Classification of porcelain / dental implant companies

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Classification of porcelain / dental implant companies

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. Dental Ceramics or Dental Porcelain Introduction General Applications in Dentistry Classification Mode of supply Composition Designing of Dental restoration involving ceramics Fabrication of ceramics Restoration properties porcelain Recent porcelain Denture teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. Composition: Feldspor - 60-80% (15º) (K2OAl2O 65.O2) Kaoline - 3-5% (70º) (Al2O3 25;O 2H2O) Silica - 15-25% (14*) Aluminium oxide - 8-20% Fluxes and Glass - 2-7% -Boric acid, oxides / carbonates of Na, K, Ca, lithium – 9-15% Colouring Frits - <1% (1) * Decorative porcelainwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Classification: 1. Firing Temprature High fusing – 1290-1370ºC (2350-2500ºF) Medium fusing - 1095-1260ºC(2000 - 2300ºF) Low fusing - 870-1065ºC (1600-1950º F) 2. Use - Construction of Denture teeth - Fabrication of J.C and inlay - Veneers over cast metal restoration www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. 3. Firing - Air fired vaccum fired 4. Application - Core/ opaque porcelain Dentine/body porcelain Enamel/porcelain 5. Glazing - Self glazing Over glaze. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Classification of porcelain: By type : Feldspathic porcelain Leucite – reinforced porcelain Aluminous porcelain Glass infiltrated alumina Glass infiltrated spinal Glass ceramic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. • Denture teeth • Metal ceramics • Veneers • Inlays & on lays • Crowns and • Anterior bridges. By use: Classification of porcelain: www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. • Sintering • Casting • machining By processing method: Classification of porcelain: www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. By substructure material • Cast metal • Swaged metal • Glass ceramic • CAD CAM • Sintered ceramic core www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. ALUMINOUS PORCELAIN: Aluminum is added as filler in high percentage to strength and is used as core material. In finished crown ,alumina prevents crack propagation. It affect the translucence. and there by affects the color of the porcelain www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Advantages: •Good esthetics •High hardness & compressive strength •Chemical durability and •Excellent biocompatibility. Disadvantages: •Brittleness •Low fracture toughness and •Low tensile strength. Ceramics: www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. 1.Development of residual compressive stresses: a. Ion exchange b. Thermal tempering c. Thermal compatibility. Method of strengthening ceramicsMethod of strengthening ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. 2. Disruption of crack propagation a. Dispersion of crystalline phase. b. Transformation toughening c. Design of dental restorations involving ceramics. d. Minimizing tensile stress. e. Reducing stress raisers. Method of strengthening ceramicsMethod of strengthening ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. 1.Development of residual compressive stresses a.Ion exchange: Chemical tempering Exchange of larger potassium ions for the smaller sodium ions. These effects produce strength in the surface of the porcelain. The surface should be protected from the grinding, -strength reduced to its original Method of strengthening ceramicsMethod of strengthening ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. b.Thermal tempering: • Commonly employed method . • It create residual surfaces compressive stresses by rapid cooling. (quenching) when the material is still hot or molten state. • This rapid cooling produces a skin of rigid glass surface surrounding a soft core. • Quenching done in silicone oil or other sp. liquid, than using air spray. Method of strengthening ceramicsMethod of strengthening ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. c. Thermal compatibility: •In fabrication of glass ceramic in combination with metal this method is employed. •The metal which is veneered with ceramic has the higher coeffiencient of thermal expansion than the ceramic. •Ceramic in combination with metal are heated and cooled together. •Hence on cooling the metal contracts more than the ceramic thus leaving the outer layer of ceramic in residual compressive stress. Method of strengthening ceramicsMethod of strengthening ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. 2. Disruption of crack propagation: Another method of strengthening the ceramic, I. Is to reinforce the ceramic with a dispersed phase of a different material that is capable of hindering a crack from propagating through the material. Two different types of dispersions used to interrupt crack propagation are; Method of strengthening ceramicsMethod of strengthening ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. a. By absorption of energy by the dispersed tough particles from the crack and thus depleting its driving force for propagation. b. By change of crystal structure under stress to absorb energy from the crack. II. Dispersion of crystalline phase. Method of strengthening ceramicsMethod of strengthening ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. a. By absorption of energy by the dispersed tough particles from the crack and thus depleting its driving force for propagation. Dicor glass ceramic : Utilizes reinforcement of a glass by a dispersed crystalline substances,when the cast crown is subjected to heat treatment, that causes micron sized mica crystals grow in glass. And these crystals will disrupt crack propagation thereby Strengthening the ceramic . Method of strengthening ceramicsMethod of strengthening ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. • A crystalline material is incorporated that is capable of undergoing a change in crystalline structure when placed under stress. The crystalline material used is termed as Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ) b.By change of crystal structure under stress to absorb energy from the crack. or Transformation toughening Method of strengthening ceramicsMethod of strengthening ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. •The energy required for the transformation of PSZ is taken from the energy that allows the crack to propagate. Method of strengthening ceramicsMethod of strengthening ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. II dispersion of crystalline phase: A tough crystalline material like alumina is added in particulate form. The glass is toughened and Strengthened because the crack cannot penetrate the alumina particles as easily as it can propagate in the glass, development of aluminous porcelains for Porcelain Jacket Crown. Method of strengthening ceramicsMethod of strengthening ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Design of dental restoration involving ceramics •Avoid exposure of ceramic to high tensile stresses. PJC – contraindicated for posterior tooth. occlusal forces tensile stresses • Anterior teeth Increased overbite tensile stresses Method of strengthening ceramicsMethod of strengthening ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. •Avoid stress concentration at sharp angles or marked changes in thickness. Folds of the platinum foil substrate – embedded in the porcelain leave notches –acts as stress raisers. - Abrupt change in thickness or shape of the porcelain acts as a stress raisers leads failure of the restoration. Method of strengthening ceramicsMethod of strengthening ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Fabrication of ceramic restoration: -The porcelain powder is mixed with the liquid to form plastic mass which is condensed to form the porcelain restoration. -Then it is fired in the furnaces for sintering -When fired the mass shrinks and flows so the built up mass has to be supported on a matrix. -The matrix should have a higher fusion temperature than the porcelain.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Metal coping Platinum foil Degassing (980ºC/1800ºF) Opaquer – 0.2mm Stages in firing: - Low Bisque Stage - Medium Bisque Stage - High Bisque Stage Cooling Fabrication of ceramic restoration: www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. I .Matrix: 1. Platinum foil of 0.001” is used. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. 2. metal coping of suitable design. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. II. Degassing (980ºC/1800ºF) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. With a brush plastic mass is applied over the matrix. CORE- OPEQUER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Fabrication of ceramic restoration: Porcelain – Metal Bonding qualities : Chemical Mechanical Electro deposition www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Condensation :- Vibration Spatulation Brush Technique or Capillary action method Ultrasonic Gravitational Whipping www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Firing procedure:-  Core (opaque)  Dentine  Incisal  Glazing – Over glazed Self glazed.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Firing procedure:- Porcelain furnace www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. III. Building up porcelain: Porcelain powder mixed with liquid- Plastic mass www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. It is built up to the shape of the crown using series of core, dentine and enamel porcelains. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. It is built up to the shape of the crown- BODY DENTINE LAYER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. Enamel porcelain www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. Additions Of Dentine Enamel www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. Corrections www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. Stains www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. Glaze www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. Finished restoration www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Composition of Gold Alloys Type Gold % Silver% Ca% Pd% Pt% In,Sn,Fe,2n, Ga,Ba% I. 83 10 06 0.5 - -Ba- II 77 14 07 1.0 - - III 75 11 09 3.5 - - IV 69 12.5 10 3.5 - - Mc (G) 52 - - 38 - - (P.S.) - 30 - 60 - - Mc (G) 88 - (6.5(14.0pt) H.pt 0-6 0-6.5 0-15/8 74-88www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Types of metal ceramic system: a. Cast metal ceramic alloys: 1. Noble – metal alloy system High gold – Gold-Platinum Palladium Low gold - Gold palladium silver Gold free - Palladium silver 2. Base metal alloy system Nickel – Chromium alloy Cobalt – Chromium alloywww.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. b. Foil Coping: • Bonded platinum foil coping • Swaged gold alloy foil coping Requirements of metal: -Bonding with porcelain -Co-efficient of Thermal expansion -Fusion Temperature -High Modulus of elasticity -Sag/Creep resistance -No Copper/silver -High proportional limitwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. Requirements of porcelain: -Co-efficient of thermal expansion (13-14 x 10-6/C)<0.5-1x10-6/C metal -Fusion temperature -High modulus of elasticity at proportional limit *** Potast and soda- opaque porcelain – Zirconium, tin Zinc, titanium oxide www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. Fabrication of MFP Metal coping – Degassing (980ºC/1800ºF) Opaquer – 0.2mm Porcelain – Metal Bonding qualities : - Chemical - Mechanical - Electro deposition www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Classification of bond failures in Metal-Ceramics (O’Brien-1977) Porcelain Metal Porcelain Metal Metal Oxide I. II Metal –Porcelain Metal-oxide to porcelain www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Classification of bond failures in Metal-Ceramics (O’Brien-1977) Metal III. IV Metal to Metal Oxide Metal-oxide to Metal oxide Porcelain Metal Oxide Porcelain Metal Oxide Metal Oxide Metal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. Classification of bond failures in Metal-Ceramics (O’Brien-1977) Metal Porcelain V. VI Cohesive with in metal Cohesive within porcelain Porcelain Metal Oxide Metal Metal Oxide Metal Porcelain www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. Stages in firing: -Low Bisque Stage -Medium Bisque Stage -High Bisque Stage  Cooling www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. Fabrication of Ceramic Restoration Condensation :-Vibration Spatulation Rush Technique at capillary action method Firing procedure:- - Core (opaque) - Dentine - Incisal - Glazing – Over glazed - Self glazed.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. Properties of Porcelain 1. Strength – Flexure Strength / Modulus of rupture Glazed – 141 MPa (20,465 PSi) Ground – 75.8 MPa  Compressive strength 172MN/m2 (25,000 Psi)  Tensile Strength 34MN/m2 (5,000 Psi)  Shear Strength 110MN/m2 (16,000 Psi)www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. 2. Shrinkage Linear – Low Fusing – 14% High Fusing – 11.5% Volumetric – Low fusing – 32-37% High fusing – 28-34% 3. Modulus of elasticity – High 69GPa (10x106 Psi) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. 4. Surface Hardness – Harder than enamel: Porcelain – 460KHN Enamel - 343 KHN Dentine - 68 KHN Plastic - 20 KHN 5. Wear resistance – Harder than Nat. teeth 6. Thermal Properties: (low) Th. Conductivity : 0.0030cal/See/cm2(ºclar Th. Diffusivity : 0.64 MM2/Sec. Linear Th. Co-eff. Expansion: 12.0x10-6/ºC )www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. RECENT CERAMICS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. New Generation Dental Ceramics: Ceramic jacket crown. Leucite re- in forced porcelain ( Optec HSP). Glass ceramic crown. CAD CAM Ceramics. Injection molded glass ceramic. Glass – in filtrated alumina core ceramic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. It is crown made entirely by ceramics having more than 50 % of crystal content in it, but without any metal coping. Ceramic jacket crown. This is strong and tough crown. PJC jacket crown made traditional feldspathic porcelain without any crystalline in it and having a aluminous porcelain but without metal coping. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. It is a natural mineral consisting of potassium – aluminum silicate. Leucite: It is white in color and has a large co efficient of thermal expansion. Traditional porcelain contains feldspar of two phases. Glassy phase Crystalline phase leucite leucite porcelain. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. SPINEL SPINELLE: Hard crystalline natural mineral of magnesium and aluminum. Leucite and spinal can be added to ceramic material to improve strength Accordingly many new ceramic products with new names have developed. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. 1. Leucite re-in forced Porcelain : Used as a core material & over it traditional feldspathic Porcelain is used to build crown. Whole crown is known as ceramic jacket crown. (CJC ). No metal coping. Good translucency Reasonably good strength. Advantages: Used for Inlays, On lays, Crowns & as a Veneer. Disadvantages: Fit not accurate& Marginal shrinkage. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. Glass ceramic crown: DICOR Castable ceramic and made by lost wax technique. Can be made by casting or machinined by computer. Composed of silica – it is glassy and amorphous. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. Procedure: Wax pattern of the crown on the die Investing in phosphate bonded investment Burnout by heating. Glassy amorphous ceramic is poured into the mould to form shape of the crown. Removed from the investment Sprue is removed Heated at 1075*c for several hours. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. Glassy amorphous material changes into solid crystalline Material containing thin sheets of crystalline mica. This transformation is known as CERAMMING. This helps in preventing crack propagation. The cerammed crown, fitted on the die and surface porcelains like enamel porcelain, neck porcelain or stains are added to give final shape and appearance to the crown. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. Advantages: Can be machined and shaped like metal. Although brittle,do not crack or break like other porcelain. No need of metal coping. Uses: Inlays and crowns for anterior teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. Properties: Strong non porous, hard but do not abrade natural teeth Good esthetics. Disadvantages: Cannot be used for the posteriors – stress concentration susceptible to fracture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. CAD CAM CERAMICS: These are Dicor MGC (Machinable glass ceramics) The presence of small crystals dispersed through out their glassy matrix minimizes cracking and chipping when they are drilled, milled or ground. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. Advantages: No metal coping No porosity in the restorations No impression or die Time saving Satisfactory results. Disadvantages: Expensive equipments needed. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. Injection molded glass ceramic IPS-Empress This ceramic with high conc. of leucite crystals. This powder is mixed with polymer & the mix is heated to make it Moldable. Then it is injected under pressure into the mold of desired shape. On cooling the mass sets & polymer is removed by heating. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. Now ceramic sub structure is obtained. & on which the crown is built to its proper shape and size as usual by using Conventional layer technique. Advantages: No metal coping Good fit Reasonably good strength Excellent esthetics. Disadvantages: Expensive equipments needed. Not posterior teeth.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. Glass infiltrated alumina core ceramic In Ceram Conventional aluminous porcelain is used as core material. Then dentine, enamel porcelains are used to build crown. In this method the ceramic powder is mixed with binder ( polymer) instead of water.the binder is burnt of later during sintering process www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. Disadvantages: Expensive equipments needed. Opacity of the core which affects esthetics. No metal coping Good fit Reasonably good strength. Advantages: www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. 7.Specie Gravity: True Sp.Gravity : 2.2 4 2 Fired Porcelain : 2.2 – 2.3 8. Dimensional stability : after firing 9. Chemical stability : Hydro fluoric and APF gel, stannous fluoride 10. Esthetic : Excellent 11. Biocompatibility www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. Recent Porcelain: -Magnesia core -Extrusion Moulded/injection moulded aluminous core material -Castable glass ceramic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. Diatonic space Posteriors Anterior Retentive pin Denture Teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. RECENT CERAMICSRECENT CERAMICS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. New Generation Dental Ceramics: Ceramic jacket crown. Leucite re- in forced porcelain ( Optec HSP). Glass ceramic crown. CAD CAM Ceramics. Injection molded glass ceramic. Glass – in filtrated alumina core ceramic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. It is crown made entirely by ceramics having more than 50 % of crystal content in it, but without any metal coping. Ceramic Jacket Crown. This is strong and tough crown. PJC - jacket crown made with traditional feldspathic porcelain without any crystalline in it and having a aluminous porcelain but without metal coping. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. It is a natural mineral consisting of potassium – aluminum silicate. Leucite: It is white in color and has a large co efficient of thermal expansion. Traditional porcelain contains feldspar of two phases. Glassy phase Crystalline phase leucite leucite porcelain. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. SPINEL SPINELLE: Hard crystalline natural mineral of magnesium and aluminum. Leucite and spinal can be added to ceramic material to improve strength Accordingly many new ceramic products with new names have developed. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. 1. Leucite re-in forced Porcelain : • Used as a core material & over it traditional feldspathic Porcelain is used to build crown. • Whole crown is known as Ceramic Jacket Crown. (CJC ). • No metal coping. • Good translucency • Reasonably good strength. Advantages: • Used for Inlays, On lays, Crowns & as a Veneer. Disadvantages: • Fit not accurate & Marginal shrinkage.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. Glass ceramic crown: DICOR Castable ceramic and made by lost wax technique. Can be made by casting or machinined by computer. Composed of silica – it is glassy and amorphous. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. Procedure: Wax pattern of the crown on the die Investing in phosphate bonded investment Burnout by heating. Glassy amorphous ceramic is poured into the mould to form shape of the crown. Removed from the investment Sprue is removed Heated at 1075*c for several hours. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. Glassy amorphous material changes into solid crystalline Material containing thin sheets of crystalline mica. This transformation is known as CERAMMING. This helps in preventing crack propagation.  The cerammed crown, fitted on the die and surface porcelains like enamel porcelain, neck porcelain or stains are added to give final shape and appearance to the crown. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. Advantages: Can be machined and shaped like metal. Although brittle,do not crack or break like other porcelain. No need of metal coping. Uses: Inlays and crowns for anterior teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. Properties: Strong non porous, hard but do not abrade natural teeth Good esthetics. Disadvantages: Cannot be used for the posteriors – stress concentration susceptible to fracture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. CAD CAM CERAMICS: These are Dicor MGC (Machinable glass ceramics) The presence of small crystals dispersed through out their glassy matrix minimizes cracking and chipping when they are drilled, milled or ground. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  101. 101. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  102. 102. Advantages: No metal coping No porosity in the restorations No impression or die Time saving Satisfactory results. Disadvantages: Expensive equipments needed. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  103. 103. Injection molded glass ceramic IPS-Empress This ceramic with high conc. of leucite crystals. This powder is mixed with polymer & the mix is heated to make it Moldable. Then it is injected under pressure into the mold of desired shape. On cooling the mass sets & polymer is removed by heating. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  104. 104. Now ceramic sub structure is obtained. & on which the crown is built to its proper shape and size as usual by using Conventional layer technique. Advantages: No metal coping Good fit Reasonably good strength Excellent esthetics. Disadvantages: Expensive equipments needed. Not posterior teeth.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  105. 105. Glass infiltrated alumina core ceramic In Ceram Conventional aluminous porcelain is used as core material. Then dentine, enamel porcelains are used to build crown. In this method the ceramic powder is mixed with binder ( polymer) instead of water.the binder is burnt of later during sintering process www.indiandentalacademy.com
  106. 106. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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