EVALUATION OF CERAMICS FOR
ALL CERAMIC RESTORATIONS

INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.india...
One of the most serious drawbacks with the
earlier described porcelains was their lack of
strength and toughness which ser...
REINFORCED CERAMIC CORE
SYSTEMS

RESIN BONDED CERAMICS

www.indiandentalacademy.com
REINFORCED CERAMIC CORE
SYSTEMS
CORE CERAMIC
“Opaque dental ceramic material that

provides sufficient strength ,
toughnes...
RESIN BONDED
CERAMICS
Support Of Ceramic Is Provided By
Tooth Structure Itself By The
Bonding The Esthetic Ceramics
Direct...
WOL – CERAM
Based on high density core material from VITA InCeram Alumina.
WOL-CERAM EPC-CAM
(Electro-Phoretic Ceramic Dep...
Electronically Deposited Alumina Oxide coping
gives the highest marginal integrity.
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Ensures a Perfect Fit for ANY Preparation Designs

Featheredge

Chamfer

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shoulder
Electrically Conductive Wax Prior to
Dipping
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Advantages
Clinical ease of
preparation
Precise fit system
Natural looking
esthetics
Good strength
Indications

Full cover...
INCERAM SPINEL
(Vident)
Most Translucent
Glass infiltrated
Magnesium Aluminum Oxide core for
Improved Translucency
avoidin...
Reduced flexural strength - 350 mpa
(compared to Inceram Alumina 400500mpa)

Inlays
Onlays
Anterior Crowns
Veneers
www.ind...
INCERAM ZIRCONIA
Glass-infiltrated Alumina with 35% partially stabilized
Zirconia core
Good Marginal Fit
High strength of ...
Procera Allceram – Alumina based
( Nobel Biocare)
99.9 % Aluminum Oxide
Densely sintered, high purity alumina core on
whic...
Small defects caused by machining are eliminated
during sintering.
0.4 mm cores are used for esthetically critical
crowns ...
Strength is twice that of In-Ceram and
five times that of Empress
Anterior & Posterior Crowns
Veneers
Onlays
Inlays.
www.i...
PROCERA-ZIRCONIA BASED
Flexural strength TWICE that of Alumina
based

CAD-CAM
Ideal in areas of maximum strength
SINGLE UN...
YTTRIUM TETRAGONAL ZIRCONIA
POLYCRYSTALS (Y-TZP) BASED
MOST RECENT

Excellent Mechanical Properties and
Biocompatibility

...
Yttrium oxide is a stabilizing oxide added to
pure zirconia to stabilize it at room
temperature and to generate a multipha...
Y-TZP cores are Glass Free
Do not exhibit

SUB CRITICAL CRACK PROPAGATION.
PROPAGATION

Flexural strength of 900 to 1200 M...
ZIRCONIUM-OXIDE CERAMICS
indicated for
ENDODONTIC POSTS (Cera Post)
IMPLANT ABUTMENTS (Ceradapt)
FULL-COVERAGE CROWNS
FIXE...
CER ADAPT
(Wohlwend innovative).
ALUMINIUM OXIDE & YTRRIUM
STABILIZED ZIRCONIUM
OXIDE

High Flexural Strength
Biocompatibl...
Cercon(Dentsply) and Lava (3M ESPE)
Zirconia Core Ceramics
CERCON, DCS-PRESIDENT
White Colored Core limit their indication...
CERCON SYSTEM
Conventional Waxing
Techniques

DCS-PRESIDENT & LAVA systems
CAD Technology
&
Different Features and Design ...
Disadvantage with all High Strength Core
systems is that
None Of Them Are Amenable To Acid
Etching
Fit surface are made of...
RESIN BONDED CERAMICS
Etched with 9.6% Hydrofluoric Acid
Increase Strength of Porcelains
Natural dentine acts as Core
Exte...
RESIN BONDED CERAMICS

GLASS CERAMICS

LEUCITE BASED

FLUOROMICA BASED

LITHIUM DISILICATE BASED
www.indiandentalacademy.c...
GLASS CERAMICS
Multiphased solids containing a Residual Glass
Phase with a Finely Dispersed Crystalline
Phase
To ensure a ...
LEUCITE REINFORCED GLASS
CERAMICS
Leucite – KAlSi2O6
Reinforcing phase due to tangential stresses it
creates within the po...
Mechanical Strength is Insufficient for
construction of All Ceramic Bridges
Crowns
Inlays
Veneers
Leucite containing mater...
IPS FINNESSE
(Micro Dental Laboratories)
“PERFECTION IN

PORCELAIN”
8-10% leucite crystals

Less wear on
opposing dentitio...
HIGHLY POLISHABLE
Flexural strength – 125mpa
Fracture toughness – 1.25 Mpa.m1/2
INLAYS
ONLAYS
VENEERS
FULL COVERAGE CROWNS...
Authentic Pressable Ceramic
(Microstar)
Low Fusing

Most Delicate Forms can be Accurately
Reproduced
Staining and Layering...
Lithium Disilicate and Apatite Glass
Ceramics
IPS EMPRESS II
(Micro Dental Laboratories)
Lithium Disilicate crystals in gl...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Consists of small interlocking plate like crystals
randomly oriented which Block Propagation of
Cracks
Increased flexural ...
IPS ERIS
(Ivoclar)
LITHIUM DISILICATE crystals adds strength to bridge
spans

Layering material contains FLUOROAPATITE cry...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
HOT PRESSED CERAMIC
Ceramic is heated to a
specified
temperature and
forced under
pressure to fill a
cavity in a refractor...
1180 degrees over a period
of 45min

High Degree of Marginal Fit can be Achieved
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Although newer core ceramics have
excellent fracture resistance,
improper design of the connector
area of a FPD can signif...
TECHNIQUES
COPY MILLING and CAD-CAM

•
•
•
•

CAD-CAM
DCS–PRESIDENT -1991
AUTO MILL – 1994
CEREC 2 – 1994
CEREC 3 – 2000

...
CEREC SYSTEMS
(Seimens, Germany )

Utilizes CAD-CAM technology

• CEREC 2 System - 1994.

• CEREC 3 SYSTEM -2001
www.india...
CEREC 2 SYSTEM
CAD - CIM
COMPUTER INTEGRATED MILLING
The Marginal Fit and Accuracy of restorations
is Superior to CEREC
OC...
CEREC 2

OCCLUSAL MORPHOLOGY

www.indiandentalacademy.com

MACHINED
CEREC 3
Network and
Multimedia ready
combination with an

Intraoral Color Video
Camera
OR
Digital Radiographic
Unit

www.i...
Fabrication of restorations Accelerated
(24 min.-27% time saving)
Rapid occlusal and functional registration is
possible a...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
FORM GRINDING UNIT
Greater Detail than Cerec 2 and fitted with one
Cylindrical and one Tapered diamond rotatory
tool and c...
Intra Oral 3 Dimensional Scanning
Camera
Optical impression recorded with Single
Exposure from Single Viewing Line,
repres...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
SCANNING PRINCIPLE
Principle Of Active Triangulation
The camera projects a linear pattern under
triangulation angle on the...
CEREC 2 camera
Depth scale is limited to 6.4mm.with time
consuming software adjustments the depth scale
can be stretched t...
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN
The two -impression Correlation and Function
modes for designing crowns can proceed
using occlusion ...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
• The remaining intact cusps and part
of occlusal surfaces are recorded by
an “occlusal impression”

• After preparation t...
Computer Aided Machining
Cerec 3 system has a
Separate Recording and Design Unit
and
Form-Grinding Unit
www.indiandentalac...
The change from disks to Cylindrical and
Tapered burs were used to Replicate Better

Occlusal Morphology.
www.indiandental...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
CELAY SYSTEM
(Mikrona, Switzerland,1991
• Proinlay made from light
curing resin composite
directly in cavity/on the
die.

...
PROCERA SYSTEM
(Nobel Biocare,Sweden)

Procera Scanner
scans the surface
of the prepared
tooth
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Transmits the
information to a
computer controlled
design station, where
the Aluminum Oxide
copings are
fabricated.

www.i...
Review of Literature
1. Yoichiro Ichikawa et al (1992).
Conducted a study to evaluate the tissue reaction and
stability of...
3. Russell et al (1995)
Assessed the performance of the Procera system
and stated that it is cost effective, precise and
b...
5. Agneta Oden et al(1998)
Evaluated the clinical performance of 100 Procera
Allceram crowns after 5 years in service and
...
7. Antonio Scarano et al (2004)
Conducted a study to characterize the percentage of
surface covered bacteria on commercial...
Revolution in dental ceramics in the last decade led
to its use as Anterior and Posterior restorative
material.

• IPS FIN...
New materials and techniques in dental
ceramics will continue to play a role in
the provision of esthetic restorations.
Th...
References
• Anusavice Kenneth J.: Phillips Science of Dental Materials. 12th
edition, W.B. Saunders, 2001

• Combe E.C.: ...
•O’Brien W.J.: Dental material and their selection, 2nd ed.
Quintessence, 1997.
•Van Noort Richard: Introduction to dental...
•Josephine F Esquivel-_Upshaw, Kenneth J Anusavice.Int
J Prosthodont 2004;17:469-475
•Agneta Oden,Matts Anderson, Ivana Kr...
•Sseghi R R, Denry I L, Rosensteil S F .Relative Fracture
toughness and hardness of new dental ceramics. J Prosthet
Dent.1...
Thank you
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Leader in continuing dental education

www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Allceramic restorations /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy has a unique training program & curriculum that provides students with exceptional clinical skills and enabling them to return to their office with high level confidence and start treating patients

State of the art comprehensive training-Faculty of world wide repute &Very affordable.

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  • Allceramic restorations /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

    1. 1. EVALUATION OF CERAMICS FOR ALL CERAMIC RESTORATIONS INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
    2. 2. One of the most serious drawbacks with the earlier described porcelains was their lack of strength and toughness which seriously limited their use To overcome this the developments are 1. Provide dental porcelain with support from a stronger substructure 2. Ceramics which are stronger and tougher www.indiandentalacademy.com
    3. 3. REINFORCED CERAMIC CORE SYSTEMS RESIN BONDED CERAMICS www.indiandentalacademy.com
    4. 4. REINFORCED CERAMIC CORE SYSTEMS CORE CERAMIC “Opaque dental ceramic material that provides sufficient strength , toughness and stiffness to support overlying layers of veneering ceramics” - Philips’ www.indiandentalacademy.com
    5. 5. RESIN BONDED CERAMICS Support Of Ceramic Is Provided By Tooth Structure Itself By The Bonding The Esthetic Ceramics Directly To The Enamel And Dentine. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    6. 6. WOL – CERAM Based on high density core material from VITA InCeram Alumina. WOL-CERAM EPC-CAM (Electro-Phoretic Ceramic Deposition Technology & Computer Aided Manufacturing) www.indiandentalacademy.com
    7. 7. Electronically Deposited Alumina Oxide coping gives the highest marginal integrity. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    8. 8. Ensures a Perfect Fit for ANY Preparation Designs Featheredge Chamfer www.indiandentalacademy.com Shoulder
    9. 9. Electrically Conductive Wax Prior to Dipping www.indiandentalacademy.com
    10. 10. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    11. 11. Advantages Clinical ease of preparation Precise fit system Natural looking esthetics Good strength Indications Full coverage crowns Bridges www.indiandentalacademy.com
    12. 12. INCERAM SPINEL (Vident) Most Translucent Glass infiltrated Magnesium Aluminum Oxide core for Improved Translucency avoiding the typical yellow opacity of the In-Ceram www.indiandentalacademy.com
    13. 13. Reduced flexural strength - 350 mpa (compared to Inceram Alumina 400500mpa) Inlays Onlays Anterior Crowns Veneers www.indiandentalacademy.com
    14. 14. INCERAM ZIRCONIA Glass-infiltrated Alumina with 35% partially stabilized Zirconia core Good Marginal Fit High strength of 700 Mpa Fracture toughness- 6-8 Mpa.m1/2 High level of opacity - not recommended for Anterior Prosthesis Posterior Crowns and FPDs, Post & Core, Implants Strongest And Toughest Of Available Ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
    15. 15. Procera Allceram – Alumina based ( Nobel Biocare) 99.9 % Aluminum Oxide Densely sintered, high purity alumina core on which low fusing porcelain is built Local dental lab scan the dies and the information is sent to centres via internet enabled oversized www.indiandentalacademy.com dies to be made.
    16. 16. Small defects caused by machining are eliminated during sintering. 0.4 mm cores are used for esthetically critical crowns on anterior teeth and first premolars. Flexural strength is 487-699 MPa Fracture toughness- 4.48 – 6 MPa.m1/2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
    17. 17. Strength is twice that of In-Ceram and five times that of Empress Anterior & Posterior Crowns Veneers Onlays Inlays. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    18. 18. PROCERA-ZIRCONIA BASED Flexural strength TWICE that of Alumina based CAD-CAM Ideal in areas of maximum strength SINGLE UNITS ONLY www.indiandentalacademy.com
    19. 19. YTTRIUM TETRAGONAL ZIRCONIA POLYCRYSTALS (Y-TZP) BASED MOST RECENT Excellent Mechanical Properties and Biocompatibility Early 1990s - Endodontic’ Dowels and Implant Abutments. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    20. 20. Yttrium oxide is a stabilizing oxide added to pure zirconia to stabilize it at room temperature and to generate a multiphase material known as Partially Stabilized Zirconia which gives it its High Initial Strength and Fracture Toughness www.indiandentalacademy.com
    21. 21. Y-TZP cores are Glass Free Do not exhibit SUB CRITICAL CRACK PROPAGATION. PROPAGATION Flexural strength of 900 to 1200 MPa Double of Alumina-based Materials 3 Times Lithium DiSilicate–based Materials www.indiandentalacademy.com
    22. 22. ZIRCONIUM-OXIDE CERAMICS indicated for ENDODONTIC POSTS (Cera Post) IMPLANT ABUTMENTS (Ceradapt) FULL-COVERAGE CROWNS FIXED PARTIAL DENTURES www.indiandentalacademy.com
    23. 23. CER ADAPT (Wohlwend innovative). ALUMINIUM OXIDE & YTRRIUM STABILIZED ZIRCONIUM OXIDE High Flexural Strength Biocompatible Low Corrosion Potential. Low Thermal Conductivity Enhanced Tissue Compatibility Low Colonization Potential than www.indiandentalacademy.com Titanium
    24. 24. Cercon(Dentsply) and Lava (3M ESPE) Zirconia Core Ceramics CERCON, DCS-PRESIDENT White Colored Core limit their indications from an esthetic standpoint. LAVA Core Relatively Translucent and at the same time may Mask Underlying Discolored Abutments. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    25. 25. CERCON SYSTEM Conventional Waxing Techniques DCS-PRESIDENT & LAVA systems CAD Technology & Different Features and Design Options. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    26. 26. Disadvantage with all High Strength Core systems is that None Of Them Are Amenable To Acid Etching Fit surface are made of alumina rather than silica, no coupling agents are available that can effectively bond to the core resins CANNOT BE RESIN BONDED TO THE TOOTH SURFACE www.indiandentalacademy.com
    27. 27. RESIN BONDED CERAMICS Etched with 9.6% Hydrofluoric Acid Increase Strength of Porcelains Natural dentine acts as Core Extension of use from Veneers to Anterior and Posterior Crowns and Inlays www.indiandentalacademy.com
    28. 28. RESIN BONDED CERAMICS GLASS CERAMICS LEUCITE BASED FLUOROMICA BASED LITHIUM DISILICATE BASED www.indiandentalacademy.com
    29. 29. GLASS CERAMICS Multiphased solids containing a Residual Glass Phase with a Finely Dispersed Crystalline Phase To ensure a high strength of glass ceramic the crystals should be numerous and uniformly distributed throughout the glassy phase. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    30. 30. LEUCITE REINFORCED GLASS CERAMICS Leucite – KAlSi2O6 Reinforcing phase due to tangential stresses it creates within the porcelain Varies from 35%-50% by volume Flexural strength – 120 Mpa www.indiandentalacademy.com
    31. 31. Mechanical Strength is Insufficient for construction of All Ceramic Bridges Crowns Inlays Veneers Leucite containing materials are IPS Empress (Ivoclar) IPS Finnesse . Authentic Pressable Ceramics www.indiandentalacademy.com
    32. 32. IPS FINNESSE (Micro Dental Laboratories) “PERFECTION IN PORCELAIN” 8-10% leucite crystals Less wear on opposing dentition www.indiandentalacademy.com
    33. 33. HIGHLY POLISHABLE Flexural strength – 125mpa Fracture toughness – 1.25 Mpa.m1/2 INLAYS ONLAYS VENEERS FULL COVERAGE CROWNS. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    34. 34. Authentic Pressable Ceramic (Microstar) Low Fusing Most Delicate Forms can be Accurately Reproduced Staining and Layering Technique Anterior Crowns Inlays/ Onlays Veneers www.indiandentalacademy.com
    35. 35. Lithium Disilicate and Apatite Glass Ceramics IPS EMPRESS II (Micro Dental Laboratories) Lithium Disilicate crystals in glass matrix Li2Si2O5 Veneering ceramic – Apatite Crystals 70% of volume of glass ceramic www.indiandentalacademy.com
    36. 36. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    37. 37. Consists of small interlocking plate like crystals randomly oriented which Block Propagation of Cracks Increased flexural strength – 350-450 MPa 3 times GREATER than IPS Empress Accurate fit Less Translucent than IPS Empress 3 unit FPDs Anterior to 2nd premolar CROWNS /VENEERS/INLAYS www.indiandentalacademy.com
    38. 38. IPS ERIS (Ivoclar) LITHIUM DISILICATE crystals adds strength to bridge spans Layering material contains FLUOROAPATITE crystals Flexural strength – 350-400MPa Fracture toughness - 3.2Mpa.m1/2 Excellent Marginal Adaptation Full Coverage Crowns and Anterior FPDs www.indiandentalacademy.com
    39. 39. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    40. 40. HOT PRESSED CERAMIC Ceramic is heated to a specified temperature and forced under pressure to fill a cavity in a refractory mould www.indiandentalacademy.com
    41. 41. 1180 degrees over a period of 45min High Degree of Marginal Fit can be Achieved www.indiandentalacademy.com
    42. 42. Although newer core ceramics have excellent fracture resistance, improper design of the connector area of a FPD can significantly reduce the fracture resistance and clinical survivability of the prosthesis www.indiandentalacademy.com
    43. 43. TECHNIQUES COPY MILLING and CAD-CAM • • • • CAD-CAM DCS–PRESIDENT -1991 AUTO MILL – 1994 CEREC 2 – 1994 CEREC 3 – 2000 COPY MILLING • CELAY – 1991 • PROCERA 1994 • PRO CAM - 1996 www.indiandentalacademy.com
    44. 44. CEREC SYSTEMS (Seimens, Germany ) Utilizes CAD-CAM technology • CEREC 2 System - 1994. • CEREC 3 SYSTEM -2001 www.indiandentalacademy.com
    45. 45. CEREC 2 SYSTEM CAD - CIM COMPUTER INTEGRATED MILLING The Marginal Fit and Accuracy of restorations is Superior to CEREC OCCLUSAL MORPHOLOGY MACHINED www.indiandentalacademy.com
    46. 46. CEREC 2 OCCLUSAL MORPHOLOGY www.indiandentalacademy.com MACHINED
    47. 47. CEREC 3 Network and Multimedia ready combination with an Intraoral Color Video Camera OR Digital Radiographic Unit www.indiandentalacademy.com
    48. 48. Fabrication of restorations Accelerated (24 min.-27% time saving) Rapid occlusal and functional registration is possible and ACCURATE OCCLUSION established Eliminates waiting periods for image adjustment, data storage , matching of two optical impressions in construction of occlusal surfaces with correlation and functional modes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    49. 49. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    50. 50. FORM GRINDING UNIT Greater Detail than Cerec 2 and fitted with one Cylindrical and one Tapered diamond rotatory tool and controlled with radio communication from the control unit independent of its location. The next restoration can be designed while the first is being milled www.indiandentalacademy.com
    51. 51. Intra Oral 3 Dimensional Scanning Camera Optical impression recorded with Single Exposure from Single Viewing Line, representing the Preparation and Insertion Axes respectively in a Fraction of a second without Reference Markings on the Teeth and is Reproducible. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    52. 52. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    53. 53. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    54. 54. SCANNING PRINCIPLE Principle Of Active Triangulation The camera projects a linear pattern under triangulation angle on the preparation, and the projected image is recorded. Amount of shift depending on the Depth of preparation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    55. 55. CEREC 2 camera Depth scale is limited to 6.4mm.with time consuming software adjustments the depth scale can be stretched to 14mm. CEREC 3 with active double triangulation principle preparation recorded from two different triangulation angles providing immediate depth scale of >20mm. The double set of data is processed immediately through a specialized ‘twin grab board’ www.indiandentalacademy.com
    56. 56. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN The two -impression Correlation and Function modes for designing crowns can proceed using occlusion and preparation optical impressions without loss of time Large carious lesion with loss of cusp or insufficient occlusal surface the situation can be recorded in function design mode. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    57. 57. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    58. 58. • The remaining intact cusps and part of occlusal surfaces are recorded by an “occlusal impression” • After preparation they are matched with the “preparation impressions” www.indiandentalacademy.com
    59. 59. Computer Aided Machining Cerec 3 system has a Separate Recording and Design Unit and Form-Grinding Unit www.indiandentalacademy.com
    60. 60. The change from disks to Cylindrical and Tapered burs were used to Replicate Better Occlusal Morphology. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    61. 61. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    62. 62. CELAY SYSTEM (Mikrona, Switzerland,1991 • Proinlay made from light curing resin composite directly in cavity/on the die. • The inner and occlusal morphology of proinlay are copied • Final restoration is performed by the CELAY Milling Machine. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    63. 63. PROCERA SYSTEM (Nobel Biocare,Sweden) Procera Scanner scans the surface of the prepared tooth www.indiandentalacademy.com
    64. 64. Transmits the information to a computer controlled design station, where the Aluminum Oxide copings are fabricated. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    65. 65. Review of Literature 1. Yoichiro Ichikawa et al (1992). Conducted a study to evaluate the tissue reaction and stability of partially stabilized Zirconia ,in vivo, with the use of subcutaneous implantation test. They concluded that zirconia ceramic is biocompatible and no degradation of the ceramic occurred 2. Seghi RR et al (1995). Evaluated the resistance to crack propagation of 11 ceramic materials which included Fluormica-, Leucite-, alumina-, and Zirconia-reinforced glasses. Their study showed that Alumina reinforced material had the highest toughness values and Leucite and Fluormica www.indiandentalacademy.com increase the toughness of ceramic materials.
    66. 66. 3. Russell et al (1995) Assessed the performance of the Procera system and stated that it is cost effective, precise and biocompatible computerized method of crown fabrication though not superior to manual laboratory fabrication procedures by the technician. 4. Wagner WC et al(1996) Conducted study on three ceramic crown core materials, namely Empress, Inceram and Procera Allceram for their biaxial flexural strength and fracture toughness. They concluded that both Procera and Inceram were superior to Empress in fractural toughness. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    67. 67. 5. Agneta Oden et al(1998) Evaluated the clinical performance of 100 Procera Allceram crowns after 5 years in service and concluded that the crowns maybe the restoration of choice for anterior and posterior single crown restorations. 6. Per Vult Von Steyen et al (2001) Investigated the properties of Inceram for use in Posterior FPD and evaluated the clinical methods regarding preparation technique, design and choice of cement. They concluded that when properly employed the Inceram technique is acceptable for 3 unit FPD in posterior region. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    68. 68. 7. Antonio Scarano et al (2004) Conducted a study to characterize the percentage of surface covered bacteria on commercially pure Titanium and Zirconium Oxide disks and showed that zirconium oxide maybe a suitable material for manufacturing Implant abutments with low colonization potential. 8. Josephine F Esquivel et al (2004) Conducted a research to determine the clinical success rate of lithium disilicate base core ceramic for use in Posterior FPD’s as a function of bite force, cement type, connector height and width. They concluded that the performance was promising with only 7 % fracture rate in 2 years. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    69. 69. Revolution in dental ceramics in the last decade led to its use as Anterior and Posterior restorative material. • IPS FINESSE is “Perfection in Porcelain” with improved esthetics and less wear on opposite tooth but with decreased strength • IPS Empress 2, Wol–ceram and IPS Finesse used for Anterior FPDs • Inceram Zirconia used for Posterior FPDS • Zirconia can also be used for Implants and Posts www.indiandentalacademy.com
    70. 70. New materials and techniques in dental ceramics will continue to play a role in the provision of esthetic restorations. The dentist needs to update himself about the recent advances in dental ceramics to ensure that correct choice is made for each patient www.indiandentalacademy.com
    71. 71. References • Anusavice Kenneth J.: Phillips Science of Dental Materials. 12th edition, W.B. Saunders, 2001 • Combe E.C.: Notes on dental materials: 6th ed. Churchill Livingstone, 1992. • Craig Robert G. and Powers J.M.: Restorative dental materials. 11th ed. Mosby Inc. 2002. • Gladwin Marcia, Bagby Michael: Clinical aspects of dental materials, Lippincott, 2000. • McCabe J.F. and Walls A.W.G.: Applied dental materials, 8th ed. Blackwell Science Limited, 1998. • www.indiandentalacademy.com
    72. 72. •O’Brien W.J.: Dental material and their selection, 2nd ed. Quintessence, 1997. •Van Noort Richard: Introduction to dental materials, Mosby 1994. •Ariel J Raigrodski. Contemporary materials and technologies for all-ceramic fixed partial dentures: areview of literature.J Prosthet Dent2004;92:557-62 •Yoichiro Ichikawa,Yasumasa Akagawa, Hirosama Nikai.Tissue Compatibility and Stability of New zirconia ceramic in vivo.J Prosthet Dent 1992;68:322-6 •Antonio Scarano,Maurizio P,Sergio C.bacterial adhesion on Commercially Pure titanium and zirconium oxide disks:An In Vivo Human study.J Periodontol Vol 75:No2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
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