INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com


1.

Based on current understanding as we apply
orthodontic force on tooth following
changes in gross occurs
Primarily, ...
2. Secondly, generation of Piezo electric signal
as now stated more appropriately as
bioelectric potential in the form of ...
3. Thirdly, possibility of release of neuro
transmitters (example Substance P, Vaso
intestinal polypeptide VIP) on account...
Thus the primary stimulus such as that of
orthodontic force may elicit its response to
cell of PDL and bone in the form of...


It has been proved that cells in PDL and
bone cells posses receptors for these
substances (i.e. primary stimulus) and a...
Primary stimulus
Acts on
Pdl and bone cells
Interaction
between these cells
leads to
Transient
increase in the intracellul...
Secondary messenger
Takes signal to
Nucleus
In the nucleus of each cell different second
messengers account for the differ...


These transcription factors can produce
either cellular proliferation or cellular
differentiation leading to osteoblast...




Arachidonic acid can be released either by
phospholipidases activated by direct cellular damage
or by any nondestruc...




Classically Prostaglandins as one of the
mediators of inflammation cause an increase
in intracellular CAMP and Calci...


Recent studies indicate that Prostoglandins
increase the number of Osteoclasts as well
as stimulate Osteoblastic cell
d...




Cytokines secreted by leukocytes may interact
directly with bone cells or indirectly, via neighboring
cells, such as...


Interleukin I,



IL-6,



Tumor necrosis factor,





Granulocyte- macrophage colony
stimulating factor (GM-CSF)
M...




Growth Factors are also released during
inflammation and repair by the cells of PDL
and bone.
Another theory stated ...



Fibroblast Growth Factor (b FGF & a FGF),
Insulin like Growth Factors (IGF – I, IGF –
II),



Transforming Growth Fa...


VEGF (recombitent human vascular
endothelial Growth Factor) has shown to
stimulate macrophage colony stimulating
factor...
orthodontic force
Initial
step is
DETECTION OF
MECHANICAL STRAIN

Strain Released
potentials

Activation of
Ion channels
w...




Application of small bending forces to bones
is known to produce flow of interstitial fluid,
through the canalicular...
Application of forces to bone results in several potential
stimuli to bone cell function,




Hydrostatic pressure
Dire...
Events affecting osteocytes

Activates osteoblasts
or
Activates osteoclasts

www.indiandentalacademy.com


Ion Channels are tunnel shaped proteins that cross
the width of cell membrane and serve as selective
conductive pathway...
Ion channels can be divided in to groups depending
upon type of stimulus needed to activate the channel.
Major groups are
...




The macromolecules which make up the ECM
include collagen & glycose amino glycans.
These macromolecules are secreted...
Thank you
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Leader In continuing dental
education

www.indiandentalacademy.com
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0rthodontic tooth movement /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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Welcome to Indian Dental Academy
The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy has a unique training program & curriculum that provides students with exceptional clinical skills and enabling them to return to their office with high level confidence and start treating patients

State of the art comprehensive training-Faculty of world wide repute &Very affordable.

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0rthodontic tooth movement /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2.  1. Based on current understanding as we apply orthodontic force on tooth following changes in gross occurs Primarily, alteration in the blood flow which results in reduced oxygen level at compressed area and might be an increased oxygen level at tension side. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. 2. Secondly, generation of Piezo electric signal as now stated more appropriately as bioelectric potential in the form of small voltage of current which is released due to bending of bone and deformation of crystal structure. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. 3. Thirdly, possibility of release of neuro transmitters (example Substance P, Vaso intestinal polypeptide VIP) on account of physical distortion imposed by peripheral forces on paradental tissues such as nerve fibers and terminals www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Thus the primary stimulus such as that of orthodontic force may elicit its response to cell of PDL and bone in the form of release of    Bioelectric signals produced on account of bone bending Chemical mediators such as prostaglandins, cytokines, Nitric oxide (NO) etc., Release of neurotransmitters. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6.  It has been proved that cells in PDL and bone cells posses receptors for these substances (i.e. primary stimulus) and all these are highly interacting and interconnected. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. Primary stimulus Acts on Pdl and bone cells Interaction between these cells leads to Transient increase in the intracellular levels of second messengers www.indiandentalacademy.com CAMP IP3 Ca++
  8. 8. Secondary messenger Takes signal to Nucleus In the nucleus of each cell different second messengers account for the differential patterning, protein synthesis and Gene expression. Recently identified Immediate Early Gene expression include Cfos, Cjon mRNA, egr-I, SP1 growth differentiation factor 9B, extracellular GLA protein. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9.  These transcription factors can produce either cellular proliferation or cellular differentiation leading to osteoblastic bone formation or osteoclastic bone resorption. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10.   Arachidonic acid can be released either by phospholipidases activated by direct cellular damage or by any nondestructive perturbation of the membrane, be it physical, chemical, hormonal or neuro hormonal. Prostaglandins can also be termed as local hormones functioning to co-ordinate effects of those other hormones which induce prostaglandin synthesis and Prostaglandins function through G-protein linked receptors to elicit their cellular effects. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11.   Classically Prostaglandins as one of the mediators of inflammation cause an increase in intracellular CAMP and Calcium accumulation by Monocytic cells which then modulates and activates osteoclastic activity. Klein and Riasz in 1970 reported first time the involvement of Prostaglandins in OTM. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12.  Recent studies indicate that Prostoglandins increase the number of Osteoclasts as well as stimulate Osteoblastic cell differentiation and new bone formation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13.   Cytokines secreted by leukocytes may interact directly with bone cells or indirectly, via neighboring cells, such as monocytes/macrophages,lymphocytes and fibroblasts, through their production of cytokine, or a variety of Growth factors. Cytokines released have multiple activities, which include bone remodeling, bone resorption, new bone deposition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14.  Interleukin I,  IL-6,  Tumor necrosis factor,   Granulocyte- macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) Macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSF). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15.   Growth Factors are also released during inflammation and repair by the cells of PDL and bone. Another theory stated that the growth factors may secreted by bone cells and stored (bound to bound matrix) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16.   Fibroblast Growth Factor (b FGF & a FGF), Insulin like Growth Factors (IGF – I, IGF – II),  Transforming Growth Factor (TGF),  Platelet Growth Factor (PDGFS),  Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMP) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17.  VEGF (recombitent human vascular endothelial Growth Factor) has shown to stimulate macrophage colony stimulating factor, thereby enhancing number of osteoclasts and thus increased rate of OTM. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. orthodontic force Initial step is DETECTION OF MECHANICAL STRAIN Strain Released potentials Activation of Ion channels www.indiandentalacademy.com Three theories have been suggested on how these cells sense mechanical strain Extra cellular Matrix & cytoskeleton reorganization
  19. 19.   Application of small bending forces to bones is known to produce flow of interstitial fluid, through the canalicular network, generating streaming potentials. Osteocytes are more sensitive to mechanical stress than osteoblasts which are more sensitive than fibroblasts. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Application of forces to bone results in several potential stimuli to bone cell function,    Hydrostatic pressure Direct cell strain, Fluid flow induced shear stress Electric fields resulting form electro-kinetic effects accompanying fluid flow. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. Events affecting osteocytes Activates osteoblasts or Activates osteoclasts www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22.  Ion Channels are tunnel shaped proteins that cross the width of cell membrane and serve as selective conductive pathways for ions that cross the membrane as well as membranes surrounding intracellular organelles. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Ion channels can be divided in to groups depending upon type of stimulus needed to activate the channel. Major groups are    Voltage gated Ligand gated Response to changes in transmembrane potential. specific ligands that may attach to the cell membrane near channel opening. Mechanosensitive (stretch) ion channels. react to structural perturbations. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24.   The macromolecules which make up the ECM include collagen & glycose amino glycans. These macromolecules are secreted at local levels by cells, particularly fibroblast in the PDL & osteoblast in the bone. The matrix metallo proteins (MMPS) represents major class of enzymes responsible for ECM metabolism. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Thank you www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader In continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

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