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KIDNEY LOCATION /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit ,or call

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
  • This is to inform the general public Male or Female who are healthy and %100 serious in selling their kidney should urgently contact APOLLO HOSPITAL. As we have a lot of patients who are here for kidney transplant, Are you seeking for an opportunity to sell your kidney for money due to financial break down and we shall offer you $110,000USD for your Kidney. My name is Doctor Smith , i am a Nephrologist in India Surgical Hospital. Our hospital is specialized in Kidney Surgery/transplant and other organ treatment, we also deal with buying and transplantation of kidneys with a living and healthy donor. We are located in India. If you are interested in selling your kidney please don’t hesitate to contact us via Email: Tel no: +919870254345 Please Note: Internet there are a lot of people with different motive, So Please be sincere and truthful we are not kid, this is about saving lives of others. Fraudulent is not accepted please. Best Regards DR Smith Rediib
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KIDNEY LOCATION /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Kidney Location:
  2. 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education
  3. 3. “What is man but an ingenious machine designed to turn with ‘infinite artfulness’, the red wine of shiraz into urine” …! Isak Denison
  4. 4. Kidney damage is the major cause of Morbidity and Mortality in patients with Diabetes, Hypertension, Atherosclerosis etc. (no 1 cause of death in the present time)
  5. 5. Introduction:  150gm each  1700 liters of blood filtered  180 L of Gfiltrate  1.5 l of urine / day.  150gm, retro-peritoneal organ  Renal Artery & Vein  One half of kidney is sufficient – reserve  Filtration, Excretion, Secretion, Hormone synthesis.
  6. 6. Kidney Anatomy:
  7. 7. Nephron Structure:
  8. 8. Kidney Histology:
  9. 9. Kidney Histology:
  10. 10. Diseases of Kidney: Glomerulonephritis Glomerular diseases Destruction of glomeruli by immune or infections. Acute tubular necrosis Tubular diseases Necrosis of tubules by toxins or infections. Pyelonephritis Interstitial disease Infections Nephrosclerosis Vascular diseases –– thickening of blood vessels Hypertension leading to infarctions.
  11. 11. Clinical Syndromes: Nephritic syndrome. – Oliguria, Haematuria, Proteinuria, Oedema. Nephrotic syndrome. – Gross proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, Acute renal failure – Oliguria, loss of Kidney function - within weeks Chronic renal failure. – Over months and years - Uremia
  12. 12. Immune Glomerulonephritis: C.Immune Complex ANTI-GBM HEYMANN
  13. 13. Glomerulonephritis:    1. 2. 3. 4. Immune mechanisms – Most common Toxins - poisoning Metabolic – acidosis, hemolysis, etc. Activation of complement system destruction of glomerular structure Inflammation Affect renal function – excess filtration or decreased filtration. (with RBC & WBC)
  14. 14. •Normal •Proliferative •Post strepto
  15. 15. Mesangiocapillary GN: (MPGN)
  16. 16. Chronic Glomerulonephritis:
  17. 17. Urolithiasis:
  18. 18. Urolithiasis:
  19. 19. Urolithiasis Hydronephrosis:
  20. 20. Urine Microscopy :  Cells Casts Crystals. Crystals  Casts are formed within nephron.  Casts Suggest Kidney pathology.  Casts can be made up of Protein, lipid, cells or mixed.  Crystals suggest high concentration or altered solubility.
  21. 21. Formation of Casts:
  22. 22. Granular Cast:
  23. 23. RBC Casts:
  24. 24. Epithelial Casts in Urine:
  25. 25. Granular Casts in Urine:
  26. 26. WBC Cast Urine:
  27. 27. RBC in Urine :
  28. 28. WBC in Urine :
  29. 29. Urine Oxalate Crystals:
  30. 30. Mixed Cast Urine:
  31. 31. Leader in continuing dental education