Classification of malocclusion1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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Classification of malocclusion1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Classification of Malocclusion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Definition: Malocclusion is defined as any deviation from normal occlusion of teeth. The teeth are in abnormal position in relationship to the basalbone of the alveolar process, to the adjacent teeth and/or opposing teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION  The alignment and occlusion of the dentition are extremely important in various oral functions. But tooth positions are determined not by chance but by numerous factors such as arch width and tooth size. Any alteration in such factors can give rise to malocclusion. As orthodontics is a “science of infinite variations”(by jackson), it becomes necessary to group the variety of malocclusions into various groups for our better understanding. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION  Classification involves the grouping together of various malocclusion into simpler or smaller groups. In order to have a system of classification, standards should be set up that represents normalcy. The deviations from the accepted norms should also be grouped into various smaller divisions or categories. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Advantages  1. classification helps in diagnosis and treatment planning.  2. classification helps in visualizing and understanding the problem associated with that malocclusion.  3. classification helps in communicating the problem.  4. comparison of various malocclusion becomes easy. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. TYPES OF MALOCCLUSIONS  Malocclusion can be broadly divided into 1.Individual teeth malposition or intra-arch malocclusion.  2.Malrelation of dental arches to one another upon bony bases which may themselves be normally related.  3.Skeletal malocclusions which involve the underlying bony bases. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. Individual Tooth Malpositions  These are malposition of individual teeth in respect to adjacent teeth with in the same dental arch. Hence are called intra-arch malocclusions. Some of the commonly seen individual teeth malpositions are: www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. MESIAL INCLINATION OR TIPPING  In this condition the tooth is tilted mesially, i.e. the crown is mesial to the root. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. DISTAL INCLINATION OR TIPPING  The tooth is tilted distally, i.e. the crown is distal to the root. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. LINGUAL INCLINATION OR TIPPING  The tooth is abnormally tilted towards the palate {for the palate in the maxillary arch}. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. LABIAL/BUCCAL INCLINATION OR TIPPING  The tooth is abnormally inclined towards the lips/cheeks. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. INFRA-OCCLUSION  The tooth is below the occlusion plane as compared to other teeth in the arch. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. SUPRAOCCLUSION  The tooth is above the occlusal plane as compared to other teeth in the arch. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. ROTATIONS  This term refers to tooth movements around the long axis of the tooth.  Mesiolingual or Distolabial.  Distolingual or mesiolabial. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. MESIOLINGUAL OR DISTOLABIAL ROTATION  The mesial aspect of the tooth is inclined lingually or in other words, the distal aspect of crown is labially placed as compared to its mesial aspect. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. DISTOLINGUAL OR MESIOLABIAL ROTATIONS  The distal aspect of the tooth is inclined lingually or the mesial aspect of the crown is labially placed as compared to its distal aspect. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. TRANSPOSITION  This term is used in case where two teeth exchange places, e.g. a canine in place of the lateral incisor. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. MALRELATIONS OF DENTAL ARCHES  SAGITTAL PLANE MALOCCLUSION TWO TYPES1.PRE NORMAL OCCLUSION 2.POST NORMAL OCCLUSION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. PRE-NORMAL OCCLUSION  Where the mandibular dental arch is placed more anteriorly when the teeth meet in centric occlusion. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. POST-NORMAL OCCLUSION  Where the mandibular dental arch is placed more distally when the teeth meet in centric occlusion. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. VERTICAL PLANE MALOCCLUSION  TWO TYPES- 1. DEEP BITE-Here the vertical overlap between the maxillary and mandibular teeth is in excess. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. 2.OPEN BITE  No overlap or a gap exists between the maxillary and mandibular teeth when patient bites in centric occlusion, can exist in the anterior or posterior region. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. TRANSVERSE PLANE MALOCCLUSIONS  The transverse plane inter-arch malocclusion includes various types of cross bites. The term cross bite refers to abnormal transverse relationship between upper and lower arches. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. SKELETAL MALOCCLUSION  These malocclusion are caused due to the defect in the underlying skeletal structure itself. The defect can be in size, position or relationship between the jaw bones. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. OCCLUSAL RELATIONSHIP OF POSTERIOR TEETH  In 1899, Edward Angle classified malocclusion based on the mesial-distal relation of the teeth, dental arches and jaws. He considered the maxillary first permanent molar as a fixed anatomical point in the jaws and the key to occlusion.  Angle’s classified malocclusion into three broad categories. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. CLASS-I MALOCCLUSION  1.The mesiobuccal cusp of the mandibular first molar occludes in the embrasure area between the maxillary second premolar and first molar.  2.The mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar is aligned directly over the buccal groove of the mandibular first molar.  3.The ML cusp of the maxillary first molar is situated in the central fossa area of mandibular first molar. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28.  In this relationship each mandibular tooth occludes with its counterpart and the adjacent mesial tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. CLASS-II MALOCCLUSION  1.The mesiobuccal cusp of the mandibular first molar occludes in the central fossa area of the maxillary first molar.  2.The mesiobuccal cusp of the mandibular first molar is aligned with the buccal groove of the maxillary first molar.  3.The DL cusp of the maxillary first molar occludes in the central fossa area of the mandibular first molar. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30.  When compared with class-I, each occlusal contact pair is situated to the distal approximately the MD width of premolar. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. CLASS II-DIVISON I  Along with the molar relation as seen in typical class II malocclusion the maxillary incisor teeth in are in labio-version. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. CLASS II DIVISON 2  Along with typical class II molar relationship, the maxillary incisor are near normal anteroposteriorly or slightly in linguoversion where as the maxillary lateral incisor are tipped labially. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. CLASS II-SUBDIVISION  When the class II molar relationship occurs on one side of the dental arch only, the malocclusion is referred to as a subdivision of its division. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. CLASS-III MALOCCLUSION  The distobuccal cusp of the mandibular first molar is situated in the embrasure between the maxillary second premolar and first molar.  The MB cusp of the maxillary first molar is situated over the embrasure between the mandibular first and second molar. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35.  The ML cusp of the maxillary first molar is situated in the mesial pit of the mandibular second molar. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. PSEUDO CLASS III MALOCCLUSION  This is not a true class III malocclusion but the presentation is similar. Here the mandible shifts anteriorly in the glenoid fossa due to a premature contact of the teeth or some other reason when jaws are brought together in centric occlusion. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. DRAWBACK OF ANGLES CLASSIFICATION  Angle presumed the first molars as fixed points within the jaws, which definitely is not so.  The classification is not possible , if the first molars are missing.  Classification is not applicable in deciduous dentition.  Individual tooth malocclusion are not considered. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38.  Malocclusion are considered only in the anteroposterior plane.  There is no differentiation between skeletal and dental malocclusion.  Etiology of the malocclusions has not been elaborated upon. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. INCISOR CLASSIFICATION  It was adopted by the British standards’ institute in 1983 and is based upon the relationship of the lower incisor edges and the cingulum plateau of the maxillary central incisors. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. VARIATIONS IN ANTERIOR TOOTH RELATIONSHIP www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. VARIATIONS IN ANTERIOR TOOTH RELATIONSHIPS. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. CANINE RELATIONSHIP  CLASS I RELATION: Mesial incline of the upper canine overlaps the distal incline of the lower canine.  CLASS II RELATION: In this canine relationship upper canine is placed forward , i.e. distal incline of upper canine contacts the mesial incline of lower canine. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43.  CLASS III RELATION: The lower canine is placed forward to the upper canine and there is no overlapping. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

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