Alveolar bone / /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


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Alveolar bone / /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMYLeader in Continuing Dental Education www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. DEFINITION• It is defined as the parts of the maxilla and mandible that form and support the sockets of the teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. MACROANATOMYStructure• Alveolar bone structure 1-alveolar bone proper 2-trabecular bone 3-compact bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. • Alveolar processes are covered by compact bone which overlies a trabecular bone structure.• Within the trabecular bone structure the alveoli are situated within their walls of 0.1 to 0.4 mm thick compact bone plate.• Alveolar bone proper seen on radiograph as lamina dura which appears radiopaque. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. • The thickness of the compact cortical bone on the superficial / outer aspects of the alveolar process varies.• In incisors, canine and premolar regions the buccal cortical bone is thin and missing sometimes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. ALVEOLAR CROSS SECTION OF INDIVIDUAL TOOTHwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. PARS ALVEOLAR OF THE MAXILLA AT THE MID ROOT LEVEL OF THE TEETH• The walls of the sockets are lined by cortical bone (arrows) the area between the sockets and between compact jaw is occupied by cancellous bone.• This bone occupies most of the interdental septa.• Cancellous bone contains bone trabeculae. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. • Bone lining the walls of the sockets is continuous with the compact or cortical bone at the lingual and buccal aspects of the alveolar process (arrow)• Bone on the buccal and lingual aspects varies in thickness. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. DEHISCENCE • At the buccal aspect of the jaws, the bone coverage is missing at the coronal portion of the roots.FENESTRATION• If some bone is in the most coronal portions of such an area the defect is fenestration. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. • The compact bone lining the tooth socket is peforated by Volkman’s canals through which blood vessels, lymphatic and nerve fibres pass .• Bundle bone - Layer of bone into which Periodontal fibres are inserted. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. DEPOSITION• It is characterized by deposition of calcium salts in localized zones of connective tissue matrix near the developing tooth buds.• The osteoblast , the bone forming cells are producing bone matrix (osteoid consisting collagen fibres, glycoprotein and proteoglycans) Osteoid undergoes Mineralization ↓ Deposition of minerals such as Ca, phosphate ↓ Hydroxyapatite www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. RESORPTION• Resorption is usually carried out by osteoclasts. These are gaint cells specalized in break down of mineralized matrix which are developed from blood monocytes .REMODELING• Alveolar process undergoes continuous remodeling due to functional demands.• Bone resorption is seen generally on the pressure side .• Bone deposition is on the tension side of the moving tooth root. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. • Remodeling exhibit – Rough uneven surface with cavities and spicules – Histologically moth eaten and covered with osteoclasts – Apposition seen most often in apical 1/3rd and on the distal aspect of alveolus. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. MORPHOLOGY• The alveolar bone margins follows the contour of the cemento enamel line.• Scalloping margin mostly on the facial aspect• Interproximal bone between anterior teeth is pyramidal, in molar it is flat buccolingually.• For teeth rotated the margin is located coronally and scalloped. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. MICROANATOMY OF ALVEOLAR BONE• The alveolar process comprises of bone forming cells  osteoblast which secrete osteoid the main constituent of which are – Collagen – Glycoprotein – Proteoglycans• Bone collagen contain predominantly of type I collagen with small amounts of type III & IV collagen. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. • Initial stage they become engulfed by osteoid process produced by osteoblasts and gets transformed into osteocytes.• Osteocytes located are surrounded first by osteoid and then bone.• The resorption of the bone is carried out by multinucleated osteoclasts.• Actively resorbing osteoclasts adhere to the bone surface, and produce lacunar pits called HOWSHIPS LACUNAE. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. • The outer surface of the bone are lined by PERIOSTEUM containing collagen fibers, vessels, nerves and bone forming and resorbing cells.• The inner surface of the bone, the marrow spaces, are lined by ENDOSTEUM. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. REVERSAL LINE• New bone deposition is separated from previously formed bone by these lines. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. RESTING LINES• Periodic bone apposition alternates with periods of quiescence give rise to these lines.• These are mediated by numerous signal molecules, cytokines and growth hormones. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. • Osteocytes present in mineralized bone, communicate with osteoblast through canaliculi.• Osteocytes and delicate cytoplasmic process communicate through canliculis essential in diffusion of nutrition and waste products. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. NERVE SUPPLY• The proprioceptive nerves within the periodontal ligament have been shown to be directional. Thus the dentoalveolar unit is protected from damage from excessive forces.• The neural density in humans is said to be much higher in the intermediate region than in the apical region of the root. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP OF ALVEOLAR AND SUPPORTING BONE• The bone housing the tooth is dependent on the function exerted on the tooth to maintain structure.• Change in the bone is seen when stress to the teeth is withdrawn.• In jaws with teeth subjected to intense stress it is usually spongy and supporting bone composed of thicker or more trabeculae.• Although bone tissue is dependent on function for maintenance and arrangement of trabaculae other factors involved may be(eg: disturbance in bone metabolism). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. • The primary aim of preventive periodontitis and of periodontal therapy is the preservation and maintenance of the alveolar bone.• Knowledge of alveolar bone structure, morphology and physiology has become important as result of wide spread use of advanced surgical techniques for bone and procedures aimed at bone regeneration in the treatment of periodontal disease. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. www.indiandentalacademy.com

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