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Articulators jaya /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


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Articulators jaya /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Articulators INDIAN ACADEMY DENTAL Leader in continuing dental education
  2. 2. Contents Introduction  History  Classification  Requirements  Uses  Advantages  Selection of instruments  Arcon Vs Non-arcon 
  3. 3. Modified incisal guide pins  Articulators in market  Care and maintance  Conclusion  References 
  4. 4. Articulating anything is like carving a statue. While sculpting, sculptor does not add clay, actually he keeps chiseling the un-essential material until the truth is revealed.  Likewise though articulator is an important mechanical entity, in itself it is of no meaning unless occlusion obtained from it functions in the mouth in harmony with biologic factors that regulate the mandibular activity of the patient 
  5. 5. Introduction  Definition: A mechanical instrument that represents the temporomandibular joint and jaws, to which maxillary and mandibular casts may be attached to simulate some or all mandibular movement.(GPT-8)
  6. 6. History
  7. 7. Plaster ArticulatorPhilip Pfaff (1756) A plaster extension on distal portion of mandibular cast was grooved to serve as a guide for plaster extension of maxillary cast.
  8. 8. Barn door hinge articulator. J.B Gariot (1805) Also called as “plain-line articulator”. No provision for anterior vertical stop.  Adaptable Barn door hinge articulator It has an anterior vertical stop.
  9. 9. Daniel T. Evens articulator(1840) Synonym “Dentist’s Guide Features: Provision for protrusive and lateral movements. Also had vertical stop feature . Limitations: Inconvenient and difficult to use.
  10. 10. Bonwill articulator ( 1858) Features: Allows lateral movement,(eccentric movements) and permits movement only in the horizontal plane.
  11. 11. Richmond Hayes Articulator(1889) Features : Has a fixed descending condylar path and has non adjustable condylar elements.
  12. 12. Grittman Articulator(1899) Features : This has a Descending condylar paths of 15 degrees. Permits eccentric motion based on average values. The condylar paths also include a slight Balkwill bennet angle to represent the average oblique descent of the condyle.
  13. 13. Gysi –Articulator(1812) Features:  It is an “average value” instrument.  Condylar paths 33 degrees  Lateral paths 16 degrees  First type to have an incisal pin and guide assembly
  14. 14. Gysi Trubyte Articulator (1930) Features : Simple plain-line and average articulator . An adjustable instrument adaptable to either extra oral or Intraoral records. Changeable inclined plane for the incisal rod. Provision for recording lateral movements
  15. 15. Christensen’s articulator(1905) Features: To measure the angle of the condylar paths (by protrusive records) . Christensen’s procedure is likely the origin of the intraoral (checkbite) method for recording mandibular movement.
  16. 16. The term Christensen’s phenomenon coined by Ulf Posselt  It had been previously described by Balkwill in 1866 
  17. 17. Luce articulator(1911) Features: Provision for recording eccentric motion based on engraving. It has posterior and incisal path controls that were functionally generated in modeling plastic.
  18. 18. Mandibulo-Maxillary Instrument (1923) By George Monson. Based on spherical theory of occlusion. Have slot screws that can vary the instrument radius.
  19. 19. Stansbery Tripod Articulator(1929) Designed without a hinge to facilitate the reproduction of any positional set relationship. No representation of the condyles. Provided with a lathe attachment for “milling in” the occlusion of the completed dentures.
  20. 20. House Articulator (1930) Features: Permit eccentric motion based on engraved records. Accepts records by means of Needle House method . Also employs a milling device in the upper member for occlusal adjustment.
  21. 21. Page’s Transograph (1952) Split axis instrument . Allows each condylar housing to function independently of the other
  22. 22. Hanau Model M kinescope (1923) It has double condylar posts.The inner posts serve 2 purposes They act as horizontal condylar guides. They are variable rotation centers when the posts are moved inward or outward.
  23. 23. Hanau Model H110 (1926) Accepts face bow transfer. Horizontal condylar inclinations are set by means of a protrusive interocclusal records Lateral settings calculated by L=H/8+12
  24. 24. Hanau Model H110 Modified(1927) Similar to H110 except that it had an incisal guide table instead of incisal guide cap. Adjustments in 3 dimensions through a considerable range
  25. 25. Hanau Crown and Bridge articulator(1934) Small articulator requires no face bow. Has a posterior pin and guidance mechanism to simulate working and balancing side excursions of 15 degrees. Its fixed protrusive movement is 30 degrees.
  26. 26. Hanau Model H2 Series(1958) There was an increased distance between upper and lower members from 95mm to 110 mm. Accepts face bow transfer. Horizontal condylar inclinations are simulated by means of a protrusive interocclusal record.
  27. 27. Hanau H2 Series •Hanau model H2-O with orbital indicator attachment. •Model H2-X with extendable condylar shafts. •Model H2 PR with calibrated adjustments to protrude or retrude the condyles up to 3mm •Model H2 XPR is a combination of the above models.
  28. 28. Hanau Radial Shift (1981)  Condylar guidance of the articulator is designed to incorporate a curved immediate side shift (radial shift) with an adjustable progressive Bennett angle.
  29. 29. Hanau Wide Vue(1983) Lingual visibility is unobstructed Dual End Incisal Pin Wide Vue 2Open condylar track.
  30. 30. TMJ ARTICULATORS -Kenneth Swanson (1965) This is now a versatile system. It accepts custom fossa analogs that are formed from intra oral stereographic tracing. Intercondylar distance is limited from 110mm to 150mm. It has all conversion feature of deluxe model articulator
  31. 31. Classification of Articulators        Based on Theories of Occlusion Gillis (1926), Boucher (1934), Kingery (1934) Beck’s (1962) Weinberg (1963) Posselt's (1968) Thomas (1973) Sherry (1974)
  32. 32.   International prosthodontic workshop on complete denture occlusion (1972) Heartwell and Rahn classification
  33. 33. Classification based on THEORIES of OCCLUSION  Bonwill’s theory of occlusion  Conical theory of occlusion (R.E.Hall )  Spherical theory of occlusion (G.S.Monson 1918 )
  34. 34. BONWILL’S THEORY OF OCCLUSION   Bonwill introduced (1864) -“Theory of Equilateral Triangle” 4" (10 cm ) distance occurs between the condyle and between each condyle & the incisal point.
  35. 35. CONICAL THEORY OF OCCLUSION   R.E.HALL (1915) proposed that Lower teeth move over the surface of the upper teeth as over the surface of a cone, generating an angle of 45° with the cone central axis of the cone tipped at 45 angle to the occlusal plane.
  36. 36.
  37. 37. SPHERICAL THEORY OF OCCLUSION (Monson 1918) Monson proposed that  Lower teeth moves over the surface of the upper teeth as over the surface of a sphere with a diameter of 8 " (20 cm). 
  38. 38. • The center of the sphere is located in the region of Glabella and the surfaces of the sphere passes through the Glenoid fossa along the articulating eminences.
  39. 39. Gillis (1926), Boucher (1934), Kingery (1934) ADJUSTABLE  NON ADJUSTABLE 
  40. 40. BECK’S (1962) : Suspension instrument  Axis instrument  Tripod instrument 
  41. 41. WEINBERG (1963) ARBITRARY (Monson spherical theory)  POSITIONAL (Stansbery tripod concept)  SEMI ADJUSTABLE (Hanau H concept)  FULLY ADJUSTABLE (Hanau Kinoscope concept, Gysi Trubyte concept and McCollum concept) 
  42. 42. POSSELT’S (1968) Plain line Articulator  Mean value Articulator  Adjustable Articulator 
  43. 43. International workshop on Complete Denture Occlusion (1972) Based on  Instruments function,  Instrument capability,  Intent  Registration procedure  Registration acceptance.
  44. 44. Class I.  Subdivision A  Subdivision B Class II.  Subdivision A  Subdivision B  Subdivision C Class III.  Subdivision A  Subdivision B Class IV.  Subdivision A  Subdivision B
  45. 45. Subdivision A:  Vertical motion is possible, but only for convenience.  The Verticulator (Jelenko) The Corelator (Denar Corp.)
  46. 46. Subdivision B:  Vertical motion is joint related.  The Centric relator (Denar Corp)
  47. 47. CLASS II. ARTICULATOR  An instrument that PERMITS Horizontal as well as Vertical motion but does not orient the motion to the temporomandibular joints. 
  48. 48. Subdivision A:  Eccentric motion permitted is based on average or arbitrary values  NO FACE-BOW TRANSFER.  Gysi Simplex Articulator
  49. 49. Subdivision B:  Eccentric motion permitted is based on theories of arbitrary motion.  No Face-Bow Transfer.  Shofu Handy II Articulator
  50. 50.    Subdivision C: Eccentric motion permitted is determined by the patient using engraving methods/records. No face bow transfer The Gnathic Relator
  51. 51. CLASS III. ARTICULATOR  Simulate condylar pathways using averages or mechanical equivalents for all or part of the motion.  Orientation of cast relative to joints  Arcon or Nonarcon instruments  Accept facebows  Mounting plates for unlimited case load. 
  52. 52.   Subdivision A: Accept STATIC PROTRUSIVE Registrations and use equivalents for the rest of the motion. Dentatus articulator
  53. 53.   Subdivision B: Accepts STATIC LATERAL PROTRUSIVE registrations and use equivalents for the rest of the motion. Panadent Model P Articulator
  54. 54. Gysi Trubyte articulator, Hanau 130-21 The Ney Articulator
  55. 55.
  56. 56.  CLASS IV. ARTICULATOR Accept three dimensional dynamic registrations.  Orientation of the casts to the temporomandibular joints and replication of ALL MANDIBULAR MOVEMENTS. 
  57. 57.   Subdivision A: The cam representing the condylar paths are formed by registration engraved by the patient. TMJ-Stereographic instrument
  58. 58.
  59. 59. Stereograph (TMJ articulator)
  60. 60. Denar Combi articulator
  61. 61. Subdivision B:  Have condylar paths that can be ANGLED and CUSTOMIZED either by selection from a variety of curvatures, by modification, or both.  These articulators are the instruments of choice for complete reconstructions and as teaching aids for advanced occlusal studies. 
  62. 62. Denar D5A Articulator Stuart Articulator
  63. 63. Stuart Pantograph Denar Pantograph
  64. 64.
  65. 65. Cyberhoby fully adjustable articulator and Cyberhoby computer pantograph
  66. 66. Requirements It should Hold casts in correct horizontal and vertical relationships. Provide a positive anterior vertical stop (incisal pin) Accept a facebow transfer record utilising anterior reference point. Open and close in hinge movement. Allow lateral and protrusive jaw motion. 
  67. 67. Additional requirements Centric locking device  Removable mounting plates that can be positioned accurately.  Adjustable incisal guide table.  Adjustable inter condylar width of the condylar elements. 
  68. 68. Uses     To diagnose dental occlusal conditions in both natural and artificial conditions. To plan dental procedures that involve positions,contuors,and relationships of both natural and artificial teeth as they relate to each other.. To correct and modify completed restorations. Can be helpful in teaching and studying of occlusion and mandibular movements.
  69. 69. Advantages      Better visualization (lingual view).. Patient cooperation not critical once the appropriate inter occlusal record is obtained. Refinement of complete denture occlusion is much easier using an articulator than in patient’s mouth. Saves time. Patients tongue, saliva, cheeks are not factors.
  70. 70. Advantages of adjustable articulators Balanced occlusion: In any closed mandibular position,centric or eccentric maxium number of teeth is in contact and therefore the occlusal load is distributed over the supporting tissues. Stability: Because of maximum number of teeth in contact and elimination of cuspal interference,little tendency of the dentures to be dragged across the mucosa 
  71. 71. Contd Reduced trauma: Minimum amount of damage to the supporting tissue. Functional movements Balanced articulation allows for normal mandibular movement, than teeth set for static occlusion which requires a new pattern of muscle controlled movements to be learnt. 
  72. 72. Limitations The articulator is subject to error in tolling and errors resulting from metal fatigue.  The movements simulated are empty mouth sliding motions and not functional movements.  It is unlikely for any articulator to duplicate condylar movements in the TMJ. 
  73. 73. Selection of an articulator for complete dentures    If occlusal contacts are to be perfected in centric relation only ,then a simple hinge articulator can be selected If denture teeth are to have cross arch and cross tooth balanced occlusion then minimum requirement is semi adjustable articulator. If complete control of occlusion is desired,a completely adjustable articulator is selected.
  74. 74. contd   These complicated articulators pose problems in fabricating complete dentures because of the resiliency of soft tissues of basal seat on which the recording bases must rest. As the resiliency permits some movements of the bases in relation to the bone, the records made are not necessarily of the true path.
  75. 75. Parts of an Articulator The movement of the frame of the articulator is governed at three points. Posteriorly by the two condylar guidances and anteriorly by the incisal post
  76. 76. Condylar guidance It is the mechanical form located in the upper posterior region that controls movement of its mobile.  Condylar guidance inclination  The angle formedby the inclination of a condylar guide control surface of an articulator with the horizontal. (GPT-8) 
  77. 77. Importance      Condylar path is determined by the distal slope of the articular eminence. This path dis engages the teeth in the excursions of the mandible. The cusps should travel past each other with out interfering with the excursions,yet they should be close enough to masticate food efficiently. The angle of the path determines the cuspal angle from the tip of a cusp to the fossa. The curvature determines the topography of cusp between of the fossa. and the base
  78. 78. negative condylar guidance When the inclination of central bearing plate is greater than the axis path inclination a negative angle will be registered.  In such cases , compesatory curves may almost be flat or reversed. 
  79. 79. Incisal guidance Anatomically The influence of the contacting surfaces of the mandibular and maxillary anterior teeth on mandibular movements.  On the articulator The influence of the contacting surfaces of the guide pin and guide table on articulator movements. 
  80. 80. Incisal guide angle Anatomically The angle formed by the intersection of the plane of occlusion and a line within the sagittal plane determined by the incisal edges of the maxillary and mandibular central incisors when the teeth are in maximum intercuspation.  On the articulator That angle formed in the sagittal plane,between the plane of reference and the slope of anterior guide table,as viewed in the sagittal plane. 
  81. 81. Importance    Angle of the incisal guidance table will markedly affect the cusp angles,cusp height,overbite and overjet. Steeper the slope of the incisal guide table,the higher and steeper will need to be the cusps of premolar and molar teeth. This high steep cusps are liable to instability of dentures in mouth because limitations in the accuracy of simulating the patient in the laboratory.
  82. 82. Importance contd  Make vertical overlap as lessas possible.this is particularly true when the mandible is atrophic and almost without any alveolar ridge.
  83. 83. Thank you For more details please visit