    wedges attached to plastic handles (wands)    -placed wi...
   wedges also have a slightly upturned tip that    prevents inadvertently piercing the soft    tissues and rubber dam du...
ADVANTAGES: Disposable wand allows placement without a    forcep    Contoured shape for more intimate    interproximal a...
Double wedging: permited when proximal    box is wide faciolingually.   refers to using two    wedges : one from the    ...
   Because the facial and lingual corners are    accessible to carving,proper wedging is    important to prevent gingival...
 Passive         WedgeQuintessence Int 1996; 27:243-248.   This wedge is less traumatizing to the soft    tissue than co...
Procedure:   1. Push matrix with one finger in the incisogingival    direction and place a small cotton pellet into the  ...
Wedge- wedging: Occasionally , a    concavity may be    present on the proximal    surface that is apparent    in the gin...
   A gingival margin located in this area may be    concave.   To wedge a matrix band tightly against such    a margin, ...
Test for tightness of wedge:   Press the tip of the explorer firmly at several    points along the middle two third of th...
 The round tooth pick wedge is usually the wedge of choice with conservative proximal boxes because its wedging action is...
   Triangular wedge is recommended for a    preparation with deep gingival margin, when    the gingival margin is deep th...
A suitably trimmed tongue blade can be used as wedge where the inter proximal space between the teeth is large.         w...
Contact size;Broadening the contact area: 1.      Creating a contact that is too broad bucco-    lingually or occlusoging...
www.indiandentalacademy.c
   1.      broadening the contact area will be at    the expense of dimensions and shape of    buccal and lingual embrasu...
Narrow contact area: Creating a contact that is narrow bucco-  lingually or occluso gingivally, besides  changing the ana...
   A contact area placed too occlusally will result    in a flattened marginal ridge at the expense of    the occlusal em...
   A open contact creates continuity of the    embrasures with each other and with the inter    dental col. All of these ...
   Contact configuration:   Contact area that is flat can make it broad    buccally, lingually, oclusally, or gingivally...
   Besides broadening and mislocating the    contact area , the interlocking between    concavity and adjacent convexity ...
Contour: Facial and lingual convexties: Normal tooth contours act in deflecting  deflecting food only to the extent that ...
 Effect of over contour: Facial and lingual convexities: Normal   tooth contours act in deflecting food only to the ext...
   Effect of over contour:   The presence of supragingival, cervical third,    crown over contour presents a unique    b...
 Effects of under contouring: Under contoured crowns with flat cervical surfaces may lead to thickening of the gingival ...
Facial and lingual concavities: Those concavities occlusal to the height of  contour , whether they occur o anterior or  ...
 Concavities apical to the height of contour, are essential for proper maintenance of the accompanying new components of ...
 Areas of proximal contour adjacent  to the contact area: In addition to creating a contact area of  proper size, locati...
 Fabricating  a restoration that does not reproduce the concavities and convexities which occur here naturally will lead ...
 Marginal ridges: 1.      Absence                of marginal ridge in restoration:.            www.indiandentalacademy.c
       A marginal ridge with exaggerated    occlusal embrasure:            www.indiandentalacademy.c
 Adjacent marginal    ridges not    compatible in    height:   drive restored tooth    away -contacting tooth   vertica...
   marginal ridge with   no triangular fossa:   no occlusal planes    occlusal forces to act,   no horizontal    compone...
 1.      marginal    ridge with no    occlusal    embrasure:   two adjacent    marginal ridges will    act like a pair o...
 A one planned marginal ridge in buccolingual direction:         www.indiandentalacademy.c
  A thin marginal  ridge in the  mesiodistal bulk:    susceptible to fracture    or deformation.   shallow or deep    ad...
Micro machined matrix:posterior compositesband thickness- 0.0015”has 2 windows-0.0005”contact areas contoured- slight prox...
   SuperMat:   large posterior     restorations   ringed Super Cap     matrices in clear     plastic and stainless     ...
 advantages:   Universal tensioning instrument   No tightening device      restoration of several teeth same quadrant ...
  clear view of the working area Do not interfere with light curing Good anatomical shape Tight contact Height  5mm-6...
 Barton   matrix:           www.indiandentalacademy.c
   Palodent matrix    system:   Matrix shape-natural    contours   Flat contours               www.indiandentalacademy.c
BiTine Round Ring gently separates teeth          www.indiandentalacademy.c
BiTine Oval Ring     :;:::   gentle separation and matrix stabilization.   more visibility    longer tines assist stack...
   Palodent Standard    Matrix   ideal for    posterior restorations.              www.indiandentalacademy.c
 Palodent   Mini Matrices ideal for deciduous restorations narrow and shallow  preparations proximal boxes.          ww...
   Palodent Plus    Matrix   deep    proximal boxes.              www.indiandentalacademy.c
Composi tight matrix: Similarto palodent matrix G- Rings            www.indiandentalacademy.c
   V- RING MATRIX:    Patented v- shaped space between the tines      accomadates the wedges    Ni – Ti ring separates te...
Tab matrix:   Tab handle   Holes in the wings of    the matrix-easy removal   Pin tweezers   Natural contour          ...
   simple arc curvature-    tab matrices have S-    shaped curve - true    proximal surface                 www.indianden...
   Double banded Tofflemire:Quint int o4, 271-73               www.indiandentalacademy.c
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CONTACTS AND CONTOURS IN CONSERVATIVE DENTISTRY / rotary endodontic courses by indian dental academy

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CONTACTS AND CONTOURS IN CONSERVATIVE DENTISTRY / rotary endodontic courses by indian dental academy

  1. 1. CONTACTS AND CONTOURS INCONSERVATIVE DENTISTRY INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in Continuing Dental Education www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2.  Wheeler, R.C 1961,Goldman 1969, Dunmett C.O 1966, stressed the relationship of tooth contours to the surrounding gingivae. Sanjana et al 1956 pointed out the missing or inadequate contact points and its ill effects on the periodontal health. Picton 1966 has shown that teeth in good contact have a significant periodontal status than spaced teeth with poor contacts. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  3. 3.  Brauer JC, Richard RC 1964 illustrated the serious complication arising from improper location and degree of facial and lingual convexities. Mortan L. Perel 1971, studied the effect of over contouring and under contouring on surrounding marginal gingiva. He concluded that, under contouring of various types did not produce any circumscribed changes in gingiva. Over contouring - inflammatory and hyperplastic changes in marginal gingiva. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  4. 4.  Ralph.A. et al in their study in 1973, stated that greater the degree of facial and lingual bulge the more plaque retained in the cervical region, the flatter the contour the less the plaque retained. Ramfjord S.P 1974, in his study concluded that under contoured crowns with flat cervical surfaces may lead to a thickening of gingival margin. James G . Burch 1971 suggested 10 rules for developing crown contours in restorations and factors that influence tissue health around restorations. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  5. 5. WHAT IS CONTACT ? Proximalcontact area is the term used to denote the area of proximal height of contour at the mesial and distal surfaces of a tooth that touches its adjacent tooth in the same arch. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  6. 6. Formation of contact area: When teeth erupt, initially a contact point. This becomes an area due to wear of one proximal surface against another during physiological tooth movements. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  7. 7. Functions of interproximal contact areas:1. To maintain a stable dental arch.2.The prevention of food impaction in inter dental area. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  8. 8. According to their shape 1. Tapering teeth 2. square type 3. ovoid type www.indiandentalacademy.c
  9. 9. Contact Tapering type [wide crowns and narrow apices]1. Between incisors Contact starts at incisal ridge incisally Little towards the labial , labio- lingually2.Canines Mesial contact at the incisal ridge Distal contact near the middle Very angular3.Bicuspids Buccal periphery almost at buccal axial angle of the tooth Occlusal periphery at the junction of occlusal and middle third of the tooth Contact is deviated buccally4.Molars mesial contact Buccal periphery almost at the buccal axial angle of the tooth O-periphery, at the junction of occlusal and middle third of the crown5.Molar distal contact Buccal periphery at the middle third O-Periphery, at the middle third www.indiandentalacademy.c firstdistal cusps Distal contact of due to the position of molar is variable
  10. 10. Contact Square type teeth[boxed] Starts at incisal ridge incisally and in1. Between incisors line with it labio lingually Close to incisal ridge incisally2.Canines In line with them labio-lingually Buccal periphery more towards buccal3.Bicuspids axial angle Occlusal periphery at occlusal third4.Molars mesial contact Same as premolar Extension lingually stops in the middle third5.Molar distal contact More lingually deviated than mesial but not to the extent of tapering teeth www.indiandentalacademy.c
  11. 11. Ovoid type[transitional] Contact1. Between incisors Slightly lingual to the incisal ridge, labio-lingually Mesial contact starts at ¼ of the crown inciso-gigivally Distal contact starts 1/3 to ½ of the crown inciso-gingivally2.Canines Same as square type3.Bicuspids  Convexity of MR carries contact s almost to the middle third of the crown height[op]  Buccal periphery at the junction of buccal and middle third4.Molars mesial contact Same as bicuspids5.Molar distal contact Buccal periphery in line with the www.indiandentalacademy.c central groove in occlusal surface.
  12. 12. Facial and lingual contours: In vertical direction all tooth crowns will exhibit some convex curvatures occlusal to the cervical line - cervical ridge. on a completely erupted permanent teeth should not extend more than 1mm beyond the cervical line. The average curvature is about 0.5mm or less. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  13. 13.  Facial and lingual contours protect the free gingival margin from the traumatic effects of mastication. Mandibular posterior teeth will have a lingual curvature of approximately 1mm which is mainly caused by the lingual inclination of these teeth. Mandibular anterior teeth will have less curvature on the crown above the cervical line than any other teeth usually less than 0.5mm. The canines show a little more curvature than the central and lateral incisors. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  14. 14.  In maxillary anterior teeth -incisal one half to two thirds of the lingual surface displays some concavities - act as anterior determinants for mandibular movements. In posterior teeth there will be mesio distal convexity, corresponding to each cusp in anatomical crown position of the tooth. This convexity on the facial and lingual areas decreases in magnitude as it approaches the cemento enamel junction. At CEJ or slightly occlusal to it , the facial or lingual surfaces will flatten or become concave. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  15. 15. Interproximal spaces: Triangular shaped spaces normally filled by gingival tissue. The base of the triangle is alveolar process , the sides of the triangle are proximal surface of the contacting teeth; and apex is contact area. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  16. 16. Embrasures When teeth are in proximal contact, the spaces that widen out from contact are known as embrasures. Each inter dental space has four embrasures 1. facial 2. lingual 3. occlusal/incisal 4. gingival www.indiandentalacademy.c
  17. 17.  The embrasure form serves two purposes 1. Makes spill way for the escape of the food during mastication. 2. prevents food from being forced through the contact area. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  18. 18. Embrasures in tapering teeth; 1. wide variations are seen 2. incisal and labial are negligible 3. gingival and lingual embrasures between anterior teeth are the widest and longest in the mouth 4. buccal embrasures are small 5. lingual embrasures are long with medium width 6. gingival eembrasures between posterior teeth are broad and long. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  19. 19. Embrasures in square type teeth: 1. Incisal, occlusal , lingual and buccal embrasures are nil 2. Gingival embrasures are almost not noticeable ; if found they are very narrow and flat. 3. Lingual embrasures are very narrow and long. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  20. 20. Embrasures in ovoid type teeth: 1. labial, buccal, incisal, and occlusal embrasures are wider and deeper than the others 2. gingival and lingual are short and broad. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  21. 21.  Marginal ridge: Marginal ridges are the rounded elevations of enamel that form the mesial and distal margins of the occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth and lingual surface of the anterior teeth. It is imperative to have marginal ridge of proper dimensions that is compatible to the dimension of occlusal cuspal anatomy, creating a pronounced adjacent triangular fossa and producing an adjacent occlusal embrasure www.indiandentalacademy.c
  22. 22. A marginal ridge should always be formed in two planes bucco-lingually, meeting at a very obtuse angle. This feature is essential when an opposing functional cusp occludes with the marginal ridge. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  23. 23. A marginal ridge with these specifications is essential for The balance of the teeth in the arch, prevent food impaction , To protect periodontium , Prevent recurrent and contact decay For helping in efficient mastication. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  24. 24.  Thisdiagram illustrates how a proper marginal ridge will perform these functions www.indiandentalacademy.c
  25. 25.  Proceduresfor the formulation of proper contacts and contours www.indiandentalacademy.c
  26. 26. Intra oral proceduresTwo operative procedures must accompany or precede the restorative procedure:1. Teeth movement2. Matricing www.indiandentalacademy.c
  27. 27. Tooth movement: It is the act of either separating the involved teeth from each other, bringing them closer to each other , or changing their spatial position in one or more dimensions. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  28. 28. Objectives of tooth movement 1. To bring drifted , tilted or rotated teeth to their indicated physiologic position 2. To close space between the teeth not amendable to closure by the contemplated restoration. 3. To move teeth to another location so that when restored they will be in a position most physiologically accepted by the periodontium. 4. To move teeth occlusally or apically in order to make them restorable. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  29. 29.  5. To move teeth from non functional or traumatically functional location to a physiologically functional one. 6. To move teeth to position so that they will be in a most esthetically pleasing situation when restored. 7. To create a space sufficient for the thickness of the matrix band interproximally. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  30. 30. Rapid or immediate tooth movement: This is mechanical type of separation Creates either proximal separation at the point of separators introduction and improved closeness opposite to the point of separators introduction. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  31. 31.  Indications: Indications 1. As preparatory to slow tooth movement 2. To maintain the space gained by the slow tooth movement. should not exceed the thickness of the involved tooth periodontal ligament space that is 0.2 - 0.5mm. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  32. 32. Rapid or immediate tooth movement can be done by one of the following methods:I. wedge method: separation -by the insertion of a pointed wedge shaped device between the teeth . The more the wedge moves facially or lingually the greater will be the separation. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  33. 33. Types of separators: 2. Elliots separator: . Indicated for short duration separation that does not necessitate stabilization. It is useful in examining proximal surfaces or in final polishing of restored Contacts www.indiandentalacademy.c
  34. 34. Wooden or plastic wedges: wedges These are triangular shaped wedges , usually made of medicated wood or synthetic resin . In cross section - the base of the triangle in contact with the inter dental papillae. The two sides -coincide with corresponding gingival embrasure. The apex - coincide with the gingival start of the contact area. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  35. 35. TRACTION METHOD: This is done with mechanical devices which engages the proximal surface of the teeth to be separated by means of holding arms. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  36. 36. Examples of traction method include:A. non- interfering true separator: Indicated when continuous stabilized separation is required.advantages Separation can be increased or decreased after stabilization. The device is non interfering. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  37. 37. B. Ferrier double bow separator: separation can be stabilized through out the operation.Advantage separation is shared by contacting teeth not at the expense of one tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  38. 38. SLOW OR DELAYED TOOTH MOVEMENT:INDICATONS : When teeth have drifted or tilted considerably, rapid movement of the teeth to the proper position will endanger the periodontal ligaments. slow tooth movement over period of weeks, will allow the proper repositioning of the teeth in a physiologic manner. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  39. 39. Methods:Separating wires: Thin pieces of wire are introduced gingival to the contact then wrapped around contact area. The two ends are twisted together to create separation not to exceed 0.5mm. The twisted ends are then bent in to the buccal or lingual embrasure to prevent impingement up on soft tissue or interference with the food flow. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  40. 40.  The wires are then tightened periodically to increase separation. This is very effective method of slow tooth movement, although the maximum amount of separation will be equivalent to the thickness of wire. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  41. 41. Oversized temporaries: temporaries Resin temporaries that are over sized mesio-distally may achieve slow separation . Resin is added to the contact areas periodically , to increase the amount of separation, which will not exceed 0.5mm per visit. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  42. 42. Orthodontic appliances: For tooth movement of any magnitude, fixed orthodontic appliances are the most effective and predictable method available. Comparable end results may be achieved by removable orthodontic appliances, but they require longer treatment. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  43. 43.  After repositioning of the tooth by delayed tooth movement techniques, it is necessary to use one or more of the immediate tooth movement techniques, just before or during the restoration fabrication, to create space and to compensate for the thickness of the band material. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  44. 44. MATRICING:MATRICING Matricing is a procedure where a temporary wall is created opposite to the axial walls, surrounding areas of tooth structure that were lost during preparation. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  45. 45. OBJECTIVES: The matrix should: 1.      Displace the gingiva and rubber dam away from the cavity margin . 2.      Assure dryness and prevent contamination 3.      Provide shape for the restoration during setting of the restorative material. 4.      Restoration of correct proximal contact relation ship 5.      Establishment of proper anatomic contour www.indiandentalacademy.c
  46. 46. classification of matrices: Metal: firm , used for amalgam Mylar: easily moldable and light cure through Plastic: rigid can light cure through used in class V cavities www.indiandentalacademy.c
  47. 47. universal matrix : Designed by B.R Tofflemire . Ideally indicated when 3 surfaces of posterior teeth are prepared. Commonly used for 2 surface class II restoration. There are 2 types of Tofflemire straight and contra angle. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  48. 48.  Matrix bands of various occluso gingival widths are available. The uncontoured bands are available in 2 thicknesses, 0.05mm and 0.0015mm. Uncontouredband must be burnished before assembling the band and retainer www.indiandentalacademy.c
  49. 49.  theband positioned 1mm apical to the gingival margin and 1-2 mm above the adjacent marginal ridge. substantialdifference between the heights of inter proximal gingiva on mesial and distal sides, matrix band should be trimmed so that it is narrower on the side where the inter proximal gingival is more occlusally located. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  50. 50. Ivory no.1: The band encircles posterior proximal surface ,indicated in unilateral class II cavities.Ivory matrix no 8; The band encircles the entire crown of the tooth, indicated for bilateral class II cavities. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  51. 51. Black’s matrices; Recommended for the majority of small and medium size cavitiesProcedure; Cut a metallic band so that it will extend only slightly over the buccal and lingual extremities of the cavity preparation. To prevent a wrap around, holding ligature from slipping of the band and band sliding gingivally, the corners of the gingival ends are turned up to hold the ligature. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  52. 52.  Black’s matrix with a gingival extension Extension is created in the occluso-gingival width of the band to cover the gingival margin. The ligature should be securely tied with a surgical knot on the side, after wrapping it around the tooth. A wedge should be carefully adjusted to produce and maintain the proper separation and to hold the band tightly. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  53. 53. Soldered band or seamless copper band matrix; These are indicated for badly broken down teeth especially those receiving pin-retained amalgam restorations, with large lingual and buccal extensions. Assorted copper bands -sizes from 1 – 20. size no. 1 is 4mm and size no. 20 is 12 mm. Thickness - 0.15mm. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  54. 54. Procedure; A stainless steel band is cut according to the measured diameter of the crown of the tooth. Then two ends are soldered together or a seamless copper band is selected. Either band could be heated in a flame until it blows red. Then quenched in alcohol, thus softening the band for easier handling. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  55. 55.  With curved scissors, festoon the band so its gingival periphery corresponds to the gingival curvature and CEJ. With contouring pliers contour the band to produce proper shape in contact area as well as buccal and lingual contours to be restored. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  56. 56.  Band in the contact area are reduced to paper thinness using a coarse sand paper disc. Band seated on the tooth and tightened at the cervical end by pinching up a “tuck” using a flat bladed plier. To stabilize the band and prevent cervical flashes of amalgam, wedges are placed. The external portion of the matrix and the wedges are covered with compound to further stabilize the matrix. A wire ‘staple’ is inserted facio-lingually in the compound to further stabilize it. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  57. 57. The anatomical matrix: This is the most efficient means of reproducing contact and contour.Procedure: A piece of 0.001-0.002 stainless steel matrix band 1/8” in width is drawn between the handle of a pair of festooning scissors the matrix band is then cut to the proper length. It should extend well beyond the cavity margins. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  58. 58.  Wedge is selected and then placed. small cones of compound are warmed and then forced in to the buccal and lingual embrasures. The pressure is maintained until compound has flowed evenly over the entire buccal and lingual surfaces of the adjacent tooth . The staple is heated and then forced in to the compound in the buccal and lingual embrasures. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  59. 59.  Automatrix [ Roll-in band matrix ] This is a retainer less matrix system with 4 types of bands that are designed to fit all teeth, regardless of circumference. The band vary in height from 4.7mm, 6.35mm, 7.9mm and are supplied in two thicknesses 0.038mm and 0.5mm www.indiandentalacademy.c
  60. 60. Advantages: 1.      convenience 2.      improved visibility because of absence of a retainer 3.      ability to place auto lock loop on the facial or lingual surface of the tooth 4.      decrease time for application application as compared to copper band matrix www.indiandentalacademy.c
  61. 61.  disadvantages; 1.      theband is flat and difficult to burnish and is some times unstable even when wedges are in place. 2.      development of proper proximal contour and contacts can be difficult with a auto matrix www.indiandentalacademy.c
  62. 62. Procedure: Band should be slightly larger than the circumference of the tooth. The band is tightened with a device[automate] which is inserted in the coil. The autolock loop secures the band and the system is wedged. Compound may be applied to stabilize the band . After insertion of amalgam the autolock loop is cut with shielded cutters and carefully removed. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  63. 63. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  64. 64. T – Shaped Matrix: These are pre made T – shaped brass or stainless steel matrix bands. The longer arm of the matrix is bent to encompass the tooth circumferentially and to overlap the short horizontal arm of T. This section is then bent over the long arm, loosely holding it in place. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  65. 65. S-Shaped matrix band: Ideal for class III , is also used in class II.Procedure.Procedure Matrix band of 0.001- 0.002” thick band is used . Mirror handle is used to produce S-shape in the strip. With the contouring pliers the strip is contoured in its middle part to create desired from for the restoration. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  66. 66. Mylar strip: Class III direct composite restorations with normal alignment.Procedure: mylar strip burnished with the handle of the tweezer to produce ‘belly’. This will produce normal contour of the teeth. Length of the strip -sufficient to cover the labial and lingual surfaces of the tooth. Wedge is trimmed and introduced from the opposite side of the access. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  67. 67. Matrix for class III preparations in teeth with irregular alignment: Suitable plastic strip contoured and adapted. For labial approach compound impression is taken of the lingual surface. The compound is allowed to over lap the adjoining teeth. Excess trimmed off to produce a flat surface. The strip is placed in position, compound impression is warmed and than placed in position assuring perfect adaptation of the matrix to the cavity on the lingual surface. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  68. 68. Matrix for small preparations in contact with each other: An appropriate plastic strip is folded with one end slightly longer than the other to facilitate their separation after insertion of strip between the teeth. The loop is flattened and creased with a finger, making a ‘T’ shape, and trimmed. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  69. 69.  The matrix is than placed between the teeth. For labial approach the strip held over the lingual surface. After insertion of material each wing of the strip is folded towards the setting material and held with the thumb of the left hand. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  70. 70. Matrices for class IV preparations for direct tooth colored materials. A suitable plastic strip is folded at an angle to L- Shape, than sealed with a plastic cement or any adhesive that does not react with tooth colored material. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  71. 71.  One side of the strip is cut so that it is as wide as the length of the tooth . the other side is cut so that it is as the wide of the tooth www.indiandentalacademy.c
  72. 72.  The strip with a wedge in place is adapted to the tooth. The angle formed by the fold of the strip approximates the normal corner of the tooth. The cavity is filled with slight excess , and one end of the strip is brought across the proximal surface of the filled tooth. Then this is completed the other end of the strip is folded over the incisal edge. The matrix is held with the thumb of the left hand. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  73. 73. Aluminium foil incisal corner matrix: These are ‘stock’ metallic matrices shaped according to the proximo-incisal corner and surface of the anterior teeth. Can not be light cured. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  74. 74. Procedure: A corner matrix closest in size and shape of the tooth is selected. Trimmed gingivally, so that it coincides with the gingival architecture and covers the gingival margin of the preparation. shape it with thumb and first finger until it fits the mesio- distal and labio-lingual dimensions of the tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  75. 75.  Loosely place the wedge, allowing for the matrix band thickness. Partially fill the preparation and corner of the matrix, preferably after venting the corner. Apply partially filled matrix over the partially filled tooth preparation. Tighten the wedge and wipe of excess material. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  76. 76. Transparent crown form matrices: These are ‘stock’ plastic crowns which can be adapted to the tooth anatomy. This type can be used for light cured resin material. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  77. 77. Anatomic matrix: Study model for affected teeth together with at least one intact adjacent tooth on each side is made. The defective area on the study model is restored with a fairly heat resistant material [ plaster, acrylic resin, blocking compound, plasticine etc..] or appropriate configuration. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  78. 78.  A plastic template is made for the restored tooth on the model using the combination of heat[ to thermoplastically soften the template material] and suction [vaccum] consequently to draw the moldable material on to the study model. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  79. 79.  The template is trimmed. It should seat on atleast one unprepared tooth on each side. matrix should be vented by perforating the corners. The restorative material is inserted in to the preparation,and matrix inserted over the prepared and partially filled tooth, ready for curing. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  80. 80. Matrices for class V amalgam restoration: Matrices are indicated in the following situation 1.      sub gingival cavities 2.      lingual cavities –especially in lower molars 3.      cavities extending in to proximal surfaces 4.       large cavities where prominence is required for retention of dentures . www.indiandentalacademy.c
  81. 81. Window matrix : Tofflemire matrix or copper band matrix The contra angle retainer is applied at the side of the tooth that does not have the preparation. A window is cut slightly smaller than the out line of the cavity. Wedges are placed mesially and distally to stabilize the band. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  82. 82. S- Shaped matrix: Indicated for proximal extension of class V preparation. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  83. 83. Other options in lieu of matrices in extremely wide class V Cavities: The cavity is prepared in two stages – a mesial half is prepared and filled with amalgam. After the amalgam hardens , the distal half is prepared and restored. If there are sufficient mesial and distal walls , condense the mesial one third of the amalgam mesio-axially and the distal one third disto –axially, allow to partially harden, then condense the middle third axially with a flat bladed instrument. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  84. 84. Matrices fro class V preparations for direct tooth colored restorations:Anatomic matrix for non light cured , direct tooth coloured materials: cavity is filled with gutta percha or inlay wax and trimmed to contour. The wax and the tooth are coated with cocoa butter or mylar strip -compound impression is taken. Adjacent surfaces are to be included in the impression. After the compound has cooled , it is removed and the wax is removed from the cavity. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  85. 85.  A mix of restorative material is made and placed in to the cavity, and the compound matrix is placed in to the position and securely in position until the material is set www.indiandentalacademy.c
  86. 86. Aluminium or copper collar for non-light cured direct tooth coloured restorations: Aluminium or copper bands are pre shaped. Adjusted so that the band will cover 1-2mm of the tooth structure circumferential to the cavity margins Mounted on the tip of the softened stick of compound , which is used as handle. Fill the cavity with restorative material and apply the adjusted collar to the tooth . www.indiandentalacademy.c
  87. 87. Anatomic matrix for light cured and non light cured , direct tooth coloured materials: Study models for the defected tooth are taken same as for class IV and matrix is fabricated. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  88. 88. Didner wax contouring instrument for class V cavities: When a Didner instrument is to be used , a cup that is suitable for the situation is first selected from the available points. This cup is secured in the handle at the proper angle as determined by its application to the tooth and lubricated . www.indiandentalacademy.c
  89. 89. Wedges: wedges perform the following functions 1.  Assure close adaptability of the band 2. Occupy the space designed to be the gingival embrasure. 3.  Define the gingival extent of the contact area as well as facial and lingual embrasures. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  90. 90.  1.      createsome separation to compensate for the thickness of the matrix band. 2.   establish atraumatic retraction of the rubber dam and gingiva . 3. assure immobilization of the matrix band. 4. protect the interproximal gingiva from unexpected trauma. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  91. 91.  Although wedges are supplied in different sizes, because of variations in configurations of gingival embrasures wedges should be trimmed to exactly fit these embrasures. The length of the wedge should be ½ inch. Wedges are made of wood and plastic Wooden Wedges made from soft spine and hard oak. The pine wedge is compressible on insertion, the oak wedge is not. The advantage of wooden wedges are they can be easily cut and trimmed and they absorb water intra orally. This causes them to swell , improving their inter proximal adaptation. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  92. 92.  The advantage of resin wedges is that they can be plastically molded and bent to correspond with the configuration of the interdental col. Wedge should be positioned as near to the gingival margin as possible with out being occlusal to it. If a wedge is significantly apical to the gingival margin, a second wedge may be placed on top of the first wedge . this type of wedging is particularly useful fro patients whose inter proximal tissue level has receded. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  93. 93.  WedgeWands: anatomically-contoured, disposable, plastic wedges attached to plastic handles (wands) -placed without using an instrument. The angle of the wedges can be adjusted by bending the neck area where the wedge meets the wand, allowing their placement. wedges have a curved underside and contoured sides that leave room for the interproximal papilla and enable the wedges to more intimately adapt to the interproximal contours. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  94. 94.  wedges also have a slightly upturned tip that prevents inadvertently piercing the soft tissues and rubber dam during placement. Following placement, the handle is twisted to separate it from the wedge. . The wedges come in three color-coded sizes (small, medium, large) . www.indiandentalacademy.c
  95. 95. ADVANTAGES: Disposable wand allows placement without a forcep Contoured shape for more intimate interproximal adaptation Available in three sizesDISADVANTAGES: Wand difficult to remove after wedge placement Expensive www.indiandentalacademy.c
  96. 96. Double wedging: permited when proximal box is wide faciolingually. refers to using two wedges : one from the lingual embrasure and one from facial embrasure should be used only if the middle two third of the proximal margins can be adequately wedged. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  97. 97.  Because the facial and lingual corners are accessible to carving,proper wedging is important to prevent gingival excess of amalgam in the middle two third of the proximal box. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  98. 98.  Passive WedgeQuintessence Int 1996; 27:243-248. This wedge is less traumatizing to the soft tissue than conventional wooden wedges, hence it will be less damaging to the papillae, causing less bleeding and allowing better fluid control. This new technique will may allow you to perform higher quality dentistry with your adhesive procedures www.indiandentalacademy.c
  99. 99. Procedure: 1. Push matrix with one finger in the incisogingival direction and place a small cotton pellet into the interproximal space between the matrix and the adjacent tooth. 2.Soak the pellet with a disposable brush filled with cyanoacrylate. 3.The matrix is placed in its proper position. 4.Maintain the matrix in its position, while air-water spray soaks the cotton pellet. 5.This will harden the pellet immediately, in the exact shape of the interproximal space without either compression or traction on the soft tissue. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  100. 100. Wedge- wedging: Occasionally , a concavity may be present on the proximal surface that is apparent in the gingival margin. This may occur on the surface with a fluted root, such as the mesial surface of maxillary first premolars. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  101. 101.  A gingival margin located in this area may be concave. To wedge a matrix band tightly against such a margin, a second pointed wedge can be inserted between the first wedge and the band. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  102. 102. Test for tightness of wedge: Press the tip of the explorer firmly at several points along the middle two third of the gingival margin to verify that it can not be moved away from the gingival margin. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  103. 103.  The round tooth pick wedge is usually the wedge of choice with conservative proximal boxes because its wedging action is more occlusal [ that is near the gingival margin] than with the triangular wedge. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  104. 104.  Triangular wedge is recommended for a preparation with deep gingival margin, when the gingival margin is deep the base of the triangular wedge will more readily engage the tooth gingival to the margin with out causing excessive soft tissue displacement. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  105. 105. A suitably trimmed tongue blade can be used as wedge where the inter proximal space between the teeth is large. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  106. 106. Contact size;Broadening the contact area: 1.      Creating a contact that is too broad bucco- lingually or occlusogingivally, will change the anatomy of the inter dental col. The normal saddle shaped area will become broadened. As a result , the area for the development of incipient periodontal disease , markedly increases. 2.      produces an inter dental area that the patient is less able to clean that increases the area susceptible to further decay. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  107. 107. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  108. 108.  1.      broadening the contact area will be at the expense of dimensions and shape of buccal and lingual embrasures. This will lead to improper movement or flow of masticated material.in turn this will lead to adhesion of debris and possible intraproximal impaction of that debris. 2.       finally brodening the contact area , could be at th eexpence of gingival embrasure, so that the restoration could encroach physico-mechanically on the inter dental periodontium , predisposing to its destruction. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  109. 109. Narrow contact area: Creating a contact that is narrow bucco- lingually or occluso gingivally, besides changing the anatomy of the tooth, will allow food to be impacted vertically and horizontally on the delicate inter dental col . this will predispose to periodontal and caries problem. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  110. 110.  A contact area placed too occlusally will result in a flattened marginal ridge at the expense of the occlusal embrasures. A contact area placed too bucally or lingually will result in a flattened restoration at the expense of buccal and lingual embrasures. A contact area placed too gingivally will increase the depth of the occlusal embrasure at the expense of contact area’s own size or at the expense of broadening or impinging upon inter dental col. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  111. 111.  A open contact creates continuity of the embrasures with each other and with the inter dental col. All of these defects in the contact area will allow for the impaction of food and accumulation of bacterial plaque, with accompanying periodontal and caries problems. There fore proper reproduction of the contact size and location to imitate the natural dentition is essential for the success of the treatment and restoration of the proximal surface. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  112. 112.  Contact configuration: Contact area that is flat can make it broad buccally, lingually, oclusally, or gingivally. On the other hand, a contact area with excessive convexity will diminish the extent of the contact area. Both will predispose to decay and periodontal destruction. A concave contact area will usually in restoring adjacent teeth simoultaneously. It is accompanied by the adjacent restoration with a convex proximal surface. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  113. 113.  Besides broadening and mislocating the contact area , the interlocking between concavity and adjacent convexity can immobilize the contacting teeth, depriving them of normal, stimulating physiologic movements, resulting in periodontitis or mechanical break down. Also in restoration with a concave contact area, it is impossible to create the proper size of marginal ridge or adjacent occlusal anatomy. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  114. 114. Contour: Facial and lingual convexties: Normal tooth contours act in deflecting deflecting food only to the extent that the passing food stimulates by the gentle massage of the investing tissues rather irritate them . www.indiandentalacademy.c
  115. 115.  Effect of over contour: Facial and lingual convexities: Normal tooth contours act in deflecting food only to the extent that the passing food stimulates by gentle massage of the investing tissues rather than irritating them. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  116. 116.  Effect of over contour: The presence of supragingival, cervical third, crown over contour presents a unique biomechanical soft tissue environment such as convexity extends as an awning over the marginal gingival. This architecture was seen: 1.      to leave a space for the accumulation of debris 2.      to prevent accumulation of food during mastication. 3.      to prevent approximation of tongue and cheek for the possible removal of debris. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  117. 117.  Effects of under contouring: Under contoured crowns with flat cervical surfaces may lead to thickening of the gingival margin. Apparently, under contouring is not nearly as damaging to the gingivaas over contouring. It has little if any effect on gingival health. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  118. 118. Facial and lingual concavities: Those concavities occlusal to the height of contour , whether they occur o anterior or posterior teeth are involved in the occlusal static and dynamic relations, as they determine the path ways for mandibular teeth in and out of centric. Deficient or mislocated concavities will lead to premature contacts during mandibular movements, which could inhibit the physiologic capabilities of these movements. On th eother hand excessive concavities can invite extrusion, rotation or tilting of occlusal cuspal elements in to non-physiologic relations with the opposing teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  119. 119.  Concavities apical to the height of contour, are essential for proper maintenance of the accompanying new components of the adjacent periodontium and must be imitated in the restoration. Deficient concavities at these locations can create restoration over hangs, and excessive concavities decrease the chance for successful plaque control in these extremely plaque–retaining areas. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  120. 120.  Areas of proximal contour adjacent to the contact area: In addition to creating a contact area of proper size, location and configuration, it is also essential to restore to a proper contour that portion of the proximal surface not involved in the contact. This would include the areas occlusal, buccal,lingual,and gingival to the contact area. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  121. 121.  Fabricating a restoration that does not reproduce the concavities and convexities which occur here naturally will lead to restoratio over hangs and under hangs,vertical and horizontal impaction of debris, and impingement of debris, and impingement upon the adjacent periodontal structures. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  122. 122.  Marginal ridges: 1.      Absence of marginal ridge in restoration:. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  123. 123.        A marginal ridge with exaggerated occlusal embrasure: www.indiandentalacademy.c
  124. 124.  Adjacent marginal ridges not compatible in height: drive restored tooth away -contacting tooth vertical forces will drive debris interproximally. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  125. 125.    marginal ridge with no triangular fossa: no occlusal planes occlusal forces to act, no horizontal components drive teeth towards each other. vertical forces impact food inter proximally. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  126. 126.  1.      marginal ridge with no occlusal embrasure: two adjacent marginal ridges will act like a pair of tweezers grasping food substances passing over it . www.indiandentalacademy.c
  127. 127.  A one planned marginal ridge in buccolingual direction: www.indiandentalacademy.c
  128. 128.   A thin marginal ridge in the mesiodistal bulk: susceptible to fracture or deformation. shallow or deep adjacent fossa or bulky occlusal anatomy. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  129. 129. Micro machined matrix:posterior compositesband thickness- 0.0015”has 2 windows-0.0005”contact areas contoured- slight proximal convexity www.indiandentalacademy.c
  130. 130.  SuperMat: large posterior  restorations ringed Super Cap  matrices in clear  plastic and stainless  steel-SuperLock  tensioning instrument.  www.indiandentalacademy.c
  131. 131.  advantages: Universal tensioning instrument No tightening device    restoration of several teeth same quadrant same  time    Greater patient comfort www.indiandentalacademy.c
  132. 132.   clear view of the working area Do not interfere with light curing Good anatomical shape Tight contact Height 5mm-6.5mm Thick ness 0.03mm metal Plastic 0.05mm www.indiandentalacademy.c
  133. 133.  Barton matrix: www.indiandentalacademy.c
  134. 134.  Palodent matrix system: Matrix shape-natural contours Flat contours www.indiandentalacademy.c
  135. 135. BiTine Round Ring gently separates teeth www.indiandentalacademy.c
  136. 136. BiTine Oval Ring :;::: gentle separation and matrix stabilization. more visibility longer tines assist stacking rings for MODs. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  137. 137.  Palodent Standard Matrix ideal for posterior restorations. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  138. 138.  Palodent Mini Matrices ideal for deciduous restorations narrow and shallow preparations proximal boxes. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  139. 139.  Palodent Plus Matrix deep proximal boxes. www.indiandentalacademy.c
  140. 140. Composi tight matrix: Similarto palodent matrix G- Rings www.indiandentalacademy.c
  141. 141.  V- RING MATRIX: Patented v- shaped space between the tines accomadates the wedges Ni – Ti ring separates teeth Spans wide cavities with out separating it www.indiandentalacademy.c
  142. 142. Tab matrix: Tab handle Holes in the wings of the matrix-easy removal Pin tweezers Natural contour www.indiandentalacademy.c
  143. 143.  simple arc curvature- tab matrices have S- shaped curve - true proximal surface www.indiandentalacademy.c
  144. 144.  Double banded Tofflemire:Quint int o4, 271-73 www.indiandentalacademy.c

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