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ANTHROPOLOGY

www.indiandentalacademy.com
ANTHROPOLOGY
Anthropos + logos - Anthropology
Anthropo- Human
logos
- Science
“ANTHROPOLOGIST” - ARISTOTLE

www.indiandent...
DEFINITIONS
KROEBER – Anthropology is the science of
groups of men and their behavior and
production.
JACOBS & STERN – Ant...
Classification of anthropology


PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY



CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

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PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

HUMAN GENETICS
HUMAN PALEONTOLOGY
ETHNOLOGY
ANTHROPOMETRY
BIOMETRY

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CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

1.

PREHISTORIC ANTHROPOLOGY

2.

SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

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PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Physical anthropology is concerned with man as a
physical organism in ‘time’ & ‘space’
Study of the ...
PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
HUMAN GENETICS
E.C.COLIN – Genetics is the branch of biology which deals
with the laws and principle...
PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
ETHNOLOGY
S.S DUBE – Ethnology is a comparative study of the races
and culture of mankind in their d...
Cultural anthropology
E.A . HOEBEL – Culture is the sum total
of learned behavioral patterns
.
1. PREHISTORIC ARCHEOLOGY
B...
Cultural anthropology
2. SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY
CHARLES WINIK – Social anthropology is
the study of social behavior especiall...
Human evolution
PRIMATOLOGY
PRIMATE PALEONTOLOGY
Mammal

Protheria

Theria
Metatheria

Eutheria

Primate

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Characteristics of primates
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Limbs
- prehensile
Thumb / great toe
Nails - grasping function
Teeth - a...
Classification of primates


Prosimian



anthropoidea

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Classification of primates
1.







Prosimian primates ( 60 mil years )
a. lemuroidea - lemur, loris
b. torsoidea - ...
ANTHROPOIDEA

1. Ceboidea ( Platyrrhine of New World Monkeys)
2. Cercopithecoidea ( Catarrine Of Old World
Monkeys )
3. Ho...
ANTHROPOIDEA
CEBOIDEA – ( spider monkey )
The higher primates
Dental formula – I 2/2, C1/1, PM2/2, M3/3
 4 blunt cusps on...
ANTHROPOIDEA
Cercopithecidae –( Macaque monkey )
1.
2.
3.

Arboreal in their habits
Non prehensile tails
Dental formula – ...
HOMINOIDEA
Hominoidea is further sub divided into



Pongids
Australopithecines

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ANTHROPOIDEA
Pongids ( Great apes )
Ex : Gibbons, Gorillas, Orang-utans, Chimpanzees





Large brains
Pelvic girdle &...
HOMINOIDS
AUSTRALOPITHECINES
First bipedal fossil anthropoids found in rocks of Eastern
& South Africa ( 1-3.6 mil years a...
Neanderthal man
skull-Very large
-Dolico cephalic
-Face is highly developed
with maxillay prognathism
-Lower jaw is strong...
Cro-magnon man
Skull–large & massive
-face is short, and flat
-maxillary region
shows less marked
prognathism
-lower jaw i...
MODERN MAN
Final steps to modern man ( 20 mil years )
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Remarkable increase in brain size gave the
forehead...
MODERN MAN
7. Simplification of nasal region
8. Reduced prognathism
9. Chin increased
in prominence
10. Angle between
base...
Evolution of human face
Face is the seat of principle sense organs
In lower vertebrates
No fully ossified skeleton
Jaw mus...
In the fossil, mammal like reptiles
The bony mask of the temporal region is
perforated
Complex dentary – lower jaw
Dentary...
FACIAL FORM
Each person’s face is a custom made original
Anthropologists can reconstructs the face from a
dry skull
The bi...
Head form
Two general extremes
 Dolicocephalic ( long, narrow )



leptoprosopic
Brachycephalic ( Wide, short, globular ...
DOLICOCEPHALIC
Nose is longer &
Protrusive with Aquiline
type of Nasal contour
 Convex profile
 Cheek bones are less pro...
BRACHYCEPHALIC
Nose is protrusively
shorter (rounded tip )
 Prominent cheek bones
 Concave / straight profile
 Wider, s...
DINARIC HEAD FORM
Dinaric Alps, Yugoslavia
“Brachycephalised
dolicocephalic”
Flattened occipital regions
Bossing of pariet...
Male versus female features
Size & configuration
of the nose
 Fore head
 Cheek bones
 upper jaw look
more prominent in
...
Child versus adult features




Nasal part is small
Dentition ( primary & permanent )
Jaw bones (masticatory musles & a...
Child versus adult features
Child’s face is not a miniature of the adult face
1.
Forehead
2.
Face appears
diminutive in ch...
Evolution of teeth
Lobe finned fishes
- upper & lower jaws had bone bearing
plates ( labyrinthodont )
- peg formed teeth
R...
RACE
“A group that differs from other
classes or human group by virtue of some
specific physiological characteristics that...
RACIAL CLASSIFICATION
Important characters used for racial
determination :

skin colour

hair

head form

face

nose
...
CLASSIFICATION
CATEGORIES OF CRITERIA




COMMON VARIABLE CHARACTERS
COMMON PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS
RARE GENETIC CHARA...
RACIAL CLASSIFICATION
1. NEGROID
2. CAUCASOID
3. MANGOLOID
AUSTRALOIDS

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NEGROIDS
African negroes & oceanic negros







woolly or frizzly hair on the head
Black coloured skin
Nose is broa...
MANGOLOID
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS






Black, straight, coarse hair
Yellowish brown colour skin
Broad flat face with...
MANGOLOIDS
CLASSIC / CENTRAL MANGOLOID
-Northern Chaina, Tibet& Mangolia
2.
ARCTIC / ESKIMOID
-Northern Asia, arctic coast...
CAUCASOID
Skin – fair, olive & all shades of brown
Hair – flat, wavy to various degrees of
curliness
Head form –dolicoceph...
CAUCASOIDS
1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

MEDITERRANEAN- all sea shores ( India,
Spain, Portugal, France etc. )
NORDIC – Scandinavians...
CAUCASOIDS
6. ARMENOIDS – turkey, Syria,Palestine Iraq,
Iran
7. CELTIC – Iceland, Scotland and western
Europe
8. LAPP – No...
Australoids
They closely resemble the Caucasoids in
many characters
1.
2.

Australian aborigins -Australia
Pre-Dravidian (...
Races in india
Sir Herbert Risley ( > 75 yrs )
Based on Indo-Aryans ( west )
mangoloids ( east)
 Dravidian
 Indo Aryan
...
RACES IN INDIA
Based on the measurements on the samples of
indian population – Risley
1.

2.
3.

Turko- iranian – they inh...


Aryo- dravidian – U.P. Rajastan & Bihar. Short
statured & mesocephalic



Mangolo- dravidian- Bengal & Orissa Stature ...
Dental anthropology
Beginning - Eighties of 18th century
Recognised - 20th century
Founder of american journal of physical...
Different aspects of anthropology ( applied
anthropology )






Dental development
Dental pathology
Dental morpholog...
DENTAL DEVELOPMENT
Tooth eruption standards which are
relatively independent of general body
growth and skeletal maturatio...
PATHOLOGY
Dental caries – it is a pathologic condition of the
teeth resulting in the decalcification of the
dentin, enamel...
DENTAL MORPHOLOGY
Teeth are best preserved & most easily
accessible anatomical system of the body.
pioneering studies – Hr...
1.Supernumerary teeth or hyperdontia
- causes dental disturbances by interfering
with normal eruption
- either peg shaped ...
2.Carabelli’s cusp or anomaly
Von Carabelli in 1842
Its occurrence – back to paleolithic man
An elevation or tubercle on t...
3.Shovel-shaped incisors
“SHOVELLING” – Muhlreiter ( 1870 )
A condition resulting from a combination of a
concave lingual ...
Acco. to Hrdlicka – 4 grades of shovelling
Shovel- enamel rim has well developed fossa
2.
Semi shovel- enamel rim is disti...
4.Diastema
It is a space or gap present between the maxillary
central incisors or between the lateral incisors
and canines...
5. Crowding
Lasker – inheritence of large teeth from one
parent and a small jaw from the other
6. Cingulum or lingual cusp...
7. Occlusion
Relationship between the masticatory
surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular
teeth when the mouth is closed
...
1. Overjet – normal (2-4mm),
- positive (>5mm)
- extreme positive(>7mm)
- negative, extreme negative
2. Overbite3. Posteri...
FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY
Deals with the identification & study of
human teeth
identification of a person involved in mass
disas...
ODONTOMETRY
Tooth size standards based on odontometry can
be used in the age & sex determination of
skeletal and also livi...
Dr.V. Rami reddy conducted a retrospective cross
sectional study on population of Gulbarga
disrtict (1971-1975)
1.
2.
3.

...
AIMS & OBJECTIVES
1.

2.

3.

To indicate the general and detailed eruption
pattern of different types of deciduous and
pe...
Deciduous & permanent dental eruption




The times of onset as well as completion of
eruption are earlier in females t...
Dental caries – deciduous dentition
By sex
 Male children (33.4%)>female children( 26.8% )
By income
 Lower income group...
Dental caries – permanent dentition
By sex
 Difference is insignificant (females > males )
By income
 Upper income group...
Dental morphology
Supernumerary teeth
Permanent dentition ( 0.86% ) >
deciduous dentition ( 0.06% )
Maxilla > mandible – R...
Dental morphology
Crowding
both dentitions
Female > male
Diastema
Deciduous teeth > permanent teeth
-Male > female
www.ind...
“Epidemological transition”
Phenomenon of changes in frequencies of
certain serious diseases – omeron (1971)
‘diseases of ...
“Epidemolodic transition in minor diseases”



Chronic allergy – cow’s milk, dust, pollution and
food additives
Oral bre...
Bite force studies
normal adult chewing – 15-17kg of force
maximum
- 28-39kg of force
Bite force is relevant to the functi...
www.indiandentalacademy.com


Solution is the restoration of proper
function by means of chewing hard ,
fibrous foods – stimulate the masticatory
app...
Evolution of teeth


Non mammalian vertebrates –
Polyphyodonty



During growth of the animal – increase in
the jaw size...
Dentition of fishes ( agnatha )
EX; Sea lamprey




No true calcified teeth
Arranged circumferentially
Horny teeth are ...
Chondrichthyes (bony fishes )




All types of dental specialisations
Homodont & polyphyodont
Teeth are covered by enam...
osteochthyes





Haplodont – prehention
Polyphyodont
Teeth- vomer, palatine bones roof of the
mouth & tongue
www.india...
Amphibia




Small, homodont, polyphyodont –
prehension
In the frog – small teeth on the upper jaw
& no teeth on the low...
Reptiles

Homodont & polyphyodont
 Tend to be tricuspid or cone shaped
 Egg teeth – in embryos of lizards & snakes
- use...
Dentition of mammals




Heterodont ( 4 types )
Restricted to 2 rows
Ability to masticate – improves digestive
efficien...
Other features







TMJ articulation
Salivary glands
Prismatic enamel
Diphyodonty
Secondary palate
Significant mus...
Dentition of protheria


Spiny ant eater – edentulous



Duck bulled platypus – 3 functional
posterior teeth in each jaw...
Metatheria








An unusual feature – only last premolar
will have a successor
Anteriorly many teeth are present but...
Eutheria
Insectivoral
Ex; hedge hog






Molars – primitive trabacular form with
sharp, high cusps which interdigitate...
Rodentia
Ex; rat





Heterogenous
Continuously growing incisors
DF 1/1, 0/0. 0/0, 3/3

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Carnivora




Enlarged canines – offensive weapons
More prominent specialisations are in cat
family

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Primates
Prosimian
Ex; lemur
Herbivorous & insectivorous
DF – 2/2, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3
Lower incisors & canines are prominent
mi...
Anthropoidea






Macaca monkey
DF – 2/2, 1/1, 2/2, 3/3
Canines are long & prominent ( esp. in male )
Lateral diastem...
Differences between apes & man








Apes
‘U’ shaped arches
Edge to edge
incisor relation
Male canines are
large
La...
ANTHROPOSCOPY





Anthropos – human
Skopein - examine
Judging the body by inspection
Cannot be expressed numerically
H...
Criteria for judgment


examiner’s esthetic perception &
experience



Paired features are judged for level,
contour & s...
Qualitative signs


Head

1.Hairline – distinctive, indistinctive
2.Forehead – unilaterally protruding
forehead
www.india...
Face
1.

FACIAL PROFILE –
Normal Bird like

Dish like

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Shape of the face
Proportionate

Long&
narrow

short&
wide

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Shape of the face
square

triangular

trapezoid

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Facial mid axis quality
In midline

concave

with dislocated
chin

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Chin contour
Indented

flat

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ANTHROPOMETRY
“It is a systematised art of measuring and
taking observations of man, his skeleton,
his brain or other orga...
Anthropos
-human &
metron
-measure
Anthropometry represents the typical and
traditional tool of physical anthropology
Joha...
Broca, Flower, Turner further developed the study
of the skulls on the foundations laid by
Blumenbach
Father of Anthropome...
Kollmann, Ranke, and Virchow prepared a
scheme for craniometric techniques.
This was presented and approved at the 13 th
g...
SUBDIVISIONS OF ANTHROPOMETRY


SOMATOMETRY -Living body including



Osteometry



Craniometry
Physiometry



head an...
MEASURING TOOLS & TECHNIQUES
REQUISITES
1.
2.
3.
4.

Should be accurate
Not easily distorted
Handy or easy to manipulate
E...
The standard instruments

sliding caliper - it measures
the linear projective distances
between 2 land marks in the
same p...
2. Spreading caliper

When the projective linear
distance has to be determined
between distant surfaces and
various planes...
Soft metric tape
Used for determining the tangential linear
distances taken along the skin surface
between 2 land marks
Ex...
Large double sliding calipers with levels
–used when measuring projective
distances involving the vertex and the
opisthocr...
Measuring tools with
various modifications
 Nose deviation
protractor
 Nostril inclination
protractor
 Nasal root and
a...
Multipurpose
facial angle meter





Pointed portion –measuring
nasofrontal,nasolabial, mentolabial angles
Small & large...
Commercial angle meter

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Selection of subjects
Selection will be on the basis of
 Blood – 1.between individuals of same race
2. Between individual...
Age –
1. Eruption of teeth
2. Union of epiphysis
3. Condition of teeth
4. Condition of cranial structures - sutures
5. Gen...
Positioning the subject
Subjects to be seated in the dental chair
with the head resting on the head support
Head of the ex...
FACIAL MID LINE

3 anatomic points




The nasion ( root of the nose )
The subnasale (base of the columella )
The gnath...
Land marks
‘Certain anatomic points used to take body
measurements’
Short abbreviations used instead of full names
( small...
Head
Vertex – highest
point of the head
 Glabella – most
prominent midline
point between eyebrows
 Opisthocranion – most...
Land marks

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Measurements of head region
HORIZONTAL HEAD POSITION
1. Width of the head
– eu to eu
2. Width of the forehead
- ft to ft
3...
Perpendicular head position
Height of the culvarium – v-tr
2.
Anterior height of the head
v-n
3. Specific height of the
he...


Length of the head
g to op

Circumference of
the head



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Face



Width of the face
zy to zy



Width of the mandible
go to go
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Height of the upper
profile – tr to prn
 Height of the lower
profile – prn to gn
 Lower half of the
cranio- facial heigh...
Facial arc
measurements


Supra-orbital arc



Maxillary arc



Mandibular arc

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Height of the mandibular
ramus – go to cdl





Depth of the body
go to gn

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Depth measurements of the face
1.
2.
3.
4.

Tragion-glabellar depth
Tragion-nasion depth
Tragion-subnasaledepth
Tragion-gn...
Nose



Nasofrontal angle

Angle between the proximal nasal bridge
contour and the anterior surface of the
forehead below...


Nasal tip angle

Angle between columella & nasal bridge

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Naso labial angle
( septolabial angle
or columella labial angle)


Angle between columella & upper lip skin

www.indiande...
Lips & mouth
Width of the mouth
( inter commisural
distance )


ch to ch

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Upper lip height
Sn to sto
 Height of the skin
portion of the upper lip
sn to ls
 Height of the skin
portion of the lowe...
Vermilion height of
the upper lip
ls to sto


Vermilion height of
the lower lip
sto to li


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

Labio mental angle – between skin
surface of the lower lip and the surface
contour of the chin

www.indiandentalacademy...
Sources of errors in
anthropometry & anthroposcopy
Commonest sources of error:




Improper identification of landmarks...
anthropometry
Improper identification of land marks:
Soft tissue land marks – easy to locate in a
healthy person’ face & d...
Head


Vertex – depends upon the FH plane



Eurion – difficult to locate on irregular surface



Glabella – replaced b...
Face


Zygion – difficult to locate in 1st & 2nd brachial
arch syndromes



Gonion – difficult if they are covered with ...
Nose


Nasion – difficult after injuries, noses with
silastic implants, deep naso-frontal angle



Subnasale – at the bo...
Lips & mouth


Stomion – mid point of the labial fissure
dislocated mouth- philtrum



Labrale superious – position vari...
Problems with measuring tools





Standard measurements are not used
If they are used improperly
examiner should be f...
Improper measuring technique


POSITION OF THE HEAD – improper measurements
( especially projective measurements )



He...
FACIAL MID LINE – border between right & left
halves
Errors can be made in judging the facial
asymmetry
Nasion is the most...
Anthroposcopy


Errors result from

1.

Incorrect positioning of the patient’s
head
Wrong angle of view of the examiner’s...
Head
Visual judgment of the height of the fore head
depends on the
1.
Position of the head during inspection
2.
Inclinatio...
Lips & mouth
Frontal view – size of the upper lip depends
on the naso-labial angle & the position of
the skin surface
Curv...
Nose

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Applied anthropometry

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Anthropometry
in cleft lip & palate patients







Combined orthodontic & surgical
treatment
Poor esthetics and nasa...






Common technique – visual assessment
based on the rating scale
- subjective & unreliable
Radiographic cephalomet...


Morphological study of growth patterns of
nasolabial region – Farkas



6 measurements in 1593 north American
Caucasia...
In craniomaxillo- facial surgery
“Anthropometry is the objective analysis
that replaces subjective judgement”





Mea...






Diagnosis of dysmorphology
Treatment of syndromic patients
In cosmetic surgery
Reconstructive surgery
Ortyhogna...
In forensic medicine


Identification of missing children
age 8
age 18

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Thank you
For more details please visit
www.indiandentalacademy.com

www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Anthroplolgy /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

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Anthroplolgy /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. ANTHROPOLOGY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. ANTHROPOLOGY Anthropos + logos - Anthropology Anthropo- Human logos - Science “ANTHROPOLOGIST” - ARISTOTLE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS KROEBER – Anthropology is the science of groups of men and their behavior and production. JACOBS & STERN – Anthropology is the scientific study of the physical, social, and cultural development and behavior of human beings since their appearance on the earth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Classification of anthropology  PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY  CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. HUMAN GENETICS HUMAN PALEONTOLOGY ETHNOLOGY ANTHROPOMETRY BIOMETRY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY 1. PREHISTORIC ANTHROPOLOGY 2. SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY Physical anthropology is concerned with man as a physical organism in ‘time’ & ‘space’ Study of the man through evolutionary processes  study of human populations BEALS & HOIJER – The study of processes where by man developed from his non human ancestors and the continuing process of change still slowly altering his bodily form.  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY HUMAN GENETICS E.C.COLIN – Genetics is the branch of biology which deals with the laws and principles of heredity and variation as observed in plants, in animals and in human. HUMAN PALEONTOLOGY Webster’s New International Dictionary – Human paleontology is the science that deals with life of the past geographical periods. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY ETHNOLOGY S.S DUBE – Ethnology is a comparative study of the races and culture of mankind in their different aspects. ANTHROPOMETRY HERSKOVITS – The measurements of man BIOMETRY CHARLES WINIK – Biometry is the statistical analysis of biological studies specially as applied to such areas as disease, birth, growth, and death. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Cultural anthropology E.A . HOEBEL – Culture is the sum total of learned behavioral patterns . 1. PREHISTORIC ARCHEOLOGY BEALS & HOIJER – It deals with ancient cultures and with past phases of modern civilization. . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Cultural anthropology 2. SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY CHARLES WINIK – Social anthropology is the study of social behavior especially from the point of view of the systematic comparative study of social forms and institutions. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Human evolution PRIMATOLOGY PRIMATE PALEONTOLOGY Mammal Protheria Theria Metatheria Eutheria Primate www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Characteristics of primates 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Limbs - prehensile Thumb / great toe Nails - grasping function Teeth - adopted for mixed food Mammary gland - lactation Brain - well developed Clavicle www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Classification of primates  Prosimian  anthropoidea www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Classification of primates 1.      Prosimian primates ( 60 mil years ) a. lemuroidea - lemur, loris b. torsoidea - torsier Earliest true primates Well developed cerebellar cortices Limbs had highly mobile joints Unspecialised tooth cusps Dental formula – I 2/2 C1/1 PM 3/3 M3/3 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. ANTHROPOIDEA 1. Ceboidea ( Platyrrhine of New World Monkeys) 2. Cercopithecoidea ( Catarrine Of Old World Monkeys ) 3. Hominoidea www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. ANTHROPOIDEA CEBOIDEA – ( spider monkey ) The higher primates Dental formula – I 2/2, C1/1, PM2/2, M3/3  4 blunt cusps on molars  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. ANTHROPOIDEA Cercopithecidae –( Macaque monkey ) 1. 2. 3. Arboreal in their habits Non prehensile tails Dental formula – I2/2, C1/1, PM2/2, M3/3 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. HOMINOIDEA Hominoidea is further sub divided into   Pongids Australopithecines www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. ANTHROPOIDEA Pongids ( Great apes ) Ex : Gibbons, Gorillas, Orang-utans, Chimpanzees     Large brains Pelvic girdle & legs became more robust Orangutans remained arboreal Chimpanzees, gorillas are quadripedal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. HOMINOIDS AUSTRALOPITHECINES First bipedal fossil anthropoids found in rocks of Eastern & South Africa ( 1-3.6 mil years ago ) HOMO ERUCTUS ( Upright man ) HOMOSAPIENS SAPIENS NIANDERTHALENSIS ( Cro-magnon man ) HOMOSAPIENS ( Neanderthal man ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Neanderthal man skull-Very large -Dolico cephalic -Face is highly developed with maxillay prognathism -Lower jaw is strong & large -chin is less prominent -human dentition -canine is of ordinary size www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Cro-magnon man Skull–large & massive -face is short, and flat -maxillary region shows less marked prognathism -lower jaw is strong & not massive -a well marked chin www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. MODERN MAN Final steps to modern man ( 20 mil years ) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Remarkable increase in brain size gave the forehead a more domed appearance Folding of cerebral cortex Bipedal walking Use of hands for manipulation Occipital ridges became small www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. MODERN MAN 7. Simplification of nasal region 8. Reduced prognathism 9. Chin increased in prominence 10. Angle between base of the skull and cervical vertebrae is 900 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Evolution of human face Face is the seat of principle sense organs In lower vertebrates No fully ossified skeleton Jaw muscles are merely modified gill arch muscles Teeth are specialisations of tough shagreen or skin with minute calcified papillae or denticles In the amphibians The bony plates behind the jaws have disappeared, leaving an exposed area –orbit notch www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. In the fossil, mammal like reptiles The bony mask of the temporal region is perforated Complex dentary – lower jaw Dentary becomes enlarged & presses external pterygoid muscle, forming the cushion – meniscus ( glenoid fossa ) Heat regulating devices Forward migration of neck muscles Bony mask was replaced by skin www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. FACIAL FORM Each person’s face is a custom made original Anthropologists can reconstructs the face from a dry skull The biologic rationale underlying common variations : 1. Different facial types 2. Male & female developmental facial differences 3. Child & adult facial differences www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Head form Two general extremes  Dolicocephalic ( long, narrow )  leptoprosopic Brachycephalic ( Wide, short, globular ) euryprosopic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. DOLICOCEPHALIC Nose is longer & Protrusive with Aquiline type of Nasal contour  Convex profile  Cheek bones are less prominent  Longer, narrower, & deeper maxillary arch & palate  Downward & backward rotation of the mandible  Receding chin  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. BRACHYCEPHALIC Nose is protrusively shorter (rounded tip )  Prominent cheek bones  Concave / straight profile  Wider, shorter and more shallow palate and maxillary arch  Mandible is more protrusive  More prominent chin  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. DINARIC HEAD FORM Dinaric Alps, Yugoslavia “Brachycephalised dolicocephalic” Flattened occipital regions Bossing of parietal regions Skull has triangular configuration Fore head is sloping & the profile tending towards orthognathic Mandible tends to be less retrusive www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Male versus female features Size & configuration of the nose  Fore head  Cheek bones  upper jaw look more prominent in females  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Child versus adult features    Nasal part is small Dentition ( primary & permanent ) Jaw bones (masticatory musles & airway) Head form Sexual dimorphism www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. Child versus adult features Child’s face is not a miniature of the adult face 1. Forehead 2. Face appears diminutive in child 3. Nasal region 4. Eyes appears wide set 5. Mandible is small 6. chin is incompletely formed www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Evolution of teeth Lobe finned fishes - upper & lower jaws had bone bearing plates ( labyrinthodont ) - peg formed teeth Reptiles & mammals  teeth are set in separate sockets  cone shaped canines  milk teeth & permanent teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. RACE “A group that differs from other classes or human group by virtue of some specific physiological characteristics that are found uniformly within that group” - Maclver & page www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. RACIAL CLASSIFICATION Important characters used for racial determination :  skin colour  hair  head form  face  nose  eye  stature  blood groups www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. CLASSIFICATION CATEGORIES OF CRITERIA    COMMON VARIABLE CHARACTERS COMMON PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS RARE GENETIC CHARACTERS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. RACIAL CLASSIFICATION 1. NEGROID 2. CAUCASOID 3. MANGOLOID AUSTRALOIDS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. NEGROIDS African negroes & oceanic negros       woolly or frizzly hair on the head Black coloured skin Nose is broad and flat Lips are thick and everted Facial prognathism Brow ridges are small www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. MANGOLOID PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS     Black, straight, coarse hair Yellowish brown colour skin Broad flat face with prominent cheek bones Mangoloid fold www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. MANGOLOIDS CLASSIC / CENTRAL MANGOLOID -Northern Chaina, Tibet& Mangolia 2. ARCTIC / ESKIMOID -Northern Asia, arctic coast of north America 3. INDONESIAN - MALAY MANGOLOID -Japan, Thailand, Southern China 4. AMERICAN INDIAN -North, Middle, and South America 1. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. CAUCASOID Skin – fair, olive & all shades of brown Hair – flat, wavy to various degrees of curliness Head form –dolicocephalic to brachycephalic Nose – leptorrhine to mesorrhine Jaws –no prognathism Chin - pronounced www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. CAUCASOIDS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. MEDITERRANEAN- all sea shores ( India, Spain, Portugal, France etc. ) NORDIC – Scandinavians, Northern Germany, Northern France ALPINE – Central Europe EAST BALTIC – North eastern Germany, Poland, Baltic states DINARIC –Dinaric alps region in Yugoslavia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. CAUCASOIDS 6. ARMENOIDS – turkey, Syria,Palestine Iraq, Iran 7. CELTIC – Iceland, Scotland and western Europe 8. LAPP – Norway, Sweden 9. INDO-DRAVIDIAN –south & central India 10. POLYNESIAN – Polynesian islands of the pacific e.g. New Zealand 11. AINU – ancient stock of Japan www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Australoids They closely resemble the Caucasoids in many characters 1. 2. Australian aborigins -Australia Pre-Dravidian ( veddoid )- South and central India including Typical Indian tribes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Races in india Sir Herbert Risley ( > 75 yrs ) Based on Indo-Aryans ( west ) mangoloids ( east)  Dravidian  Indo Aryan  Mangoloid www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. RACES IN INDIA Based on the measurements on the samples of indian population – Risley 1. 2. 3. Turko- iranian – they inhabitat the Baluchistan ( now in Pakistan ). Tall in nature& brachycephalic Indo- aryan – eastern part of Punjab Rajastan & Kashmir. Tall & fair complexioned Scytho-dravidian- hilly traces of Madhya pradesh, & Coorg. Medium statured & Brachycephalic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50.  Aryo- dravidian – U.P. Rajastan & Bihar. Short statured & mesocephalic  Mangolo- dravidian- Bengal & Orissa Stature is medium & sometimes short, round headed with medium nose  Mangoloid – Himalayan regions ( Nepal, Bhutan, Assam, & North eastern states www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Dental anthropology Beginning - Eighties of 18th century Recognised - 20th century Founder of american journal of physical anthropology – Ales Hrdlicka The term dental anthropology was used in early 1900s www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Different aspects of anthropology ( applied anthropology )      Dental development Dental pathology Dental morphology Forensic odontology odontometry www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. DENTAL DEVELOPMENT Tooth eruption standards which are relatively independent of general body growth and skeletal maturation are of great significance in the diagnosis & treatment planning of children with growth disturbances protein-calorie malnutrition ( PCM ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. PATHOLOGY Dental caries – it is a pathologic condition of the teeth resulting in the decalcification of the dentin, enamel and the disintegration of the remaining organic material often leading to the loss of teeth. Caries susceptibility expresses the inherent or acquired proneness to caries Low incidence of caries in the prehistoric as also in the living tribal communities – coarse & fibrous food products www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. DENTAL MORPHOLOGY Teeth are best preserved & most easily accessible anatomical system of the body. pioneering studies – Hrdlicka, Dahlberg, Campbell, Hellmen, Krogman, Moorrees etc. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. 1.Supernumerary teeth or hyperdontia - causes dental disturbances by interfering with normal eruption - either peg shaped or have large crown - Higher frequency in the maxilla -Campbell conducted a study on the skulls and living Australian aborigines.(1.8% ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. 2.Carabelli’s cusp or anomaly Von Carabelli in 1842 Its occurrence – back to paleolithic man An elevation or tubercle on the lingual surface of the mesio-lingual cusp of the maxillary molars particularly the first one A marker for differentiation between different ethnic groups. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. 3.Shovel-shaped incisors “SHOVELLING” – Muhlreiter ( 1870 ) A condition resulting from a combination of a concave lingual surface and elevated mesial and distal marginal ridges enclosing a central fossa in the upper and lower incisor teeth Hrdlicka ( 1911 ) had done pioneering work in dental anthropology and reported pronounced shovelling in the incisors of american indians www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. Acco. to Hrdlicka – 4 grades of shovelling Shovel- enamel rim has well developed fossa 2. Semi shovel- enamel rim is distinct but with shallower fossa 3. Trace shovel- enamel rim has distinct traces 4. No shovel- enamel rim has no fossa HELLMAN –marked, medium, trace, and absent 1. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. 4.Diastema It is a space or gap present between the maxillary central incisors or between the lateral incisors and canines Former – median diastema (combined with small laterla incisors or large labial frenum) Latter – lateral diastema (found in anthropoid apes & certain fossil men ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. 5. Crowding Lasker – inheritence of large teeth from one parent and a small jaw from the other 6. Cingulum or lingual cusp A shelf or swelling which is found on the tooth just above the central line Site of development of many supernumerary cusps www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. 7. Occlusion Relationship between the masticatory surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth when the mouth is closed -heriditory factors -environmental factors The term ‘malocclusion’ is illdefined and biased - corrucini & whitley www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. 1. Overjet – normal (2-4mm), - positive (>5mm) - extreme positive(>7mm) - negative, extreme negative 2. Overbite3. Posterior cross bite 4.buccal segment relation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY Deals with the identification & study of human teeth identification of a person involved in mass disasters ( autobobile/aircraft accidents, floods, building collapse and industrial hazards) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. ODONTOMETRY Tooth size standards based on odontometry can be used in the age & sex determination of skeletal and also living population Studies – males have larger teeth (mesio distal crown diameters ) - canines show greatest amount of sexual dimorphism -Europeans have smaller teeth than mangolians or other racial groups www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. Dr.V. Rami reddy conducted a retrospective cross sectional study on population of Gulbarga disrtict (1971-1975) 1. 2. 3. Eruptiion pattern Dental caries Dental morphology . . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. AIMS & OBJECTIVES 1. 2. 3. To indicate the general and detailed eruption pattern of different types of deciduous and permanent teeth by variables such as sex, age and economic status. To indicate the general and detailed prevalence of caries in both deciduous & permanent teeth by above variables To indicate the general & detailed frequency occurrence of various morphological traits. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. Deciduous & permanent dental eruption    The times of onset as well as completion of eruption are earlier in females than males Mandibular teeth precedes over maxillary teeth in both sexes Teeth eruption is fast in higher income group children www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. Dental caries – deciduous dentition By sex  Male children (33.4%)>female children( 26.8% ) By income  Lower income group > upper income group By age  Central incisors –5 years  Lateral incisors – 3 years  Canines – 6 years  First & second molars – 7 to 10 years www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. Dental caries – permanent dentition By sex  Difference is insignificant (females > males ) By income  Upper income group > middle & lower By age  Incisors – 22 to 23 years  Canines – free from the disease  Premolars & molars – 22-23 years www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. Dental morphology Supernumerary teeth Permanent dentition ( 0.86% ) > deciduous dentition ( 0.06% ) Maxilla > mandible – Ruffer ( 1920 ) Carabelli’s anomaly 35% out of total deciduous teeth& 27% of permanent dentition Female > male www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. Dental morphology Crowding both dentitions Female > male Diastema Deciduous teeth > permanent teeth -Male > female www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. “Epidemological transition” Phenomenon of changes in frequencies of certain serious diseases – omeron (1971) ‘diseases of civilisation’ or ‘western diseases’ – Trowell & Burkitt www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. “Epidemolodic transition in minor diseases”   Chronic allergy – cow’s milk, dust, pollution and food additives Oral breathing – facial collapse syndrome - narrowing of the upper arch - buccal cross bites www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. Bite force studies normal adult chewing – 15-17kg of force maximum - 28-39kg of force Bite force is relevant to the functional aspects of dento-facial dysplasia. Ordinary chewing and maximum bite forces were significantly higher among more traditional rural Punjabi youths than among urban youths - Corruccini & Kaul www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77.  Solution is the restoration of proper function by means of chewing hard , fibrous foods – stimulate the masticatory apparatus - greater flow of the alkaline saliva www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. Evolution of teeth  Non mammalian vertebrates – Polyphyodonty  During growth of the animal – increase in the jaw size is associated with tooth size (Trout – number will increase ) In mammals –Diphyodonty (2 dentitions )  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. Dentition of fishes ( agnatha ) EX; Sea lamprey    No true calcified teeth Arranged circumferentially Horny teeth are also seen on the tongue www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. Chondrichthyes (bony fishes )    All types of dental specialisations Homodont & polyphyodont Teeth are covered by enameloid lower jaw of shark www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. osteochthyes    Haplodont – prehention Polyphyodont Teeth- vomer, palatine bones roof of the mouth & tongue www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. Amphibia   Small, homodont, polyphyodont – prehension In the frog – small teeth on the upper jaw & no teeth on the lower jaw www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. Reptiles Homodont & polyphyodont  Tend to be tricuspid or cone shaped  Egg teeth – in embryos of lizards & snakes - used to break the shell  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. Dentition of mammals    Heterodont ( 4 types ) Restricted to 2 rows Ability to masticate – improves digestive efficiency for high rate of metabolism www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. Other features       TMJ articulation Salivary glands Prismatic enamel Diphyodonty Secondary palate Significant muscle development www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. Dentition of protheria  Spiny ant eater – edentulous  Duck bulled platypus – 3 functional posterior teeth in each jaw quadrant  A No. additional teeth develop but do not erupt or resorb www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. Metatheria     An unusual feature – only last premolar will have a successor Anteriorly many teeth are present but not functional Morphology is same with placental animals Dental formula – 3/3, 0/0, 1/1, 4/4 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. Eutheria Insectivoral Ex; hedge hog    Molars – primitive trabacular form with sharp, high cusps which interdigitate with those of the opposite jaw Suitable for crushing the shells of insects www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. Rodentia Ex; rat    Heterogenous Continuously growing incisors DF 1/1, 0/0. 0/0, 3/3 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. Carnivora   Enlarged canines – offensive weapons More prominent specialisations are in cat family www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. Primates Prosimian Ex; lemur Herbivorous & insectivorous DF – 2/2, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3 Lower incisors & canines are prominent mid line diastema www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. Anthropoidea     Macaca monkey DF – 2/2, 1/1, 2/2, 3/3 Canines are long & prominent ( esp. in male ) Lateral diastema www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. Differences between apes & man      Apes ‘U’ shaped arches Edge to edge incisor relation Male canines are large Lateral diastema Pointed cusps man parabolic overlap of upper & lower incisors no sexual dimorphism no lateral diastema rounded cusps www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. ANTHROPOSCOPY    Anthropos – human Skopein - examine Judging the body by inspection Cannot be expressed numerically Head must be in the rest position – the relationship of paired features will be assessed www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. Criteria for judgment  examiner’s esthetic perception & experience  Paired features are judged for level, contour & size www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. Qualitative signs  Head 1.Hairline – distinctive, indistinctive 2.Forehead – unilaterally protruding forehead www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. Face 1. FACIAL PROFILE – Normal Bird like Dish like www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. Shape of the face Proportionate Long& narrow short& wide www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. Shape of the face square triangular trapezoid www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. Facial mid axis quality In midline concave with dislocated chin www.indiandentalacademy.com
  101. 101. Chin contour Indented flat www.indiandentalacademy.com
  102. 102. ANTHROPOMETRY “It is a systematised art of measuring and taking observations of man, his skeleton, his brain or other organs, by the most reliable means and methods for scientific purposes” -ALES HRDLICKA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  103. 103. Anthropos -human & metron -measure Anthropometry represents the typical and traditional tool of physical anthropology Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840) 3 types of head form 1. Square 2. Long 3. Laterally compressed www.indiandentalacademy.com
  104. 104. Broca, Flower, Turner further developed the study of the skulls on the foundations laid by Blumenbach Father of Anthropometry – BROCA Broca’s methods were universal until 1870 In 1874, Ihering pointed out the weaknesses in Broca’s method craniometric conferences were held at Munich(1877) and Berlin(1880) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  105. 105. Kollmann, Ranke, and Virchow prepared a scheme for craniometric techniques. This was presented and approved at the 13 th general congress of the German Anthropological Society held at Frankfurt (1882) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  106. 106. SUBDIVISIONS OF ANTHROPOMETRY  SOMATOMETRY -Living body including  Osteometry  Craniometry Physiometry  head and face -Skeletal long and short bones -Skull -Bodily & mental functions www.indiandentalacademy.com
  107. 107. MEASURING TOOLS & TECHNIQUES REQUISITES 1. 2. 3. 4. Should be accurate Not easily distorted Handy or easy to manipulate Easily transportable for field work www.indiandentalacademy.com
  108. 108. The standard instruments sliding caliper - it measures the linear projective distances between 2 land marks in the same plane Ex; eye fissure length,mouth width www.indiandentalacademy.com
  109. 109. 2. Spreading caliper When the projective linear distance has to be determined between distant surfaces and various planes Ex; length of the head & width of the head www.indiandentalacademy.com
  110. 110. Soft metric tape Used for determining the tangential linear distances taken along the skin surface between 2 land marks Ex; maxillary & mandibular arcs of the face www.indiandentalacademy.com
  111. 111. Large double sliding calipers with levels –used when measuring projective distances involving the vertex and the opisthocranion land marks of the head www.indiandentalacademy.com
  112. 112. Measuring tools with various modifications  Nose deviation protractor  Nostril inclination protractor  Nasal root and alar- slope angle meter www.indiandentalacademy.com
  113. 113. Multipurpose facial angle meter   Pointed portion –measuring nasofrontal,nasolabial, mentolabial angles Small & large forked portions – determining the nasal tip & mentocervical angles www.indiandentalacademy.com
  114. 114. Commercial angle meter www.indiandentalacademy.com
  115. 115. Selection of subjects Selection will be on the basis of  Blood – 1.between individuals of same race 2. Between individuals of different race  Normalcy – pathologic conditions & anomalies alter the size, shape, & other characters ( rachtis, pagets disease, & clefts )  Age & sex www.indiandentalacademy.com
  116. 116. Age – 1. Eruption of teeth 2. Union of epiphysis 3. Condition of teeth 4. Condition of cranial structures - sutures 5. General condition of the weight of the bones  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  117. 117. Positioning the subject Subjects to be seated in the dental chair with the head resting on the head support Head of the examiner must be level with the head of the subject Standard orientation of the head –FH plane  Projective measurements www.indiandentalacademy.com
  118. 118. FACIAL MID LINE 3 anatomic points    The nasion ( root of the nose ) The subnasale (base of the columella ) The gnathion / menton (lower edge of the mandible www.indiandentalacademy.com
  119. 119. Land marks ‘Certain anatomic points used to take body measurements’ Short abbreviations used instead of full names ( small letters ) ex; nasion – n Land marks may have similar name but differ in location Ex; porion To avoid errors – they should be marked on the skin www.indiandentalacademy.com
  120. 120. Head Vertex – highest point of the head  Glabella – most prominent midline point between eyebrows  Opisthocranion – most posterior point of the line of greatest head length  Eurion – the most prominent lateral point on each side of the skull  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  121. 121. Land marks www.indiandentalacademy.com
  122. 122. Measurements of head region HORIZONTAL HEAD POSITION 1. Width of the head – eu to eu 2. Width of the forehead - ft to ft 3. Skull base width - t to t www.indiandentalacademy.com
  123. 123. Perpendicular head position Height of the culvarium – v-tr 2. Anterior height of the head v-n 3. Specific height of the head – v-en 4. Height of the head & nose – v to sn 5. Combined height of the head & face – v to gn 1. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  124. 124.  Length of the head g to op Circumference of the head  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  125. 125. Face  Width of the face zy to zy  Width of the mandible go to go www.indiandentalacademy.com
  126. 126. Height of the upper profile – tr to prn  Height of the lower profile – prn to gn  Lower half of the cranio- facial height – en to gn  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  127. 127. Facial arc measurements  Supra-orbital arc  Maxillary arc  Mandibular arc www.indiandentalacademy.com
  128. 128. Height of the mandibular ramus – go to cdl   Depth of the body go to gn www.indiandentalacademy.com
  129. 129. Depth measurements of the face 1. 2. 3. 4. Tragion-glabellar depth Tragion-nasion depth Tragion-subnasaledepth Tragion-gnathion depth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  130. 130. Nose  Nasofrontal angle Angle between the proximal nasal bridge contour and the anterior surface of the forehead below the glabella www.indiandentalacademy.com
  131. 131.  Nasal tip angle Angle between columella & nasal bridge www.indiandentalacademy.com
  132. 132. Naso labial angle ( septolabial angle or columella labial angle)  Angle between columella & upper lip skin www.indiandentalacademy.com
  133. 133. Lips & mouth Width of the mouth ( inter commisural distance )  ch to ch www.indiandentalacademy.com
  134. 134. Upper lip height Sn to sto  Height of the skin portion of the upper lip sn to ls  Height of the skin portion of the lower lip li to sl  Lower lip height - sto to sl  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  135. 135. Vermilion height of the upper lip ls to sto  Vermilion height of the lower lip sto to li  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  136. 136.  Labio mental angle – between skin surface of the lower lip and the surface contour of the chin www.indiandentalacademy.com
  137. 137. Sources of errors in anthropometry & anthroposcopy Commonest sources of error:    Improper identification of landmarks Inadequate use of measuring equipment Improper measuring technique www.indiandentalacademy.com
  138. 138. anthropometry Improper identification of land marks: Soft tissue land marks – easy to locate in a healthy person’ face & difficult in a deformed face Bony land marks – palpation easy to locate – orbitale difficult to locate – gonion In congenitally deformed faces – reference to adjacent structures www.indiandentalacademy.com
  139. 139. Head  Vertex – depends upon the FH plane  Eurion – difficult to locate on irregular surface  Glabella – replaced by a point in the mid axis of the face at the level of the upper ridge of the eyebrows  Trichion – difficult to locate in early childhood, & at the first stages of baldness www.indiandentalacademy.com
  140. 140. Face  Zygion – difficult to locate in 1st & 2nd brachial arch syndromes  Gonion – difficult if they are covered with thick skin & hypo plastic mandible  Pogonion – difficult in receding chin & ‘falso pogonion protrusion’  Gnathion – markedly receding lower jaw www.indiandentalacademy.com
  141. 141. Nose  Nasion – difficult after injuries, noses with silastic implants, deep naso-frontal angle  Subnasale – at the bottom of the curve of the curve but difficult to locate in sharp angle  Pronasale – best viewed from profile difficult in bifid nose with uneven tip heights www.indiandentalacademy.com
  142. 142. Lips & mouth  Stomion – mid point of the labial fissure dislocated mouth- philtrum  Labrale superious – position varies after surgery of cleft lip  Chelion – points at right & left commisures of the labial fissure difficult in older patients because of a fine shallow ridge of the skin repeated inspection www.indiandentalacademy.com
  143. 143. Problems with measuring tools     Standard measurements are not used If they are used improperly examiner should be familiar with the areas Accuracy varies with instruments sliding calipers – accurate sliding calipers – up to 3mm error tape –shortens the distance when pressed & should be tightened to eliminate the effect of the hair fabric tape follows the contours of the face www.indiandentalacademy.com
  144. 144. Improper measuring technique  POSITION OF THE HEAD – improper measurements ( especially projective measurements )  Head tends to return to the rest position during examination – must be checked before measurement 50 to 100 of error in inclination  In patients with asymmetric FHs, the difference between two horizontals must be assessed Farkas – left FH is closer to the rest position  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  145. 145. FACIAL MID LINE – border between right & left halves Errors can be made in judging the facial asymmetry Nasion is the most stable point The heights will be changed with expressions on the face ( crying, smiling ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  146. 146. Anthroposcopy  Errors result from 1. Incorrect positioning of the patient’s head Wrong angle of view of the examiner’s eyes Poor lighting Poor esthetic assessment & talent 2. 3. 4. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  147. 147. Head Visual judgment of the height of the fore head depends on the 1. Position of the head during inspection 2. Inclination of the fore head 3. Position of the ears Face  Lower face height would appear small in the presence of a receding mandible www.indiandentalacademy.com
  148. 148. Lips & mouth Frontal view – size of the upper lip depends on the naso-labial angle & the position of the skin surface Curved nasolabial angle & protruding skin – short upper lip Vertical upper lip & obtuse angle – longer lip www.indiandentalacademy.com
  149. 149. Nose www.indiandentalacademy.com
  150. 150. Applied anthropometry www.indiandentalacademy.com
  151. 151. Anthropometry in cleft lip & palate patients      Combined orthodontic & surgical treatment Poor esthetics and nasal deformity ( displacement of the soft tissue elements ) Esthetics – no uniform definition Goals - Balance & harmony Accepted standards www.indiandentalacademy.com
  152. 152.     Common technique – visual assessment based on the rating scale - subjective & unreliable Radiographic cephalometry Photographs Physical anthropometry – objective documentation of facial features - determination of need for surgery -comparison of facial features before & after surgery www.indiandentalacademy.com
  153. 153.  Morphological study of growth patterns of nasolabial region – Farkas  6 measurements in 1593 north American Caucasians ( 1 to 18 yrs )  Age 1 – highest growth of the cutaneous portion of the upper lip & width of the nose Age 5 – upper lip reaches adult size Age 14 to 15 – nose is fully developed   www.indiandentalacademy.com
  154. 154. In craniomaxillo- facial surgery “Anthropometry is the objective analysis that replaces subjective judgement”     Mean , standard deviations of key facial measurements at varied ages Rate of growth of each facial region Growth completion of each region Times of maturation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  155. 155.      Diagnosis of dysmorphology Treatment of syndromic patients In cosmetic surgery Reconstructive surgery Ortyhognathic surgery www.indiandentalacademy.com
  156. 156. In forensic medicine  Identification of missing children age 8 age 18 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  157. 157. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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