Advances in diagnostic aids/certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

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Advances in diagnostic aids/certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Advances in Diagnostic Aids • Digital Cephalometry • Videocephalometry • DigiGraph • CT Scan • MRI
  2. 2. • Structured Light techinque • Laser scanning • Stereophotogrammetry • 3-D Study models
  3. 3. CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPHS • X- ray was discovered by Roentgen in1895. • W.A.Prince in 1900 – showed the importance of radiography as a diagnostic aid in orthodontics. • Hofrath (Germany) and Broadbent (US) in 1934 provided both, a research and a clinical tool for the study of malocclusion and underlying skeletal disproportion which still remains relatively unchanged today.
  4. 4. Lateral cephalogram have two purposes: - 1. It reveals details of skeletal and dental relationships that cannot be observed in any other way. 2. It evaluates the precise evaluation of response to the treatment.
  5. 5. Limitations of 2-dimensional cephalogram 1. It is a two dimensional representation of a three dimensional object. 2. Cephlalometric analyses are based on the assumption of perfect superimposition of the right and left sides, but this is observed infrequently.
  6. 6. Hand Wrist Radiograph
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Hand Wrist Radiographs ♦ Chronological age is often not sufficient for assessing the developmental stage and maturity of the patient. ♦ Thus, biological age has to be determined. ♦ Hand Wrist radiographs are an effective tool to assess the biological age.
  9. 9. ♦ In the early 1900s, Pryor(1907), Rotch(1908), and Crampton(1908) began tabulating indicators of maturity on sequential radiographs of the growing hand and wrist. ♦ Todd(1937) compiled hand-wrist data that was further elaborated on by Greulich and Pyle(1959) in atlas form.
  10. 10. ♦ Fishman(1979) developed a system of hand- wrist skeletal maturation indicators (SMIs) using four stages of bone maturation at six anatomic sites on the hand and the wrist. ♦ Hagg and Taranger(1980) created a method using the hand-wrist radiograph to correlate certain maturity indicators to the pubertal growth spurt.
  11. 11. Cervical Vertebrae Maturation Index
  12. 12. Study Cast Analysis
  13. 13. ♦ Study cast analysis is a three-dimensional assessment of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches and the occlusal relationships. ♦ The importance of this method of evaluation for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning in the past been over-emphasized.
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Symmetric Maxillary Arch
  16. 16. Midline shift in Maxillary Arch (right)
  17. 17. Measurement of Palatal Height
  18. 18. DIGIGRAPH • It allows any cephalometric point to be located within the three planes of space. • Digigraph work station is about 5x3x7 feet and requires about 25 feet of working area.
  19. 19. • Ear rods and forehead and posterior head pieces are used to minimize patient movement. • The ear rods can be removed so that facial and intraoral images can also be recorded while the patient is sitting in the adjustable chair.
  20. 20. Videocephalometry
  21. 21. Step 1
  22. 22. Step 2
  23. 23. Digital Radiography
  24. 24. • In digital radiography, instead of the silver halide grain, the image is constructed using pixels. • A digital image is a matrix of square pieces, or picture elements (pixels), that form a mosaic pattern from which the original image can be reconstructed for visual display.
  25. 25. Thank you For more details please visit