Connectors –in fpd /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

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Connectors –in fpd /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education
  2. 2.  Connectors are those parts of a fixed partial denture or splint that join the individual Retainers and P ontics together.  Usually this is accomplished with -"Rigid connectors” although nonrigid connectors are used occasionally.  T latter are usually indicated he when it is impossible to prepare a common path of insertion for the abutment preparations for an F D P
  3. 3. CONNECTOR T portion of an F D that unites the he P retainer(s) and pontic(s). RIGID CONNECTOR A cast, soldered, or fused union between the retainer(s) and pontic(s). NON RIGID CONNECTOR Any connector that permits limited movement between otherwise independent members of an F D. P
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  7. 7. RIGID CONNECTORS Rigid connections in metal can be made by casting, soldering, or welding. Cast connectors  are shaped in wax as part of a multiunit wax pattern. Cast connectors are convenient and minimize the number of steps
  8. 8. T he fit of the individual retainers may be adversely affected because distortion more easily results when a multiunit wax pattern is removed from the die system.
  9. 9. Soldered connectors involve the use of an intermediate metal alloy whose melting temperature is lower than that of the parent metal T parts being joined are not he melted during soldering but must be thoroughly wettable by liquefied solder.
  10. 10. Dirt or surface oxides on the connector surfaces can reduce wetting and impede successful soldering; for example, the solder may melt but will not flow into the soldering gap.
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  12. 12. Welding is another method of rigidly joining metal parts. H ere the connection is created by melting adjacent surfaces with heat or pressure. A filler metal whose melting temperature is about the same as that of the parent metal can be used during welding.
  13. 13.  In industrial metalworking, a distinction is made between soldering, in which the filler metal has a melting point below 450 º C (842º F and ), brazing, in which the filler has a melting point above 450 º C  Rigid connections in dentistry are generally fabricated above 450 º C, but the process has almost always been referred to in the dental literature as soldering.  A proposed international standard uses the term brazing.
  14. 14. NONRIGID CONNECTORS  Nonrigid connectors are indicated when it is not possible to prepare two abutments for an F D with a common path of placement. P  Segmenting the design of large, complex F Ds into shorter components that are P easier to replace or repair individually is advisable. T his can be helpful if there is uncertainty about an abutment's prognosis.  If the abutment fails, only a portion of the F D may need to be remade. P
  15. 15.  In the mandibular arch, nonrigid connectors are indicated when a complex F D consists of anterior and posterior P segments.  During the mandibular opening and closing stroke, the mandible flexes mediolaterally.'  Rigid fixed partial dentures have been shown to inhibit mandibular flexure, and extensive splints have been shown to flex during forced opening  T associated stresses can cause he dislodgment of complex F Ds. P  Segmenting complex mandibular F Ds P
  16. 16.  Nonrigid connectors are generated through incorporation of prefabricated inserts in the wax pattern or through customm illing procedures after the first casting has been obtained.  The second part is then custom -fitted to the m illed retainer and cast.  Theyare often m ade with prefabricated plastic patterns.  The retainers are then cast separately and fitted to each other in m etal.
  17. 17. CONNECTOR DESIGN T size, shape, and position of he connectors all influence the success of the prosthesis. Connectors must be sufficiently large to prevent distortion or fracture during function but not too large; otherwise, they will interfere with effective plaque control and contribute to periodontal breakdown over time.
  18. 18. Adequate access (i.e., embrasure space) must be available for oral hygiene aids cervical to the connector If a connector is too large incisocervically, hygiene is impeded and over time periodontal failure will occur F esthetic F Ds, a large or P connector or inappropriate shaping of the individual retainers may result in display of the metal connector.
  19. 19. TYPES OF CONNECTORS RIGID CONNE ORS CT Rigid connectors must be shaped and incorporated into the wax pattern after the individual retainers and pontics have been completed to final contour but before reflowing of the margins for
  20. 20. Cast Connectors Connectors to be cast are also waxed on the master cast before reflowing and investing of the pattern. T presence of a cast connector he makes the pattern somewhat more awkward. Access to the proximal margin is impeded, and the pattern cannot be held proximally during removal from
  21. 21. Restricting cast connectors to complete coverage restorations is therefore advisable, which can be gripped buccolingually. P artial-coverage wax patterns are easily distorted when they are part of a single-cast F D. P
  22. 22. Soldered Connectors. As with cast connectors, connectors to be soldered are waxed to final shape but are then sectioned with a thin ribbon saw therefore, when the components are cast, the surfaces to be joined will be flat, parallel, and a controlled distance apart.  T allows accurate soldering his with a minimum of distortion. 
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  24. 24. M olten solder will flow toward the location where the temperature is highest. In metal, the two flat surfaces previously created in wax retain heat, ensuring that the highest temperature is in the
  25. 25. Soldering Gap Width. As gap width increases, soldering accuracy decreases . E xtremely small gap widths can prevent proper solder flow and lead to an incomplete or weak joint.
  26. 26. An even soldering gap of about 0.25 mm is recommended. If a connector area has an uneven soldering gap width, obtaining a connector of adequate cross-sectional dimension without resulting distortion is more difficult
  27. 27. Loop Connectors Although they are rarely used, loop connectors are sometimes required when an existing diastema is to be maintained in a planned fixed prosthesis. T connector consists of a loop on he the lingual aspect of the prosthesis that connects adjacent retainers and/ pontics. or
  28. 28. T loop may be cast from he sprue wax that is circular in cross section or shaped from a platinum-goldpalladium (P tAu-P alloy wire. d) M eticulous design is important so that plaque control will not be impeded
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  30. 30. NON RIGID CONNECTORS T design of nonrigid he connectors that are incorporated in the wax pattern stage consists of a mortise (also referred to as the female component) prepared within the contours of the retainer and a tenon (male) attached to the pontic
  31. 31. T mortise is usually he placed on the distal aspect of the anterior retainer. Accurate alignment of the dovetail or cylindrically shaped mortise is critical; it must parallel the path of withdrawal of the distal retainer
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  33. 33. P aralleling is normally accomplished with a dental surveyor. W hen aligning the cast, the path of placement of the retainer that will be contiguous with the tenon is identified.
  34. 34. T mortise in the other he retainer is then shaped so its path of insertion permits concurrent seating of the tenon and its corresponding retainer.  T mortise can be prepared he freehand in the wax pattern or with a precision milling machine.
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  36. 36. Another approach is to use prefabricated plastic com ponents for the m orti and tenon of a nonrigid connector
  37. 37. As an alternative, a special m andrel can be em bedded in the wax pattern and the abutm retainer can be cast, ent with refinem of the fem ent ale com ponent as necessary the ; m keyis then fabricated of ale autopoly erizing acry resin m lic and attached to the pontic.
  38. 38. Thank you For more details please visit