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major connectors / academy of fixed orthodontics


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major connectors / academy of fixed orthodontics

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education
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  5. 5. Each component of the prosthesis has a name that is most often descriptive of its function. A major connector, for example, does exactly what its name implies. The first reported used of a major connector was in 1728 by Pierre Fauchard.
  6. 6. IDEAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE MAJOR CONNECTOR 1. It should be rigid. 2. It should not impinge on free gingival margin and other soft tissues. 3. The borders should be parallel to the mean marginal gingival line and if any crossover it should be at right angle. 4. Should not allow food lodgment beneath it.
  7. 7. 5. Should provide vertical support (Maxilla), for the RPD. 6. Should provide indirect retention when needed (Mandible). 7. Should enable to place the denture bases where required. 8. Should be comfortable to the patient. 9.Should be made with a material, which is biocompatible.
  8. 8. 1. Single palatal strap. 2. Anterior-posterior palatal strap 3. Palatal plate type connector. 3. Anterior-posterior palatal bar 4. Single palatal bar 5. “U”shaped palatal connector. TYPES OF MAXILLARY MAJOR CONNECTORS
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  13. 13. 1. Lingual bar. 2. Linguo plate 3. Sublingual bar 4. Lingual bar with cingulum bar 5. Cingulum bar 6. Labial bar. TYPES OF MANDIBULAR MAJOR CONNECTORS
  14. 14. Anatomical and Structural Factors to be Considered While Designing Mandibular Major Connectors  Minimal support form the residual ridges so “indirect retention” is needed to achieve stability.  Less surface area for the major connector.  More movable tissues in the mandibular arch.  The shape of the basal bone in the anterolingual region i.e. lingual sulcus area.
  15. 15.  Level of the lingual frenum and its mobility.  Relief is frequently required for mandibular arch.  Beading is contraindicated.  Esthetics to be considered in case of large interproximal spaces.
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  20. 20. The selection of a major connector is not a difficult procedure if the dentist considers two important factors : The First is the degree to which the removable partial denture must be supported by structures other than the natural teeth.
  21. 21. The second is the degree of rigidity required of the major connector to adequately distribute functional stresses from one side of the arch to the other.
  22. 22. PRIMARY FACTORSPRIMARY FACTORS Support Support for the maxillary major connector is partly dependent upon the hard palate. The greater the coverage of the hard palate, the greater the support received from the palate.
  23. 23. Thus, the “ snowshoe’’ principle is in effect in that the stress load is distributed over a large area, and the force per unit area is reduced. Unfortunately, support similar to that derived from the palate cannot be obtained from the mandibular removable partial denture.
  24. 24. RigidityRigidity Rigidity of a maxillary major connector is enhanced by the joining of the anterior and posterior bars to from a circle. This union makes the major connector more than twice as rigid as each bar would be individually.
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  26. 26. Additional rigidity is obtained by use of the “ L’’ beam effect, i.e., metal lying in two different planes. For the mandibular major connector, encirclement cannot be accomplished. However, acceptable rigidity is obtained by thickening the inferior border of the lingual bar or plate.
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  29. 29. When considering support and rigidity, Table above will act as a guide for the selection of maxillary and mandibular major
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  31. 31. A mouth in which the teeth and supporting structuresA mouth in which the teeth and supporting structures are periodontally diseased might serve as aare periodontally diseased might serve as a typicaltypical exampleexample for the selection of a maxillary majorfor the selection of a maxillary major connector.connector. TheThe periodontally diseased mouth requires aperiodontally diseased mouth requires a rigidrigid major connectormajor connector that permitsthat permits optimum palatal supportoptimum palatal support..
  32. 32. Therefore, the major connector should be modified so as to distribute the stress over as broad a palatal surface as practicable.
  33. 33. Other considerations for selecting a major connector might be:  Whether the removable partial denture is opposed by an artificial denture.  Whether the residual ridge tissues are firm or movable.  Whether the remaining natural occlusion is heavy or weak.  Whether tori are present.  Whether the residual ridges are resorbed.  Whether the tissues of the floor of the mouth are attached high or low.
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  37. 37. This is a preferred connector because: It may be used for most designs Distributes masticatory stress over a wide area May be made wide or narrow depending upon the desired stress distribution.
  38. 38. A narrow strap (minimum of 8 mm) may be used for all tooth-supported removable partial dentures. The width of the strap should be increased for distal extension bases
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  40. 40. This strap may be used for most maxillary partial denture designs and especially when a torus is present. It has the effect of a circle, and the ‘‘L’’ beam effect is present.
  41. 41. Anterior and posterior bars (straps) should be at least 8 mm in width
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  43. 43. This connector may be used for bilateral distal extension partial dentures of a long span and may be used in combination with plastic resin
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  47. 47. This connector may be used where support is not a major consideration; bars are too narrow for adequate Support (usually less than 8 mm in width)
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  49. 49. This bar may be used for tooth-borne partial dentures only since it lacks rigidity and provides minimum support.
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  51. 51. This connector is very poor, because it is flexible with buccolingual movement occurring at the open ends. However, it may be used where a midline suture or a inoperable palatal tori exists.
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  54. 54. It should be used whenever possible. It permits exposure of gingival tissues to normal stimulation, and the superior margin should be located at least 3 mm from the gingival margins
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  57. 57. The lingual plate must be used when a high lingual frenum or the floor of the mouth prevents the use of a lingual bar. It may be used in combination with a labial bar for splinting. Terminal tooth rests should be used to provide a vertical stop at each end of the linguoplate to prevent labial movement of teeth.
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  61. 61. For more details please visit m