ANTI OXIDENTS
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacademy.com

www.indiandntalacad...
OBJECTIVE : TO DISCUSS THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF
ANTIOXIDANTS IN PLANTS ( PHYTO CHEMICALS ) & ALSO ABOUT
FLAVONOIDS ( BLACK...
oral cavity is exposed to a lot of carcinogen & is more prone to
develop precancerous lesions & condition & also prone to
...
DEFINITION :
ANTIOXIDANTS ARE SUBSTANCES THAT INTERACT WITH FREE
RADICALS & WILLINGLY OFFERS ELECTRONS TO THE FREE
RADICAL...
FUNCTION OF ANTI OXIDANTS
It is to remove free oxygen radicals from the body & as a result
prevent the cell from cell dama...
Lipid peroxidation cause damage to membrane ion channel ,ion
transporters with raised intracellular calcium
DNA damage cau...
Reactive oxygen speecies (ROS) are
superoxide anions
hydrogen peroxide
Hydroxyl radical
Nitric oxide
Production of ROS fro...
FREE RADICAL MEDIATED DISEASES ARE :
Aging , arthritis , asthma, bronchopulmonary
dysplasia,pulmonary fibrosis ,autoimmune...
ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS :
spontaneous dismutation of superoxide ion into hydrogen peroxide
by dismutase
Superoxide dismutas...
NON NUTRIENT ANTIOXIDANTS :
They act as inhibitors of carcinogen – inhibit
nitosamine formation & prevents progression of
...
MECANISM OF ACTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS :
1)VIT-A acts by making WBC ,causing destruction of
harmful bacteria & virus . It regu...
ACTIONS OF ANTIOXIDANTS
1) VEGETABLES & FRUITS : VIT –C,E,betacarotene selenium &
flavanoids provide defense mechanism for...
Darkly coloured pigments called provitamin A & carotenoids that
can be converted to vit –A
First sign of vit – A deficienc...
b)Work inside the cell to protect DNA from the damage caused by
free radicals
c) Vit- c blocks the formation of fatal muta...
6)SPIRULINA : ALSO CALLED GREEN BLOOD
Spirulina enhances natural cleansing & detoxification
Spirulina contains components ...
ACCORDING TO ANTIOXIDANT WIKIPEDIA :
Antioxidants are a group of vitamins ( vit- c,e,carotinoids)
that slow or prevent the...
oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many
human diseases
Eg: oral cancer, coronary heart disease, n...
OXIDATIVE CHALLENGE IN BIOLOGY :
Life requires oxygen for its existence . Oxygen is a highly reactive
molecule that damage...
Hydroxyl radical is particularly unstable & will react rapidly & non
specifically with most biological molecules
This spec...
The amount of protection provided by any one antioxidant there fore
depends on its concentration ,its reactivity towards t...
CLASSIFICATION :Antioxidants are classified into 2 broad divisions
1) soluble in water ( hydrophlic) : they react with oxi...
EXAMPLES OF FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS OF
ANTIOXIDANTS :
1)CAROTINOIDS :
a) Beta carotene – carrots , fruits
b) Leutin – spinac...
4) FLAVANOIDS :
a) Anthocyanidins – Berries , cherries
b) Flavanols ( cathechins, epicathecins ) – Tea, coca
c) Flavanones...
ACTIONS OF ANTIOXIDANTS :
1) By suppressing free radical formation
2)Acts as a scavenger – promote immunity
3) Act as a su...
High density lipo protien (HDL) has inhibitory effect against oxidation
of LDL which is implicated with development of ath...
USES OF ANTIOXIDANTS :
1) Antioxidants have many industrial uses such as preservatives in
foods & cosmetics
2) Vitamin E p...
In the words of Dr. Watter Willet of Harward university
‘’Until quite recently it was taught that every one in the country...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Leader in continuing dental education

www.indiandntalacademy.com
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Antioxidants/ general dentistry Courses /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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Welcome to Indian Dental Academy
The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy has a unique training program & curriculum that provides students with exceptional clinical skills and enabling them to return to their office with high level confidence and start treating patients

State of the art comprehensive training-Faculty of world wide repute &Very affordable.

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Antioxidants/ general dentistry Courses /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. ANTI OXIDENTS INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandntalacademy.com
  2. 2. OBJECTIVE : TO DISCUSS THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN PLANTS ( PHYTO CHEMICALS ) & ALSO ABOUT FLAVONOIDS ( BLACK TEA ) & THEOFLAVINS AS A CHEMO PREVENTORS TO ORAL CANCER . CONCLUSION: CANCER IS A CRAB LIKE DISEASE WHERE 17.9 MILLION PERSONS OF THE WORLD ARE SUFFERING FROM DISEASE THE MOST IMPORTANT PREDISPOSING FACTORS FOR DEVELOPING CANCER ARE BIDI,CHUTTA,SMOKING KHAINI CHEWING USE OF ANTIOXIDANTS IS VERY HELPFUL IN PREVENTING MANY DISEASES LIKE CANCER CARDIAC DISEASE & STROKE & ALSO TO MAINTAIN GOOD HEALTH IN LEADING DAILY LIFE www.indiandntalacademy.com
  3. 3. oral cavity is exposed to a lot of carcinogen & is more prone to develop precancerous lesions & condition & also prone to develop oral cancer & malignancy Proper supplement of vit-A,E,C retinoic acid selenium lipoic acid spirulina & all plant antioxidants has tremendous chemopreventive properties to protect the population from oral cancer Dietary substitutes can prevent oral cancer at an very early stage These are beta carotene, pro vit- A lipoic acid ,zinc selenium & spirulina www.indiandntalacademy.com
  4. 4. DEFINITION : ANTIOXIDANTS ARE SUBSTANCES THAT INTERACT WITH FREE RADICALS & WILLINGLY OFFERS ELECTRONS TO THE FREE RADICALS TO PREVENT CELLULAR DAMAGE ANTIOXIDANTS ARE PRODUCTS WHICH ARE DERIEVED FROM GREEN / COLOURED VEGETABLES / FOOD GRAINS & ALSO FROM ANIMAL FATS / VITAMINS & SPICES LIKE CUCUMARIN OR GARLIC IT IS A SUBSTANCE ADDED TO A PRODUCT TO PREVENT OR DELAY ITS DETERIORATION BY THE OXYGEN IN AIR www.indiandntalacademy.com
  5. 5. FUNCTION OF ANTI OXIDANTS It is to remove free oxygen radicals from the body & as a result prevent the cell from cell damage or undergoing any carcinomatous change Hydroperoxide may undergo hemolytic fission of covelent bonds to form more free radicals . Upon hemolytic fission of the hydroperoxide a free radical chain reaction may again be initiated Responses & signals during severe oxidative stress cause negetive effect This negetive effect cause excess reactive oxygen speecies (ros) & low antioxidant defence leads to damage to biomolecules like lipids, DNA,& protiens www.indiandntalacademy.com
  6. 6. Lipid peroxidation cause damage to membrane ion channel ,ion transporters with raised intracellular calcium DNA damage cause strand breakage ,base modification Protien damage cause damage to receptor enzyme All the above reactions leads to cellular damage with release of more radicals ,cell death & tissue damage carcinogenesis ,atherosclerosis & aging Superoxide anion generated by xanthene oxidase gives rise to singlet oxygen which subsequently cause lipid peroxidation Superoxide anion directly effects the activity of catalase&peroxidase results in a chromosome breakage , rearrangement& with increased risk of carcinogenesis www.indiandntalacademy.com
  7. 7. Reactive oxygen speecies (ROS) are superoxide anions hydrogen peroxide Hydroxyl radical Nitric oxide Production of ROS from various sources Tumour cells Platelets, endothelial cells , fibroblast cells PMNS, monocytes ,B-lymphocytes , eosinophils Glucose oxidase, uric acid oxidase Hydoxyl anion cause DNA strand breakage,base modification, damage to tumour suppressor gene& enhance expression of proto oncogenes www.indiandntalacademy.com
  8. 8. FREE RADICAL MEDIATED DISEASES ARE : Aging , arthritis , asthma, bronchopulmonary dysplasia,pulmonary fibrosis ,autoimmune diseases & cancer . ANTIOXDANT DEFENCE SYSTEM IS CLASSIFIED AS 1) Enzymatic 2) Non enzymatic i) Nutrient superoxide dysmutase Alpha tocoferol glutathione peroxidase beta carotene catalase ascorbate glutathione reductase ii) Non nutrient glutathione transferase ceruloplasmin transferrin uric acid www.indiandntalacademy.com
  9. 9. ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS : spontaneous dismutation of superoxide ion into hydrogen peroxide by dismutase Superoxide dismutase is high in tissues where oxygen utilisation is high Eg : liver selenium dependant glutathione peroxidase is abundant in heart brain & lung NUTRIENT ANTIOXIDANTS : Act as scavenging agents – vit- E,flavanoids Act as suppressing agents – decrease tumour progression & promotion which decrease metabolic processes Eg : flavones , phytoestrogens www.indiandntalacademy.com
  10. 10. NON NUTRIENT ANTIOXIDANTS : They act as inhibitors of carcinogen – inhibit nitosamine formation & prevents progression of malignancy Eg: Ascorbic acid , caffeic acid , ferulic acid They act as blocking agents : blocks the activities of enzymes which biotransform a procarcinogen to carcinogen Eg : iso thiocyanates www.indiandntalacademy.com
  11. 11. MECANISM OF ACTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS : 1)VIT-A acts by making WBC ,causing destruction of harmful bacteria & virus . It regulates the immune system & helps to fight against infection 2)VIT-A helps to maintain the integrety of skin & mucous membrane which functions as a barrier to bacteria & virus 3)Antioxidant scavenge peroxyl radical 4) Antioxidants manufactures & had defence to connective tissue & eloberate matrix that hold the body together www.indiandntalacademy.com
  12. 12. ACTIONS OF ANTIOXIDANTS 1) VEGETABLES & FRUITS : VIT –C,E,betacarotene selenium & flavanoids provide defense mechanism for removing or scavenging free radicals Eg : cabbage, turnip 2)SPICES : Turmeric were found to reduce urinary mutagens in smokers & to promote mechanisms that enhance detoxification Garlic powder has been shown to inhibit cancer development in different species & at different sites / organs 3) VITAMIN –A : retinol is most active & is called preformed vit-A . It can be converted to retinol & retinoic acid www.indiandntalacademy.com
  13. 13. Darkly coloured pigments called provitamin A & carotenoids that can be converted to vit –A First sign of vit – A deficiency is night blindness .this cause dry ness of cornea & promotes damage to retina & cornea 4) VITAMIN – C : It combats the effect of toxins including ozone,carbon monoxide & heavy metals Inhibits development of cataract ,sickle cell anemia bone disorders & treatment of oral cancer VITAMIN-C prevents cancer by a) combats peroxidation of lipids –linked with aging & degeneration www.indiandntalacademy.com
  14. 14. b)Work inside the cell to protect DNA from the damage caused by free radicals c) Vit- c blocks the formation of fatal mutagens 5) LIPOIC ACID : Protect liver & detoxify the body from heavy metal pollutants lipoic acid reduces the progression of HIV infection to clinical AIDS LIPOIC ACID HAS BEEN CALLED THE UNIVERSAL ANTIOXIDANT( OR) IDEAL ANTIOXIDANT ( WILD CARD ANTIOXIDANT ) This substitute for other antioxidants such as vit- C,E plays an important role in controlling blood glucose level www.indiandntalacademy.com
  15. 15. 6)SPIRULINA : ALSO CALLED GREEN BLOOD Spirulina enhances natural cleansing & detoxification Spirulina contains components like 9 cis isomer had increased power of antioxidant activity & anticarcinogenesis . REFERENCES : 1) Antioxidants– Health encyclopedia& reference 2) Antioxidant – wikipedia 3) Antioxidant – benefits & food high in antioxidant 4) Antioxidant– functional food facts 5) The real health risk is not taking antioxidant by – David Ash & Dr lisbeth Ash www.indiandntalacademy.com
  16. 16. ACCORDING TO ANTIOXIDANT WIKIPEDIA : Antioxidants are a group of vitamins ( vit- c,e,carotinoids) that slow or prevent the oxidation of other molecules Antioxidants are a diverse group of chemicals that can be naturally found in vegetables,fruits & plants Antioxidants are essential for proper function of immune system . This is because immune cells prevents free radicals & produce normal defense mechanism Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals which start chain reactions and will damage cells Too low levels of antioxidants or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes causes oxidative stress & may damage or kill cells www.indiandntalacademy.com
  17. 17. oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases Eg: oral cancer, coronary heart disease, neurodegenerative disease Antioxidants that occur naturally in the body & certain foods may block the damage by donating electrons to stabilize & neutralize the harmful effects of the free radicals If the level of the free radical in the immune cells surpasses beyond the normal level it negetavely effect the immune system Imbalance between free radicals & antioxidants in cells due to deficiency in single or multiple number , antioxidants has been reported to result in weakness of immune function . www.indiandntalacademy.com
  18. 18. OXIDATIVE CHALLENGE IN BIOLOGY : Life requires oxygen for its existence . Oxygen is a highly reactive molecule that damages living organisms by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS ) Organisms contain a complex network of antioxidant metabolites & enzymes that work together to prevent oxidative damage to cellular components such as DNA, protiens & lipids Antioxidant system either prevent these reactive species from being formed or remove them before they can damage vital components of the cell . ROS produced in the cells include hydrogen peroxide , hypochlorous acid & free radicals such as hydroxyl ion & the superoxide ion www.indiandntalacademy.com
  19. 19. Hydroxyl radical is particularly unstable & will react rapidly & non specifically with most biological molecules This species is produced from hydrogen peroxide in metal catalyzed redox reactions such as FENTON reactions These oxidants can damage cells by starting chemical chain reactions such as lipid peroxidation or by oxidising DNA/ protiens Damage to DNA can cause mutations & possibly cancer. If not reversed by DNA mechanisms damage to protiens cause enzyme inhibition , denaturation & protien degradation . The action of one antioxidant may depend on proper function of other members of antioxdant system www.indiandntalacademy.com
  20. 20. The amount of protection provided by any one antioxidant there fore depends on its concentration ,its reactivity towards the particular ROS species Synergy & balance is vital in antioxidant activity Vitamin E prevents lipid peroxidation .but in this processes it becomes oxidised into a damaging tocoperoxyl radical This process can be reversed by vitamin- c . Vitamin c regenerates vitamin E & glutathione Glutathione & vitamin E both requires selenium for this action Avoid taking single vitamins . Choose a properly formulated balance of essential antioxidants . www.indiandntalacademy.com
  21. 21. CLASSIFICATION :Antioxidants are classified into 2 broad divisions 1) soluble in water ( hydrophlic) : they react with oxidants in cell cytoplasm & blood plasma 2) soluble in lipids ( hydrophobic ) : they protect cell membrane from lipid peroxidation Antioxidants are synthesised in the body Dietary antioxidants are vit- A,C,E , phenolic acid chlorophil,carotinoids ,glutathione ,co-enzyme Q,& lycopene Synthetic diet antioxidants are 1)Butylated hydroxy anisole ( BHA ) 2)Butyl hydroxy tolune ( BHT ) Chemicals with antioxidant activity produced in human body include uric acid , HDL & aminoacids such as arginine www.indiandntalacademy.com
  22. 22. EXAMPLES OF FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS OF ANTIOXIDANTS : 1)CAROTINOIDS : a) Beta carotene – carrots , fruits b) Leutin – spinach , eggs, citrus c) Lycopene – tomato , chillies 2) Isothiocynates : a) sulforaphane – cauliflower , cabbage 3) Sulfides / Thiols : Garlic, onions www.indiandntalacademy.com
  23. 23. 4) FLAVANOIDS : a) Anthocyanidins – Berries , cherries b) Flavanols ( cathechins, epicathecins ) – Tea, coca c) Flavanones – citrus foods 5) PHENOLS: a) Caffeic acid , Ferulic acid – Apples , citrus fruits 6) WHOLE GRAINS : Cereal grains www.indiandntalacademy.com
  24. 24. ACTIONS OF ANTIOXIDANTS : 1) By suppressing free radical formation 2)Acts as a scavenger – promote immunity 3) Act as a substrate ANTIOXIDANT BOOST IMMUNE SYSTEM & PLAYS ROLE IN : 1) Cellular metabolism 2) Signal transduction 3) Gene activation 4 ) Transcription www.indiandntalacademy.com www.indiandntalacademy.com
  25. 25. High density lipo protien (HDL) has inhibitory effect against oxidation of LDL which is implicated with development of atherosclerosis & cardiac diseases HDL prevents endothelial dysfunction & activation .it maintain the integrity of endothelial cell lining & reduce the deleterious effect of oxidised LDL & levels of thrombogenic factors Consumption of antioxidants is thought to provide protection against oxidative damage & contribute possitive health benefits ANTIOXIDANTS PREVENTS 3 MAJOR CAUSES OF DEATH 1) Cancer 2) Cardiac disease 3) Stroke www.indiandntalacademy.com
  26. 26. USES OF ANTIOXIDANTS : 1) Antioxidants have many industrial uses such as preservatives in foods & cosmetics 2) Vitamin E prevents the processes of lip[id peroxidation often by scavenging ROS before they can damage cells 3) Ascorbic acid is a reducing agent & there by neutralize reactive oxygen species A NEW ERA OF RESEARCH LEAD BY THE STUDY OF HUMAN GENOME SUGGESTS THAT THE INTERPLAY OF HUMAN GENETICS & DIET MAY PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHRONIC DISEASES www.indiandntalacademy.com
  27. 27. In the words of Dr. Watter Willet of Harward university ‘’Until quite recently it was taught that every one in the country gets enough vitamins through their diet and that taking vitamin supplements just creates EXPENSIVE URINE . CONCLUSION : Antioxidants obtained from food sources including fruits , vegetables& whole grains are potentially active in disease risk reduction and can be beneficial to human health www.indiandntalacademy.com
  28. 28. www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandntalacademy.com

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