Articulators/ cosmetic dentistry training


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Indian Dental Academy: will be one of the most relevant and exciting

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implants,Orthodontics,Endodontics,Cosmetic Dentistry, Prosthetic

Dentistry, Periodontics and General Dentistry.

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Articulators/ cosmetic dentistry training

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education
  2. 2. Evolution & Development of Articulators
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Definition: A mechanical instrument that represents the temporomandibular joint and jaws, to which maxillary and mandibular casts may be attached to simulate some or all mandibular movement. (GPT-7) ARTICULATOR
  5. 5. H I s t o r y
  6. 6. . The Plaster Articulator The plaster articulator devised by Philip Pfaff in 1756
  7. 7. The origin of mechanical hinge articulator -1805 J B Gariot The first mechanical articulator
  8. 8. The Howarth Articulator 1830s.
  9. 9. The barn door hinge articulator (Plane line articulator) Vertical stop at anterior end introduced
  10. 10. James Cameron’s articulator 1840 Evans’ articulator 1840 The first US patented articulators
  11. 11. Daniel T Evens’ articulator 1840 First to imitate mandibular movements – but not successful
  12. 12. Fixed condylar guide articulators (1858) Bonwill’s Starr’s
  13. 13. 50 years later………..
  14. 14. Richmond Hayes 1889 Fixed descending condylar path - incorporated
  15. 15. History to be continued………
  17. 17. Frontal plane Horizontal plane Sagittal plane
  18. 18. Intra border functional movements
  19. 19. Condylar Guidance 1. Mandibular guidance generated by the condyle and articular disc traversing the contour of the glenoid fossa 2. The mechanical form located in the upper posterior region of an articulator that controls the movements of its mobile members.
  20. 20. Bennet movement Bodily shift of the mandible toward the working side during lateral excursion Immediate / Early side shift Progressive side shift
  21. 21. Gritmans articulator 1889 George B snow-15 degrees condylar guidance
  22. 22. Early development of face-bow-1889 Articulating caliper Jaw gage-1894
  23. 23. Traditional face- bow 1899 George B snow-Face-bow & orientation of occlusal plane
  24. 24. Wadsworth articulator and face-bow 1921 Third point of reference-Naso-optic-condylar triangle
  25. 25. Later-infra orbital pointer - Hanau
  26. 26. Francis H Balkwil 1886 Angle formed between the plane of two lines drawn from the articulating surfaces of the condyles to the occlusal plane- estimated to be 26
  27. 27. But a puzzle was still to be answered ? Why are the condylar guides fixed?
  28. 28. First adjustable condylar guide articulators William earnest walker-Physiological articulators Walkers Facial
  29. 29. Recording the condylar guidance Christensens interocclusal wax record
  30. 30. Next innovation………
  31. 31. Incisal Pin & Guide Feature Luce articulator 1911 Eltner articulator 1912 Anterior guidance concept
  32. 32. Anterior guidance 1. The influence of the contacting surfaces of anterior teeth on tooth limiting mandibular movements 2.The fabrication of the relationship of the anterior teeth limiting mandibular movements
  33. 33. Condylar guidance Incisal guidance Compensatory curve Orientation of occlusal plane Thielmans Formula CG . IG CI . CC . OP Functional movements Cuspal inclination
  34. 34. Gysi series of articulators Snow acme articulator
  35. 35. Articulators based on Geometric theories of Mandibular movements Monson’s spherical theory Hall’s conical theory Bonwill’s Equilateral theory
  36. 36. Bonwill’s Equilateral theory
  37. 37. Monson’s spherical theory
  38. 38. Hall’s conical theory Alligator Hall
  39. 39. Classificatio n l a s s I f I c a t I o n
  40. 40. Adaptable or Adjustable Average or Fixed type Two dimensional instrument Three dimensional instrument i. Suspension instrument ii. Axis instrument and iii. Tripod instrument GILLIS(1926) BOUCHER (1934) BECK’S (1962)
  41. 41. i. Arbitrary ii. Positional iii. Semi adjustable iv. Fully adjustable 1. Plain line 2. Mean value 3. Adjustable WEINBERG (1963) POSSELT’S (1968)
  42. 42. Functional Axis type Non axis type Static type Functional type Axis type Non axis type C.J. THOMAS (1973) Arbitrary Positional
  43. 43. 1. Simple hinge type 2. Fixed guide type, 3. Adjustable instruments JOHN J. SHARRY (1974) HALPERIN et al i. Simple or Hinge articulators ii. Fully adjustable articulators iii. Semi adjustable articulators Arcon Non-arcon
  44. 44. Rectilinear Curvilinear (1)the theories of occlusion (2) the types of records used for their adjustment. a) Those utilizing the Inter occlusal records. b) Those using the Graphic record adjustment. c) Those utilizing hinge-axis location for adjusting the articulator. HALPERIN BOUCHER
  45. 45. CHARLES M. HEARTWELL Jr Class II Type 1 (Hinge) Type 2 (Arbitrary) Types 3 (Average) Type 4 (Special) Class I
  46. 46. Class I. Subdivision A Subdivision B Class II. Subdivision A Subdivision B Subdivision C Class III. Subdivision A Subdivision B Class IV. Subdivision A Subdivision B International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972)
  47. 47. A Simple holding instrument capable of accepting a single static registration. Subdivision A: Vertical motion is possible, but only for convenience. The Corelator (Denar Corp.) The Verticulator (Jelenko) Class I. Articulator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972)
  48. 48. Subdivision B: Vertical motion is joint related. The Centric relator (Denar Corp) This instrument rotates on the terminal arc registered by a face-bow that ensures a positive centric . International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972) Class I. Articulator
  49. 49. Subdivision A: Eccentric motion permitted is based on average or arbitrary values Gysi Simplex Articulator An instrument that permits horizontal as well as vertical motion but does not orient the motion to the temporomandibular joints. Class II. Articulator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972)
  50. 50. Subdivision B: Eccentric motion permitted is based on theories of arbitrary motion. The Monson Maxillo- mandibular articulatorShofu Handy II Articulator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972) Class II. Articulator
  51. 51. Subdivision C: Eccentric motion permitted is determined by the patient using engraving methods. The Gnathic Relator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972) Class II. Articulator
  52. 52. Instruments that simulate condylar pathways by using averages or mechanical equivalents for all or part of the motion. These instruments allow for orientation of the cast relative to the joints and may be arcon or nonarcon instruments, accept facebows, and have mounting plates for unlimited case load. Subdivision A: Instruments that accept static protrusive registrations and use equivalents for the rest of the motion. Hanau Nonarcon H2 Class III. Articulator Dentatus articulator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972)
  53. 53. Subdivision B: Instruments that accept static lateral protrusive registrations and use equivalents for the rest of the motion. Gysi trubyte Denar Mark II Articulator Hanau-TeledynePanadent Model P ArticulatorWhipmix Articulator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972) Class III. Articulator
  54. 54. Subdivision A: The cam representing the condylar paths are formed by registration engraved by the patient. Class IV. Articulator Instruments that will accept three dimensional dynamic registrations. These instruments allow for orientation of the casts to the temporomandibular joints and replication of all mandibular movements. TMJ-Stereographic instrumentDenar Combi articulator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972)
  55. 55. Class IV. Articulator Subdivision B: Instruments that have condylar paths that can be angled and customized either by selection from a variety of curvatures, by modification, or both. Stuart ArticulatorDenar D5A Articulator International prosthodontics workshop (university of michigan in 1972)
  56. 56. Can accept one or two of the following records: 1. Face bow 2. Centric jaw relation record 3. Protrusive record. Can accept all the following three records. 1. Face bow 2. Centric jaw relation record 3. Protrusive record. Can accept all the following five records. 1. Face bow 2. Centric jaw relation record 3. Protrusive record. 4. Lateral records 5. Intercondylar distance record Rihani A: classification of articulators, J Prosthet Dent 1980;43:344-347 Fully adjustable Semiadjustable Nonadjustable RIHANI 1980
  58. 58. Basic Requirements Hold casts in correct horizontal and vertical position Positive anterior stopAccept face bow transfer Open and close in hinge movement And Allow for protusive &lateral motion Moving parts should move freely & be accurately machined Non moving parts should be of rigid construction
  59. 59. Adjustable horizontal and lateral condylar guide elements Conylar element - lower frame Condylar guide - upper frame Accept third point of referenceTerminal hinge position locking deviceRemovable mounting platesAdjustable incisal guide tableAdjustable intercondylar width – graphic tracings Additional Requirements
  60. 60. 1. Diagnosis, treatment planning and patient presentation in both the natural and artificial dentitions. 2. To plan dental procedures 3. To aid in the fabrication of dental restorations and lost dental parts. 4. To correct and modify completed restorations. 5. Teaching and studying of occlusion and mandibular movements. USES
  61. 61. LIMITATIONS Subject to error in tooling and to error resulting from metal fatigue and wear. Does not completely duplicate the condylar movements in the temporomandibular joints. Movements simulated are empty-mouth sliding motions, not functional movements.
  62. 62. M uth is the best
  63. 63. ….....then why not use i  Patient’s saliva, tongue, and cheeks  Shifting denture bases  Resiliency of the supporting tissues  Inability of humans to detect visually subtle changes in motion  The inability to know exact location of the condyles,  More chair time
  64. 64. Selecting an articulator
  65. 65. NON ADJUSTABLE ARTICULATORS For complete dentures For fixed
  66. 66. SEMI ADJUSTABLE ARTICULATORS For complete dentures For fixed prosthodontics KAVO WHIPMIX HANAU
  67. 67. Arcon v/s Non arcon Derived from Articulator & Condyle Beck 1956,Weinberg 1963 : No difference Survey 1985 : Out of 81 ,67 were arcon
  68. 68. Rectilinear or Curvilinear Sagittal condylar path-Convex S-shaped curvature Aull 1965 : 8%-Straight line 92%-Curved path Diameter:10mm in 34% Population Curvature noticeable appeared when 5-10mm trcings were drawn Within 2-3mm from centric codylar path is almost a straight line Advantage of a straight line pathway
  69. 69. FULLY ADJUSTABLE ARTICULATORS For complete dentures For fixed prosthodontics The Denar D5A Articulator Cyberhoby Articulator
  70. 70. Denar articulators Dr.Niles Guichet 1968
  71. 71. Pantographic tracing
  72. 72.
  74. 74. Stereograph (TMJ articulator)
  75. 75. Stereograph (TMJ articulator)
  76. 76. Fully adjustable….Do we really need it ? • According to dawson  Bilaterally balanced occlusion is traumatogenic  Condylar guidance does not dictate anterior guidance  Tripod contact no more stable than cusp tip to fossa contact  Posterior disclusion by anterior guidance most desirable  Immediate side shift cannot occur from centric  Not necessary to reproduce fisher’s
  77. 77. Articulators for Functionally generated path Verticulator Twin-Stage
  78. 78. Mean Value Articulator
  79. 79. Whipmix Articulator
  80. 80. Whipmix Articulator
  81. 81. Kavo Articulator
  82. 82. Kavo Articulator
  83. 83. Hanau H2 Series
  84. 84. Hanau H2 Series
  85. 85. Hanau Modular Series
  86. 86. Programming Hanau articulator
  87. 87. Face Bow Record & Transferring it to Articulator
  88. 88. Obtaining Protrusive Record for adjusting HORIZONTAL CONDYLAR GUIDANCE
  89. 89. Hanau Bennett angle formula L = H/8 + 12 How far is it valid ? Even with large variation in condylar guidance Bennet angle changes to a small degree  Gradations with 5mm difference  But yet it is popularly followed
  90. 90. Adjusting LATERAL CONDYLAR GUIDANCE ( Bennet angle )
  91. 91. Adjusting ANTERIOR GUIDANCE
  92. 92. Custom Anterior guidance
  93. 93. Occlusal Analysis with Broderick's Analyzer
  94. 94. For Complete Dentures Gothic arch tracing
  95. 95. Carl O Boucher, “It must be recognized that the person operating the instrument is more important than the instrument. If dentists understand articulators and their deficiencies, they can compensate for their inherent inadequacies”.
  96. 96. 1. Academy of Denture Prosthetics : Glossary of Prosthodontic terms. J Prosthet dent 1977; 38 : 66 – 109. 2. Academy of Denture Prosthetics : Glossary of Prosthodontic terms. J Prosthet dent 1994 ; 71 : 41–60. 3. Ash and Ramford “Occlusion” 4. Beck Ho, Morrison We : Investigation of an Arcon Articulator, J Prosthet dent 1956 ; 6 : 359 – 372. 5. Becker CM, Kaiser DA: Evolution of occlusion and occlusal instruments, J Prosthodont 2:33-43, 1993. References16.Morneburg TR, Proschel PA: Predicted incidence of occlusal errors in centric closing around arbitrary axes, Int J Prosthodont 15:358-364, 2002. 17.Noel D. Wilkie, Donald L. Mitchell : Articulators through the years. Part – I. J Prosthet dent 1978 ; 39 :140-141. 18.Noel D.W., Donald L. Mitchell: Articulators through the years. Part – II J Prosthet dent 1978 ; 39 :168-181. 19.Rihami A. “Classification of Articulators”. J.Prosthet Dent 1980 ; 43:344-47. Prosthodontics, 2nd edition, U.S.A. JEA, 1996, p 142-182. 29.Winstanley R.B:Hinge – axis: a review of literature 1985;12:135-159 30. J Prosthodont 2000 (9) ;1 : 51 31. J Prosthodont 2000 (9) ;2 : 110 32. J Prosthodont 2000 (9) ;3 : 161 33. J Prosthodont 2000 (9) ;4: 217 34. J Prosthodont 2001 (10) ;1 : 52 35. J Prosthodont 2001 (10) ; 2 :
  97. 97. Watch your thoughts; they become words Watch your words; they become actions Watch your actions; they become habits Watch your habits; they become character Watch your character; it becomes your destiny Frank
  98. 98. Thank you For more details please visit