Commonly Used Medications

www.indiandentalacademy.com
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacademy.com

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Prescription
A

written order or authorization
directing a pharmacist to furnish certain
drugs to a patient

www.indiande...
Writing the Prescription
 Five

–
–
–
–
–

Parts

Superscription
Inscription
Subscription
Signa (Sig.)
Signature

www.ind...
Writing the Prescription
 Superscription

– The patients name, address and symbol Rx
(“take thou”)

www.indiandentalacade...
Inscription
 The

body of the prescription
 Contains the official names and
quantities of drug prescribed

www.indianden...
Subscription
 The

directions to the pharmacist
 Indicates dosage form and quantities to
be dispensed

www.indiandentala...
Signa (sig)
 The

instruction to the patient for use of
the preparation

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Signature
 The

prescriber’s signature and
professional degree
 DEA number for controlled substances
 Refills

www.indi...
Commonly Used Medications
 Analgesics
 Antibotics
 Corticosteroids
 Decongestants
 Muscle

Relaxers
 Anxiolytics
www...
Antibiotics
 Have

the ability to destroy or inhibit
growth of bacteria and other microorganisms
 Organic substances pro...
Antibiotics
 Considerations

–
–
–
–

1) Determine need
2) Previous adverse reactions
3)Susceptibility of microorganism
4...
Microflora
 Skin

– Staph. epidermis, Staph. aureus
 Maxillary

sinus

– Strep., Staph., Haemophilus
 Mouth

– Mixed ae...
Penicillin
 Beta

lactam antibiotic
 Most commonly used
 Gold standard
 Bactericidal (interferes with cell wall
synthe...
Penicillin
 Penicillin

G used parenterally
 Phenoxymethyl penicillin (Pen V) used
orally
 Resistance (beta-lactamase) ...
Pencillin V
 Adult

Dose

– 500 mg. QID ( four times per day )
 Pediatric

Dose

– 50 mg/kg/3 or 4

www.indiandentalacad...
Penicillin VK
 250-500

mg p.o. q6h
 Pen VK 500 mg #28 i p.o. q6h until gone

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Extended Spectrum Penicillins
 Modified

to include Gram negative aerobic

rods
 Lack resistance to beta-lactamase
 Amp...
Ampicillin
 Available

for oral, parenteral
administration
 250-500 mg p.o. q6h

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Augmentin
 Amoxicillin-Clavulinic

acid
 Beta-lactamase resistance and Staph.
coverage
 250-500 mg amoxicillin with 125...
Amoxicillin-Clavulanate
 Adult

Dose

– 250-500 mg tid
 Pediatric

Dose

– 20 mg/kg/3

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Erythromycin
 Macrolide

antibiotic
 Mainly bacteriostatic
 Spectrum similar to Pen V
 Less effective against oral ana...
Erythromycin
 GI

side effects
 Avoid liver disease (estolate and
ethylsuccinate)
 Adjust dosage in patients taking
the...
Erythromycin
 Adult

Dose 500 mg. Qid
 Pediatric Dose 40 mg/kg/4

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Erythomycin
 Base,

stearate, estolate

– 250-500 mg p.o. q6h
 Ethylsuccinate

– 200-400 mg p.o. q6h
 Consult

referenc...
Clindamycin
 Lincosamide

antibiotic
 Very effective against oral anaerobes and
Staph.
 Good bone penetration
 useful ...
Clindamycin
 Expensive
 Pseudomembranous

colitis rarely seen
 Stool culture reveals C. difficile and toxin
 150-300

...
Clindamycin
 Adult

Dose

– 300-450 mg q6h
 Pediatric

Dose

– 10-20 mg/kg/4

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Bacterial Endocarditis
 AHD,

ADA,guidelines
 To reduce likelihood of resistance,
prophylactic antibiotics should be use...
Cardiac Conditions
 Endocarditis

prophylaxis recommended:
 Prosthetic cardiac valves, including
bioprosthetic and homog...
Cardiac Conditions
 Rheumatic

and other acquired valvular
dysfunction
 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
 Mitral valve prola...
Prophylaxis NOT recommended:
 Isolated

secundum atrial septal defect
 Surgical repair without residual beyond
Secundum ...
Prophylaxis NOT recommended:
 Previous

Kawasaki disease without
valvular dysfunction
 Previous rheumatic fever without
...
Endocarditis prophylaxis recommended:
Dental procedures likely to induce
gingival or mucosal bleeding,
including professio...
Endocarditis prophylaxis NOT
recommended:
 Dental

procedures not likely to induce
gingival or mucosal bleeding such as
s...
Analgesics
A

class of drugs which obtunds the
perception of pain without producing
unconsciousness
 Non-narcotic
 Narc...
Non-narcotic Analgesics
 Useful

for mild to moderate pain
 Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory
 Salicylates,

NS...
Salicylates
 Acetysalicylic

Acid (Aspirin, ASA)
 Analgesic, antipyretic anti-inflammatory
 325

- 650 mg p.o. q4h
 Pr...
NSAIDSs
 Ibuprofen

is prototype (Motrin, Advil)
 Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory
 400 mg p.o. q4-6h, 600 mg ...
Acetaminophen
 Analgesic,

anti-pyretic
 Often combined with narcotic analgesics
 500-1000

mg p.o. q6h
 Total dose no...
Narcotic Analgesics
 Opioid

agonists
 All produce analgesia, euphoria,
addiction, respiratory depression,
sedation, eme...
Narcotic Analgesics
Classification:

– Opium Alkaloids
• Heroin, morphine, codeine

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Narcotic Analgesics
Classification

– Semi-synthetic derivatives
• Morphine

– Dilaudid, Nubain , Hydrocodone

www.indian...
Narcotic Analgesics
Classification

– Semi-synthetic derivatives
• Codeine

– Oxycodone, Dihydrocodeine

www.indiandental...
Narcotic Analgesics
Classification

– Synthetic narcotics
• Meperidine group
– Demerol, Sublimaze

• Methadone group
– Da...
Codiene
 Analgesic,

sedative, anti-tussive,
antidiarrheal proerties
 Similar analgesia to NSAIDs
 Indicated in mile to...
Codiene
 Doses

of 60 to 120mg may cause
respiratory depression
 #3 (30mg), #4 (60mg)
 Tylenol #3 (300 mg acetaminophen...
Codiene
 Usual

adult dose is 30-60mg
 Tylenol #3 i-ii tabs p.o. q4-6h prn pain
 Be wary of total acetaminphen dosage

...
Semi-synthetic Derivatives
 Moderate

to severe pain

– Hydrocodone
• Vicodin, Lortab, Lorcet

– Oxycodone
• Percodan, Pe...
Hydrocodone
 Less

euphoria, GI side effects
 Vicodin (Hydrocodone 5mg and 500 mg
acetaminnophen)
 Vicodin ES (Hydrocod...
Hydrocodone
 Analgesic

dose 5 to 10mg
 4 to 8 hours duration
 Moderate to high addition potential

www.indiandentalaca...
Oxycodone
 Greater

side effects
 Percodan (Oxycodone 5 mg and 325 mg
ASA)
 Perocet (Oxycodone 5 mg and 325 mg
acetamin...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Leader in continuing dental education

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Commenly used medications /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

978 views

Published on


The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Commenly used medications /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Commonly Used Medications www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. Prescription A written order or authorization directing a pharmacist to furnish certain drugs to a patient www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Writing the Prescription  Five – – – – – Parts Superscription Inscription Subscription Signa (Sig.) Signature www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Writing the Prescription  Superscription – The patients name, address and symbol Rx (“take thou”) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Inscription  The body of the prescription  Contains the official names and quantities of drug prescribed www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. Subscription  The directions to the pharmacist  Indicates dosage form and quantities to be dispensed www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. Signa (sig)  The instruction to the patient for use of the preparation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. Signature  The prescriber’s signature and professional degree  DEA number for controlled substances  Refills www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Commonly Used Medications  Analgesics  Antibotics  Corticosteroids  Decongestants  Muscle Relaxers  Anxiolytics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Antibiotics  Have the ability to destroy or inhibit growth of bacteria and other microorganisms  Organic substances produced by microorganisms  Synthetic or semi-synthetic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Antibiotics  Considerations – – – – 1) Determine need 2) Previous adverse reactions 3)Susceptibility of microorganism 4) Knowledge of side effects  Dosages based on MIC (3-4 times)  Decreased efficacy of oral contraceptives www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Microflora  Skin – Staph. epidermis, Staph. aureus  Maxillary sinus – Strep., Staph., Haemophilus  Mouth – Mixed aerobic (Staph., Strep.,) and anaerobic (Bacteroides, Peptostreptococcus) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Penicillin  Beta lactam antibiotic  Most commonly used  Gold standard  Bactericidal (interferes with cell wall synthesis)  5-10% adverse reaction (less common orally) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Penicillin  Penicillin G used parenterally  Phenoxymethyl penicillin (Pen V) used orally  Resistance (beta-lactamase) increases with repeated use  Covers oral flora www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Pencillin V  Adult Dose – 500 mg. QID ( four times per day )  Pediatric Dose – 50 mg/kg/3 or 4 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Penicillin VK  250-500 mg p.o. q6h  Pen VK 500 mg #28 i p.o. q6h until gone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Extended Spectrum Penicillins  Modified to include Gram negative aerobic rods  Lack resistance to beta-lactamase  Ampicillin, Amoxicillin – Effective for sinus coverage (H. Influenzae) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Ampicillin  Available for oral, parenteral administration  250-500 mg p.o. q6h www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Augmentin  Amoxicillin-Clavulinic acid  Beta-lactamase resistance and Staph. coverage  250-500 mg amoxicillin with 125mg clavulinic acid, p.o. q8h www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. Amoxicillin-Clavulanate  Adult Dose – 250-500 mg tid  Pediatric Dose – 20 mg/kg/3 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Erythromycin  Macrolide antibiotic  Mainly bacteriostatic  Spectrum similar to Pen V  Less effective against oral anaerobes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Erythromycin  GI side effects  Avoid liver disease (estolate and ethylsuccinate)  Adjust dosage in patients taking theophylline and cyclosporins www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. Erythromycin  Adult Dose 500 mg. Qid  Pediatric Dose 40 mg/kg/4 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Erythomycin  Base, stearate, estolate – 250-500 mg p.o. q6h  Ethylsuccinate – 200-400 mg p.o. q6h  Consult reference www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Clindamycin  Lincosamide antibiotic  Very effective against oral anaerobes and Staph.  Good bone penetration  useful in severe odontogenic infections www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. Clindamycin  Expensive  Pseudomembranous colitis rarely seen  Stool culture reveals C. difficile and toxin  150-300 mg p.o. q6h  Available in parenteral form www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. Clindamycin  Adult Dose – 300-450 mg q6h  Pediatric Dose – 10-20 mg/kg/4 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Bacterial Endocarditis  AHD, ADA,guidelines  To reduce likelihood of resistance, prophylactic antibiotics should be used only during perioperative period  Alpha-hemolytic (viridans) streptococci www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Cardiac Conditions  Endocarditis prophylaxis recommended:  Prosthetic cardiac valves, including bioprosthetic and homograft valve  Previous bacterial endocarditis, even in the absence of heart disease  Surgically contructed systemic pulmonary shunts  Most congential cardiac malformations www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Cardiac Conditions  Rheumatic and other acquired valvular dysfunction  Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  Mitral valve prolapse with valvular regurgitation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Prophylaxis NOT recommended:  Isolated secundum atrial septal defect  Surgical repair without residual beyond Secundum atrial septal defect  Ventricular septal defect  Patent ductus arteriosus  Previous coronary without valvular regurgitation  Physiologic, functional, or innocent heart murmurs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Prophylaxis NOT recommended:  Previous Kawasaki disease without valvular dysfunction  Previous rheumatic fever without valvular dysfunction  Cardiac pacemakers and implanted defibrillators www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Endocarditis prophylaxis recommended: Dental procedures likely to induce gingival or mucosal bleeding, including professional cleaning Surgical operations involving www.indiandentalacademy.com respiratory mucosa (maxillary
  35. 35. Endocarditis prophylaxis NOT recommended:  Dental procedures not likely to induce gingival or mucosal bleeding such as simple adjustment of orthodontic appliances or fillings above the gum line  Injection of local intraoral anesthetic (except intraligamentary injections)  Shedding of primary teeth  New denture insertion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Analgesics A class of drugs which obtunds the perception of pain without producing unconsciousness  Non-narcotic  Narcotic  Consider placebo effect www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. Non-narcotic Analgesics  Useful for mild to moderate pain  Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory  Salicylates, NSAIDs, Acetaminophen  Inhibit prostaglandin synthesis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. Salicylates  Acetysalicylic Acid (Aspirin, ASA)  Analgesic, antipyretic anti-inflammatory  325 - 650 mg p.o. q4h  Prolongs bleeding time  Adverse GI side effects www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. NSAIDSs  Ibuprofen is prototype (Motrin, Advil)  Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory  400 mg p.o. q4-6h, 600 mg p.o. q6h or 800 mg p.o. q8h  Total dose not to exceed 3200 mg qd  Consider pre-operative dose www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. Acetaminophen  Analgesic, anti-pyretic  Often combined with narcotic analgesics  500-1000 mg p.o. q6h  Total dose not to exceed 4 gm q 24h  Risk of heptaic necrosis at toxic doses (10-15 gm qd) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. Narcotic Analgesics  Opioid agonists  All produce analgesia, euphoria, addiction, respiratory depression, sedation, emesis, constipation  Tolerance and cross-addiction occurs  Controlled substances (need DEA)  Reversed by naloxone (Narcan) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. Narcotic Analgesics Classification: – Opium Alkaloids • Heroin, morphine, codeine www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. Narcotic Analgesics Classification – Semi-synthetic derivatives • Morphine – Dilaudid, Nubain , Hydrocodone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. Narcotic Analgesics Classification – Semi-synthetic derivatives • Codeine – Oxycodone, Dihydrocodeine www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. Narcotic Analgesics Classification – Synthetic narcotics • Meperidine group – Demerol, Sublimaze • Methadone group – Darvon www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Codiene  Analgesic, sedative, anti-tussive, antidiarrheal proerties  Similar analgesia to NSAIDs  Indicated in mile to moderate pain  Most commonly used in combination form www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Codiene  Doses of 60 to 120mg may cause respiratory depression  #3 (30mg), #4 (60mg)  Tylenol #3 (300 mg acetaminophen and 30mg Codiene) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Codiene  Usual adult dose is 30-60mg  Tylenol #3 i-ii tabs p.o. q4-6h prn pain  Be wary of total acetaminphen dosage www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. Semi-synthetic Derivatives  Moderate to severe pain – Hydrocodone • Vicodin, Lortab, Lorcet – Oxycodone • Percodan, Percocet, Tylox – Dihydrocodeine • Synalgos-DC www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. Hydrocodone  Less euphoria, GI side effects  Vicodin (Hydrocodone 5mg and 500 mg acetaminnophen)  Vicodin ES (Hydrocodone 7.5mg and 750mg acetaminophen)  Vicodin 1 tab P.O. q6h prn pain www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Hydrocodone  Analgesic dose 5 to 10mg  4 to 8 hours duration  Moderate to high addition potential www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Oxycodone  Greater side effects  Percodan (Oxycodone 5 mg and 325 mg ASA)  Perocet (Oxycodone 5 mg and 325 mg acetaminophen)  Tylox (Oxycodone 5 mg and 500 mg acetaminophen)  Percocet 1 tab q6h prn pain www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

×