Articulators/ cosmetic dentistry training

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Indian Dental Academy: will be one of the most relevant and exciting

training center with best faculty and flexible training programs

for dental professionals who wish to advance in their dental

practice,Offers certified courses in Dental

implants,Orthodontics,Endodontics,Cosmetic Dentistry, Prosthetic

Dentistry, Periodontics and General Dentistry.

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Articulators/ cosmetic dentistry training

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. Evolution & Development of Articulators www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. Introduction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Definition: A mechanical instrument that represents the temporomandibular joint and jaws, to which maxillary and mandibular casts may be attached to simulate some or all mandibular movement. (GPT-7) ARTICULATOR www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. H I s t o r y www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. . The Plaster Articulator The plaster articulator devised by Philip Pfaff in 1756 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. The origin of mechanical hinge articulator -1805 J B Gariot The first mechanical articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. The Howarth Articulator 1830s. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. The barn door hinge articulator (Plane line articulator) Vertical stop at anterior end introduced www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. James Cameron’s articulator 1840 Evans’ articulator 1840 The first US patented articulators www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Daniel T Evens’ articulator 1840 First to imitate mandibular movements – but not successful www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Fixed condylar guide articulators (1858) Bonwill’s Starr’s Ante-lewiswww.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. 50 years later……….. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Richmond Hayes 1889 Fixed descending condylar path - incorporated www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. History to be continued………..www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. MANDIBULAR MOVEMENTS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Frontal plane Horizontal plane Sagittal plane www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Intra border functional movements www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Condylar Guidance 1. Mandibular guidance generated by the condyle and articular disc traversing the contour of the glenoid fossa 2. The mechanical form located in the upper posterior region of an articulator that controls the movements of its mobile members. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Bennet movement Bodily shift of the mandible toward the working side during lateral excursion Immediate / Early side shift Progressive side shift www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. Gritmans articulator 1889 George B snow-15 degrees condylar guidance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Early development of face-bow-1889 Articulating caliper Jaw gage-1894 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Traditional face- bow 1899 George B snow-Face-bow & orientation of occlusal plane www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. Wadsworth articulator and face-bow 1921 Third point of reference-Naso-optic-condylar triangle www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Later-infra orbital pointer - Hanau www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Francis H Balkwil 1886 Angle formed between the plane of two lines drawn from the articulating surfaces of the condyles to the occlusal plane- estimated to be 26 degreeswww.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. But a puzzle was still to be answered ? Why are the condylar guides fixed? www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. First adjustable condylar guide articulators William earnest walker-Physiological articulators Walkers Facial clinometerwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Recording the condylar guidance Christensens interocclusal wax record www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Next innovation………..www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Incisal Pin & Guide Feature Luce articulator 1911 Eltner articulator 1912 Anterior guidance concept introducedwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Anterior guidance 1. The influence of the contacting surfaces of anterior teeth on tooth limiting mandibular movements 2.The fabrication of the relationship of the anterior teeth limiting mandibular movements www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Condylar guidance Incisal guidance Compensatory curve Orientation of occlusal plane Thielmans Formula CG . IG CI . CC . OP Functional movements Cuspal inclination www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Gysi series of articulators Snow acme articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. Articulators based on Geometric theories of Mandibular movements Monson’s spherical theory Hall’s conical theory Bonwill’s Equilateral theory www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Bonwill’s Equilateral theory www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. Monson’s spherical theory www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. Hall’s conical theory Alligator Hall articulatorwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. Classificatio n l a s s I f I c a t I o n www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. Adaptable or Adjustable Average or Fixed type Two dimensional instrument Three dimensional instrument i. Suspension instrument ii. Axis instrument and iii. Tripod instrument GILLIS(1926) BOUCHER (1934) BECK’S (1962) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. i. Arbitrary ii. Positional iii. Semi adjustable iv. Fully adjustable 1. Plain line 2. Mean value 3. Adjustable WEINBERG (1963) POSSELT’S (1968) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. Functional Axis type Non axis type Static type Functional type Axis type Non axis type C.J. THOMAS (1973) Arbitrary Positional www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. 1. Simple hinge type 2. Fixed guide type, 3. Adjustable instruments JOHN J. SHARRY (1974) HALPERIN et al i. Simple or Hinge articulators ii. Fully adjustable articulators iii. Semi adjustable articulators Arcon Non-arcon www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. Rectilinear Curvilinear (1)the theories of occlusion (2) the types of records used for their adjustment. a) Those utilizing the Inter occlusal records. b) Those using the Graphic record adjustment. c) Those utilizing hinge-axis location for adjusting the articulator. HALPERIN BOUCHER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. CHARLES M. HEARTWELL Jr Class II Type 1 (Hinge) Type 2 (Arbitrary) Types 3 (Average) Type 4 (Special) Class I www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Class I. Subdivision A Subdivision B Class II. Subdivision A Subdivision B Subdivision C Class III. Subdivision A Subdivision B Class IV. Subdivision A Subdivision B International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. A Simple holding instrument capable of accepting a single static registration. Subdivision A: Vertical motion is possible, but only for convenience. The Corelator (Denar Corp.) The Verticulator (Jelenko) Class I. Articulator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Subdivision B: Vertical motion is joint related. The Centric relator (Denar Corp) This instrument rotates on the terminal arc registered by a face-bow that ensures a positive centric . International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972) Class I. Articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. Subdivision A: Eccentric motion permitted is based on average or arbitrary values Gysi Simplex Articulator An instrument that permits horizontal as well as vertical motion but does not orient the motion to the temporomandibular joints. Class II. Articulator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. Subdivision B: Eccentric motion permitted is based on theories of arbitrary motion. The Monson Maxillo- mandibular articulatorShofu Handy II Articulator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972) Class II. Articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Subdivision C: Eccentric motion permitted is determined by the patient using engraving methods. The Gnathic Relator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972) Class II. Articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Instruments that simulate condylar pathways by using averages or mechanical equivalents for all or part of the motion. These instruments allow for orientation of the cast relative to the joints and may be arcon or nonarcon instruments, accept facebows, and have mounting plates for unlimited case load. Subdivision A: Instruments that accept static protrusive registrations and use equivalents for the rest of the motion. Hanau Nonarcon H2 Class III. Articulator Dentatus articulator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. Subdivision B: Instruments that accept static lateral protrusive registrations and use equivalents for the rest of the motion. Gysi trubyte Denar Mark II Articulator Hanau-TeledynePanadent Model P ArticulatorWhipmix Articulator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972) Class III. Articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. Subdivision A: The cam representing the condylar paths are formed by registration engraved by the patient. Class IV. Articulator Instruments that will accept three dimensional dynamic registrations. These instruments allow for orientation of the casts to the temporomandibular joints and replication of all mandibular movements. TMJ-Stereographic instrumentDenar Combi articulator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. Class IV. Articulator Subdivision B: Instruments that have condylar paths that can be angled and customized either by selection from a variety of curvatures, by modification, or both. Stuart ArticulatorDenar D5A Articulator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. Can accept one or two of the following records: 1. Face bow 2. Centric jaw relation record 3. Protrusive record. Can accept all the following three records. 1. Face bow 2. Centric jaw relation record 3. Protrusive record. Can accept all the following five records. 1. Face bow 2. Centric jaw relation record 3. Protrusive record. 4. Lateral records 5. Intercondylar distance record Rihani A: classification of articulators, J Prosthet Dent 1980;43:344-347 Fully adjustable Semiadjustable Nonadjustable RIHANI 1980 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. BASIC REQUIREMENTS, USES, LIMITATIONS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. Basic Requirements Hold casts in correct horizontal and vertical position Positive anterior stopAccept face bow transfer Open and close in hinge movement And Allow for protusive &lateral motion Moving parts should move freely & be accurately machined Non moving parts should be of rigid construction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. Adjustable horizontal and lateral condylar guide elements Conylar element - lower frame Condylar guide - upper frame Accept third point of referenceTerminal hinge position locking deviceRemovable mounting platesAdjustable incisal guide tableAdjustable intercondylar width – graphic tracings Additional Requirements www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. 1. Diagnosis, treatment planning and patient presentation in both the natural and artificial dentitions. 2. To plan dental procedures 3. To aid in the fabrication of dental restorations and lost dental parts. 4. To correct and modify completed restorations. 5. Teaching and studying of occlusion and mandibular movements. USES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. LIMITATIONS Subject to error in tooling and to error resulting from metal fatigue and wear. Does not completely duplicate the condylar movements in the temporomandibular joints. Movements simulated are empty-mouth sliding motions, not functional movements. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. M uth is the best articulatorwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. ….....then why not use i  Patient’s saliva, tongue, and cheeks  Shifting denture bases  Resiliency of the supporting tissues  Inability of humans to detect visually subtle changes in motion  The inability to know exact location of the condyles,  More chair time www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. Selecting an articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. NON ADJUSTABLE ARTICULATORS For complete dentures For fixed prosthodonticswww.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. SEMI ADJUSTABLE ARTICULATORS For complete dentures For fixed prosthodontics KAVO WHIPMIX HANAU www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. Arcon v/s Non arcon Derived from Articulator & Condyle Beck 1956,Weinberg 1963 : No difference Survey 1985 : Out of 81 ,67 were arcon www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. Rectilinear or Curvilinear Sagittal condylar path-Convex S-shaped curvature Aull 1965 : 8%-Straight line 92%-Curved path Diameter:10mm in 34% Population Curvature noticeable appeared when 5-10mm trcings were drawn Within 2-3mm from centric codylar path is almost a straight line Advantage of a straight line pathway www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. FULLY ADJUSTABLE ARTICULATORS For complete dentures For fixed prosthodontics The Denar D5A Articulator Cyberhoby Articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. Denar articulators Dr.Niles Guichet 1968 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. Pantographic tracing www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. STEREOGRAPHS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. Stereograph (TMJ articulator) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. Stereograph (TMJ articulator) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. Fully adjustable….Do we really need it ? • According to dawson  Bilaterally balanced occlusion is traumatogenic  Condylar guidance does not dictate anterior guidance  Tripod contact no more stable than cusp tip to fossa contact  Posterior disclusion by anterior guidance most desirable  Immediate side shift cannot occur from centric  Not necessary to reproduce fisher’s anglewww.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. Articulators for Functionally generated path Verticulator Twin-Stage occluderwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. Mean Value Articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. Whipmix Articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. Whipmix Articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. Kavo Articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. Kavo Articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. Hanau H2 Series www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. Hanau H2 Series www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. Hanau Modular Series www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. Programming Hanau articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. Face Bow Record & Transferring it to Articulator www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. Obtaining Protrusive Record for adjusting HORIZONTAL CONDYLAR GUIDANCE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. Hanau Bennett angle formula L = H/8 + 12 How far is it valid ? Even with large variation in condylar guidance Bennet angle changes to a small degree  Gradations with 5mm difference  But yet it is popularly followed www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. Adjusting LATERAL CONDYLAR GUIDANCE ( Bennet angle ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. Adjusting ANTERIOR GUIDANCE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. Custom Anterior guidance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. Occlusal Analysis with Broderick's Analyzer www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. For Complete Dentures Gothic arch tracing www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. Carl O Boucher, “It must be recognized that the person operating the instrument is more important than the instrument. If dentists understand articulators and their deficiencies, they can compensate for their inherent inadequacies”. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. 1. Academy of Denture Prosthetics : Glossary of Prosthodontic terms. J Prosthet dent 1977; 38 : 66 – 109. 2. Academy of Denture Prosthetics : Glossary of Prosthodontic terms. J Prosthet dent 1994 ; 71 : 41–60. 3. Ash and Ramford “Occlusion” 4. Beck Ho, Morrison We : Investigation of an Arcon Articulator, J Prosthet dent 1956 ; 6 : 359 – 372. 5. Becker CM, Kaiser DA: Evolution of occlusion and occlusal instruments, J Prosthodont 2:33-43, 1993. References16.Morneburg TR, Proschel PA: Predicted incidence of occlusal errors in centric closing around arbitrary axes, Int J Prosthodont 15:358-364, 2002. 17.Noel D. Wilkie, Donald L. Mitchell : Articulators through the years. Part – I. J Prosthet dent 1978 ; 39 :140-141. 18.Noel D.W., Donald L. Mitchell: Articulators through the years. Part – II J Prosthet dent 1978 ; 39 :168-181. 19.Rihami A. “Classification of Articulators”. J.Prosthet Dent 1980 ; 43:344-47. Prosthodontics, 2nd edition, U.S.A. JEA, 1996, p 142-182. 29.Winstanley R.B:Hinge – axis: a review of literature 1985;12:135-159 30. J Prosthodont 2000 (9) ;1 : 51 31. J Prosthodont 2000 (9) ;2 : 110 32. J Prosthodont 2000 (9) ;3 : 161 33. J Prosthodont 2000 (9) ;4: 217 34. J Prosthodont 2001 (10) ;1 : 52 35. J Prosthodont 2001 (10) ; 2 : 115www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. Watch your thoughts; they become words Watch your words; they become actions Watch your actions; they become habits Watch your habits; they become character Watch your character; it becomes your destiny Frank Outlawwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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