Alveolar bone / /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


Published on

Welcome to Indian Dental Academy
The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy has a unique training program & curriculum that provides students with exceptional clinical skills and enabling them to return to their office with high level confidence and start treating patients

State of the art comprehensive training-Faculty of world wide repute &Very affordable.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Alveolar bone / /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMYLeader in Continuing Dental Education
  2. 2. DEFINITION• It is defined as the parts of the maxilla and mandible that form and support the sockets of the teeth.
  3. 3. MACROANATOMYStructure• Alveolar bone structure 1-alveolar bone proper 2-trabecular bone 3-compact bone
  4. 4. • Alveolar processes are covered by compact bone which overlies a trabecular bone structure.• Within the trabecular bone structure the alveoli are situated within their walls of 0.1 to 0.4 mm thick compact bone plate.• Alveolar bone proper seen on radiograph as lamina dura which appears radiopaque.
  5. 5. • The thickness of the compact cortical bone on the superficial / outer aspects of the alveolar process varies.• In incisors, canine and premolar regions the buccal cortical bone is thin and missing sometimes.
  7. 7. PARS ALVEOLAR OF THE MAXILLA AT THE MID ROOT LEVEL OF THE TEETH• The walls of the sockets are lined by cortical bone (arrows) the area between the sockets and between compact jaw is occupied by cancellous bone.• This bone occupies most of the interdental septa.• Cancellous bone contains bone trabeculae.
  8. 8. • Bone lining the walls of the sockets is continuous with the compact or cortical bone at the lingual and buccal aspects of the alveolar process (arrow)• Bone on the buccal and lingual aspects varies in thickness.
  9. 9. DEHISCENCE • At the buccal aspect of the jaws, the bone coverage is missing at the coronal portion of the roots.FENESTRATION• If some bone is in the most coronal portions of such an area the defect is fenestration.
  10. 10. • The compact bone lining the tooth socket is peforated by Volkman’s canals through which blood vessels, lymphatic and nerve fibres pass .• Bundle bone - Layer of bone into which Periodontal fibres are inserted.
  11. 11. DEPOSITION• It is characterized by deposition of calcium salts in localized zones of connective tissue matrix near the developing tooth buds.• The osteoblast , the bone forming cells are producing bone matrix (osteoid consisting collagen fibres, glycoprotein and proteoglycans) Osteoid undergoes Mineralization ↓ Deposition of minerals such as Ca, phosphate ↓ Hydroxyapatite
  12. 12. RESORPTION• Resorption is usually carried out by osteoclasts. These are gaint cells specalized in break down of mineralized matrix which are developed from blood monocytes .REMODELING• Alveolar process undergoes continuous remodeling due to functional demands.• Bone resorption is seen generally on the pressure side .• Bone deposition is on the tension side of the moving tooth root.
  13. 13. • Remodeling exhibit – Rough uneven surface with cavities and spicules – Histologically moth eaten and covered with osteoclasts – Apposition seen most often in apical 1/3rd and on the distal aspect of alveolus.
  14. 14. MORPHOLOGY• The alveolar bone margins follows the contour of the cemento enamel line.• Scalloping margin mostly on the facial aspect• Interproximal bone between anterior teeth is pyramidal, in molar it is flat buccolingually.• For teeth rotated the margin is located coronally and scalloped.
  15. 15. MICROANATOMY OF ALVEOLAR BONE• The alveolar process comprises of bone forming cells  osteoblast which secrete osteoid the main constituent of which are – Collagen – Glycoprotein – Proteoglycans• Bone collagen contain predominantly of type I collagen with small amounts of type III & IV collagen.
  16. 16. • Initial stage they become engulfed by osteoid process produced by osteoblasts and gets transformed into osteocytes.• Osteocytes located are surrounded first by osteoid and then bone.• The resorption of the bone is carried out by multinucleated osteoclasts.• Actively resorbing osteoclasts adhere to the bone surface, and produce lacunar pits called HOWSHIPS LACUNAE.
  17. 17. • The outer surface of the bone are lined by PERIOSTEUM containing collagen fibers, vessels, nerves and bone forming and resorbing cells.• The inner surface of the bone, the marrow spaces, are lined by ENDOSTEUM.
  18. 18. REVERSAL LINE• New bone deposition is separated from previously formed bone by these lines.
  19. 19. RESTING LINES• Periodic bone apposition alternates with periods of quiescence give rise to these lines.• These are mediated by numerous signal molecules, cytokines and growth hormones.
  20. 20. • Osteocytes present in mineralized bone, communicate with osteoblast through canaliculi.• Osteocytes and delicate cytoplasmic process communicate through canliculis essential in diffusion of nutrition and waste products.
  21. 21. NERVE SUPPLY• The proprioceptive nerves within the periodontal ligament have been shown to be directional. Thus the dentoalveolar unit is protected from damage from excessive forces.• The neural density in humans is said to be much higher in the intermediate region than in the apical region of the root.
  22. 22. FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP OF ALVEOLAR AND SUPPORTING BONE• The bone housing the tooth is dependent on the function exerted on the tooth to maintain structure.• Change in the bone is seen when stress to the teeth is withdrawn.• In jaws with teeth subjected to intense stress it is usually spongy and supporting bone composed of thicker or more trabeculae.• Although bone tissue is dependent on function for maintenance and arrangement of trabaculae other factors involved may be(eg: disturbance in bone metabolism).
  23. 23. • The primary aim of preventive periodontitis and of periodontal therapy is the preservation and maintenance of the alveolar bone.• Knowledge of alveolar bone structure, morphology and physiology has become important as result of wide spread use of advanced surgical techniques for bone and procedures aimed at bone regeneration in the treatment of periodontal disease.
  24. 24.