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  • HTM2119 Tourism Business, Ethics and Law CWM 8/2009 10/28/09
  • 10/28/09 HTM2119 Tourism Business, Ethics and Law
  • HTM2119 Tourism Business, Ethics and Law CWM 8/2009 10/28/09
  • 10/28/09 HTM2119 Tourism Business, Ethics and Law
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    1. 1. HTM2119 Tourism Business, Ethics and Law Methods in solving business disputes By Jamie Lo 2009/10
    2. 2. Resolving Business Disputes <ul><li>Ultimate solution is to resort to the courts. </li></ul><ul><li>Should endeavor to negotiate an amicable compromise </li></ul><ul><li>– i.e., a reconciliation – with a settlement which is acceptable to them both. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Options to resolve a dispute: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Mediation 斡旋 </li></ul><ul><li>Conciliation 調解 </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitration 仲裁 </li></ul><ul><li>Litigation - the courts 訴訟 </li></ul>Resolving Business Disputes
    4. 4. Methods in Resolving Business Disputes <ul><li>1. Mediation </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which the participants in a dispute, with the assistance of an independent third party, identify disputed issues in order to develop a mutually acceptable settlement. The ‘win or lose’ mentality of traditional dispute resolving processes is actively discouraged. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>2. Conciliation </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A more informal type of arbitration. The reason for appointing a conciliator is to provide the parties to the dispute with assistance in arriving at a settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Methods in Resolving Business Disputes
    6. 6. Methods in Resolving Business Disputes
    7. 7. <ul><li>3. Arbitration </li></ul><ul><li>The process whereby the parties to a dispute agree that an independent person will, acting in a judge-like manner, give a decision which they will be bound by. The decision of an arbitrator is called an award. </li></ul>Methods in Resolving Business Disputes
    8. 8. <ul><li>Settlement agreement and an award may, with the leave of the court, be enforced in the same way as a judgment of the court. </li></ul><ul><li>The award of the arbitrator is final. Court of First Instance has the jurisdiction to review an award made by an arbitrator on the grounds of error of law </li></ul>Methods in Resolving Business Disputes
    9. 9. <ul><li>Advantages of arbitration: </li></ul><ul><li>It may be cheaper than the courts, because there is no need for legal representation. </li></ul><ul><li>The case is heard in private, and neither the hearing nor the decision is reported in the press or in any law report. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The person selected to act as arbitrator will have relevant technical expertise. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The degree of formality at the hearing is decided by the parties themselves. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Methods in Resolving Business Disputes
    10. 10. <ul><li>The parties to the dispute make all the arrangements for the hearing and thereby determine their own timetable. </li></ul><ul><li>The decision of the arbitrator is final, and as a general rule there can be no appeal. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage of arbitration: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The main disadvantage of arbitration is its inconsistency. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Methods in Resolving Business Disputes
    11. 11. <ul><li>4. Litigation </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of litigation: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>   Strong tool for dispute resolution </li></ul><ul><li>   Generally legally correct decisions </li></ul><ul><li>   Possibility of several levels of appeal </li></ul><ul><li>  Final and binding </li></ul>Methods in Resolving Business Disputes
    12. 12. <ul><li>Disadvantages of litigation </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>   Expensive, time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>   Tends to destroy business relations </li></ul><ul><li>   May not be the best business decision </li></ul><ul><li>   Trials, judgments are open to public </li></ul>Methods in Resolving Business Disputes