Graphene : The Harbinger Of New Technology Revolution


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Graphene : The Harbinger Of New Technology Revolution

  1. 1. WELCOME<br />technospice presents<br />GRAPHENE<br />
  3. 3. Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov have shown that carbon in such a flat form has exceptional properties.<br />Konstantin Novoselow and Andre Geim were awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize<br />This at a time when many believed it was impossible for such thin crystalline materials to be stable.<br />
  4. 4. Carbon, the basis of all known life on earth, has surprised us once again.<br />Graphene is a form of carbon. <br />Graphene literally changes our lives in the 21st century<br />Interesting facts about graphene<br />Graphene is the thinnest possible material that is even feasible<br /> It conducts electricity better than any material known to man—at room temperature.<br />
  5. 5. Its is the best conductor of electricity ever known <br />As a conductor of heat it outperforms all other known materials. <br />It is a strong material<br /> It’s 97.3 percent transparent, but looks really cool under powerful microscopes<br />It is almost completely transparent<br />
  6. 6. Graphene makes experiments possible that give new twists to the phenomena in quantum physics. <br />Creation of new materials and the manufacture of innovative electronics<br />Graphene transistors are predicted to be substantially faster than today’s silicon transistors<br />Physicists can now study a new class of two-dimensional materials with unique properties.<br />
  7. 7. BRIEFHISTORY<br />The theory behind the substance graphene was first explored by theoretical physicist Philip Wallace in 1947.<br />The name graphene wasn't actually coined 40 years later<br />The term graphene first appeared in 1987<br />Graphene in itself however wasn't discovered until 2004 in its full observable and testable form<br />Since then, in the past 6 years, scientists have discovered that the substance retains some amazing properties. <br />Single layers of graphite were previously (starting from the 1970s) grown epitaxially on top of other materials.<br />There have also been a number of efforts to make very thin films of graphite by mechanical exfoliation<br />A key advance in the science of graphene was brought by  Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at Manchester University <br />Scotch tape technique<br />
  8. 8. PROPERTIES<br />Atomic structure<br />The atomic structure of isolated, single-layer graphene was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) <br />Hexagonal lattice <br />Suspended graphene also showed "rippling" of the flat sheet, with amplitude of about one nanometer.<br />
  9. 9. Electronic properties<br />Graphene differs from most conventional three-dimensional materials.<br />.<br />Intrinsic graphene is a semi-metal or zero-gap semiconductor<br />15,000 cm2V−1s−1<br />Graphene has a remarkably high electron mobility at room temperature<br />The mobility is nearly independent of temperature between 10 K and 100 K<br /> Resistivity of the graphene sheet would be 10−6 Ω·cm.<br />it absorbs πα ≈ 2.3% of white light<br />Optical properties<br />Unexpectedly high opacity for an atomic monolayer<br />This is "a consequence of the unusual low-energy electronic structure of monolayer graphene<br />It is further confirmed that such unique absorption could become saturated when the input optical intensity is above a threshold value<br />Due to this special property, graphene has wide application in ultrafast photonics<br /> <br />saturable absorption<br />saturation fluency<br />
  10. 10. Thermal properties<br />The near-room temperature thermal conductivity of graphene was recently measured to be between (4.84±0.44) ×103 to (5.30±0.48) ×103 Wm−1K−1. <br />Mechanical properties<br />As of 2009, graphene appears to be one of the strongest materials ever tested. <br />Bulk strength is 130GPa<br />200 times greater than steel<br />Graphene sheets, held together by van der Waals forces<br />
  11. 11. Mechanical cleavage<br />peeling off layers of graphite with a sticky tape<br />optical microscope image of<br />resulting flakes<br />
  12. 12. Dimensionality of carbon<br />diamond, graphite<br />GRAPHENE<br />realized in 2004<br />carbon nanotubes<br />fullerenes, buckyballs<br />
  13. 13. It's essentially the basic building block for graphitic materials of all other dimensionalities; it's a stepping stone to building bigger things<br />
  14. 14. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF GRAPHENE<br />Single molecule gas detection<br />Graphene-based sensors could sniff out dangerous molecules<br />Graphene nanoribbons<br />Graphene transistors<br />Integrated circuits<br />Transparent conducting electrodes<br />Solar cells<br />Anti-bacterial<br />Graphene biodevices<br />Nanogaps in graphene sheets may potentially provide a new technique for rapid DNA sequencing.<br />Escherichia coli<br />
  15. 15. MAJESTIC FUTURE<br /><ul><li>Advancements in touch screens</li></ul>It is practically transparent and a good conductor<br />Stiffer-stronger-lighter plastics<br />When mixed into plastics, graphene can turn them into conductors of electricity<br />
  16. 16. In the future, satellites, airplanes, and cars could be manufactured out of the new composite materials.<br />The fastest growing problem facing chip engineers today can be solved <br />
  17. 17. <ul><li>Better sports equipment
  18. 18. Stronger medical implants
  19. 19. Stronger wind turbines
  20. 20. Embedding the material in plastics to enable them to conduct electricity
  21. 21. Increasing the efficiency of electric batteries by use of graphene powder
  22. 22. Optoelectronics
  23. 23. Leak-tight, plastic containers that keep food fresh for weeks
  24. 24. Transparent conductive coatings for solar cells and displays
  25. 25. Super capacitors
  26. 26. Improved conductivity of materials;
  27. 27. High-power high frequency electronic devices
  28. 28. Artificial membranes for separating two liquid reservoirs
  29. 29. Replacing silicon in transistors
  30. 30. LCD's
  31. 31. Organic light-emitting diodes(OLEDs)
  32. 32. Graphene nanoribbons could be a way to construct ballistic transistors</li>