HTM2118 India culture

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HTM2118 India culture

  1. 1. Culture a nd its impacts on hospitality industry Donna Eva Jackie Patty HTM 2118 Hospitality and Culture
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Flag & Emblem </li></ul>
  3. 3. Geography <ul><li>Area : 3,287,590 sq km </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World 7 th largest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arable land: 54.4% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>permanent crops: 2.74% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other: 42.86% (2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural hazards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Droughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flash floods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>severe thunderstorms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>earthquakes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. People <ul><li>Population:1,065,070,607 (July 2004 est.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World second largest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population growth rate:1.44% (2004 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Total fertility rate:2.85 children born/woman (2004 est.) </li></ul>
  5. 5. People <ul><li>Ethnic groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indo-Aryan 72%, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dravidian 25%, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongoloid and other 3% (2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu 81.3% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim 12% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian 2.3% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sikh 1.9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5% (2000) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. People <ul><li>Languages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindi (the national language ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindustani </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literacy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>total population: 59.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>male: 70.2% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>female: 48.3% (2003 est.) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Government <ul><li>Government type: federal republic </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: New Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK) </li></ul><ul><li>National holiday: Republic Day, 26 January (1950) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Economy <ul><li>GDP - per capita: $2,900 (2004 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>GDP - composition by sector: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agriculture: 23.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>industry: 28.4% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>services: 48% (2002 est.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population below poverty line: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25% (2002 est.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agricultural products </li></ul><ul><li>Industries </li></ul>
  9. 9. History <ul><li>over 4000 years </li></ul><ul><li>never seriously took to documenting their history </li></ul><ul><li>Indian history come from three sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archeology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreigner's Accounts </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BCE-1600 BCE) <ul><li>Mohen-jodaro </li></ul><ul><li>Harappa </li></ul><ul><li>sati (suttee) </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Vedic Age: The Aryans and Alexander the Great (1500 BCE-332 BCE) <ul><li>religion </li></ul><ul><li>classical language of Sanskrit </li></ul><ul><li>architecture </li></ul><ul><li>civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Priests </li></ul><ul><li>Commoners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The caste system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jainism </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Vedic Age: The Aryans and Alexander the Great (1500 BCE-332 BCE) <ul><li>Alexander the Great defeated Porus in 326 B.C.E </li></ul><ul><li>boosted trade contacts outside India </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Gupta Dynasty: The Golden Age of Indian Classicism (320-647 CE) <ul><li>Chandragupta II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romantic comedies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drama </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fables </li></ul><ul><li>Fairy tales </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Panchatantra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A Thousand and One Nights” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Aesop’s Fables” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The South Indian Kingdoms: Dynasties and Temple Culture (100 BCE-1565 CE) <ul><li>Cholas </li></ul><ul><li>Pandyas </li></ul><ul><li>Cheras </li></ul><ul><li>Home to temples </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Meenakshi Amman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temple </li></ul></ul>Nellaiappar Temple <ul><li>Nellaiappar Temple  </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Rajput Era: Clans, Campaigns and Chivalry (647-1296 CE) <ul><li>Warrior Rajput clans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chivalry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bravery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>passion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>devotion to war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Dark Age of India” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rigid caste system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>child marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polygamy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>persecution of Buddhists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glorification of sati </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Turkish Invasion and Rule: The Rise of Islam (997-1526 CE) <ul><li>Mahmud of Ghazni </li></ul><ul><li>ISLAM </li></ul><ul><li>Persian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new literary genre: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persian literature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>New architecture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mausoleums </li></ul></ul><ul><li>geometric </li></ul><ul><li>floral </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Moghul Dynasty: Political Ambitious and the Impact of Islam (1526-1858 CE) <ul><li>Taj Mahal </li></ul><ul><li>Red Fort </li></ul><ul><li>City of Fatehpur Sikri </li></ul><ul><li>7 extraordinary rulers </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Moghul Dynasty: Political Ambitious and the Impact of Islam (1526-1858 CE) <ul><li>landscaped gardens, dress, food, and customs based on the teachings of the Koran </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. pork and alcohol were forbidden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>surplus food always was to be shared with the poor. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Early European Voyages: Leading to British Rule (1500-1885 CE) <ul><li>EUROPEANS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese, French, Dutch, Danish, British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Portuguese king commissioned Francis Xavier to India to christianize Indians and went about converting thousands with zealous evangelism </li></ul><ul><li>  The East India Company arrived India in 1608 </li></ul>
  20. 20. The British Raj: From Trade to Dominion <ul><li>Mission schools and hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries study Indian languages </li></ul><ul><li>Bible printed in Bengali, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, and Marathi </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar books and dictionaries in local language flourished </li></ul><ul><li>official language - English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vanishing of local languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Westernization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spread of education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schools, universities, museums, libraries </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The British Raj: From Trade to Dominion <ul><li>Delhi, new capital in 1911, still houses the government today. </li></ul><ul><li>  Laws regulating inheritance, divorce, marriage and law of contracts were uniformly applied to all citizens of India. </li></ul><ul><li>Sati was prohibited in 1829 </li></ul><ul><li>Act of 1856 permitted widows to remarry, which was otherwise forbidden by Hindu law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These somehow raised the social status of Indian women. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Indian Nationalist Movement: The Road to Freedom and Democracy (1885 CE-PRESENT) <ul><li>The Indian National Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formed in 1885 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish national unity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seek economic freedom from the British </li></ul></ul><ul><li>INDEPENDANCE from Britain in 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>Mahatma Gandhi </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Indian Nationalist Movement: The Road to Freedom and Democracy (1885 CE-PRESENT) <ul><li>Hindu-Muslim partition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Indo-Pakistani War </li></ul><ul><li>terrorist attacks </li></ul>
  24. 24. India Today: Continuity and Technology <ul><li>Launched space satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Economic liberalization </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy has survived </li></ul><ul><li>A country of unrealized potential </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oppression of women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>illiteracy </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Impact on Culture <ul><li>Non-violent Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>never invaded any country in her history </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The British influence inspired western education and thoughts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a new educated class. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a common language – English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspired freedom and exchange of ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious tolerance and freedom of worship </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Impact on Culture <ul><ul><li>Religious tolerance and freedom of worship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hindus and Muslims live side by side but inter-religious marriages are rare </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gandhi’s non-violence movement for freedom appealed to the civilized world </li></ul><ul><li>Caste System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>almost all Indians are associated--are ranked </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Introduction of India Culture <ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Customs </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Arts </li></ul><ul><li>Performing arts </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation and Sports </li></ul>
  28. 28. Clothing <ul><li>related to local culture, religion and climate </li></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dhoti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kurta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sherwani </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salwar kameez </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kurta-paijama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>jeans </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>women’s clothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sari/ Saree/ Shari </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salwar kameez </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim dress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wearing pants and tee-shirts (influence of westernization) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Religion <ul><li>-Multi-religion </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism (80.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Islam (13.4%) </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity (2.3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Sikhism (1.9%) </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Jainism </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Varies from region to region </li></ul><ul><li>Hindus do not eat beef </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims do not eat pork or drink alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarian cuisine </li></ul><ul><li>Meat for the non-vegetarians (mainly lamb, chicken, and fish) </li></ul>Meal, drink & snack
  32. 32. <ul><li>Ingredients: mainly use herbs and spices </li></ul><ul><li>Curry – “Pan -Asian” dish </li></ul><ul><li>in favor of tea (most famous: Chai) </li></ul><ul><li>Snack & appetizers </li></ul>Meal, drink& snack
  33. 33. Custom <ul><li>respect elderly and touch their feet for blessing </li></ul><ul><li>Eat with fingers </li></ul><ul><li>Always use right hand to eat </li></ul><ul><li>wash their hands immediately after and before eating a meal </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that food tastes better when eating with one’s hands </li></ul><ul><li>Full or hungry? </li></ul><ul><li>Can't Say No </li></ul><ul><li>Shaking hands </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>take your footwear off when you enter a private house or temple </li></ul><ul><li>Indian names vary based upon religion, social class, and region of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>frangipani and white flowers cannot be the gifts </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow, green and red are lucky colour   </li></ul><ul><li>The people in India always </li></ul><ul><li>respect elders, honor heroes </li></ul><ul><li>and cherish love everywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Here is a custom to respect </li></ul><ul><li>elders and touch their feet as </li></ul><ul><li>to request their blessings </li></ul>
  35. 35. Family <ul><li>About joy and sharing, love and patience </li></ul><ul><li>Strong bonds with family members as well as relatives (Respect the elders) </li></ul><ul><li>Sons are always more preferred than daughters </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged marriages by parents </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely low divorce rate with only 1.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Most Women do not own any property in their own names </li></ul><ul><li>Women do not get share of parental property </li></ul>
  36. 36. Women Status <ul><li>have fraction of freedom </li></ul><ul><li>ask husband to go to grocers store </li></ul><ul><li>no freedom to pursue leisure activities </li></ul><ul><li>little participation in sports, music and arts </li></ul><ul><li>take care of home (i.e. big family) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Visual arts <ul><li>Painting </li></ul><ul><li>rock paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Cave paintings </li></ul><ul><li>a new era of Indian art with Indian classical styles </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Indus Valley civilization </li></ul><ul><li>some extremely intricate bronzes and temple carvings </li></ul><ul><li>Gupta period : a very high standard in execution and delicacy in modeling </li></ul><ul><li>contributed throughout Southeast Central and East A </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>a multitude of expressions over space and time, constantly absorbing new ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Indo-Islamic architecture </li></ul><ul><li>dome : to remind people that to gain God's blessing </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguished </li></ul><ul><li>others can see </li></ul><ul><li>Mosques: utilization of kiosks (chhatris), tall towers (minars) and half-domed double portals </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Mughak Empire in India : Arabic,Persian and Hindu elements. The Mughal Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Taj Mahal </li></ul><ul><li>one of the Seven Wonders of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Onion :about 35 meters high and sits on a cylindrical drum about 7 meters high. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Maurya and Gupta empires and their successors: Buddhist architectural complexes, </li></ul><ul><li>Later : South India produced several Hindu temples </li></ul><ul><li> strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture </li></ul><ul><li>eastern and southeastern Asia, due to the spread of Buddhism. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>temple mound or stupa, temple spire or sikhara, temple tower or pagoda and temple gate or torana  famous symbols of Asian culture </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary Indian </li></ul><ul><li>Lotus Temple </li></ul>
  43. 43. Performing arts <ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>multiples varieties of religious, folk, popular, pop, and classical music </li></ul><ul><li>Carnatic (South India) and Hindusatni music(North India) </li></ul><ul><li>heavily influenced by Hindu texts </li></ul><ul><li>the diverse traditions of folk music from different parts of the country </li></ul><ul><li>remains instrumental to the religious inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Dance </li></ul><ul><li>Dance and ceremonies  chief mode of entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>folk and classical forms </li></ul><ul><li>Folk dance e.g. the bhangra of the Punjab , the bihu of Assam , the chhau of Jharkhand and Orissa </li></ul><ul><li>Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological, devotional and spiritual elements. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Recreation and Sports <ul><li>N ational sport : field hockey </li></ul><ul><li>N ortheast : football (soccer) </li></ul><ul><li>Cricket :used recently for diplomatic relations between India and Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Recent : tennis and c hess </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional : kabaddi, Kho Kho and gilli-danda </li></ul><ul><li>competed in chariot racing, archery, horsemanship, military tactics, wrestling, weight lifting, hunting, swimming and running races </li></ul>
  46. 46. Hospitality Industry <ul><li>Indians all over the world is known for their hospitality and high level of patience. An Indians value is all about living life with a passion and observing the faith that there is one god existing even with so many religions. </li></ul>
  47. 47. What is India famous for? <ul><li>The palatial palaces , fantastic forts, impressive art and architecture, frescoes Havelis, magnificent temples </li></ul><ul><li>amazing diversified culture </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Increasing occupancy rates </li></ul>
  49. 49. Impact of Culture on India Hotel <ul><li>Attitude towards money  more service charge required </li></ul><ul><li>Tips : expected and eagerly sought </li></ul><ul><li>When and how to give are defined by situation </li></ul><ul><li>Some do ,some don’t </li></ul><ul><li>Bribing given before service; well done  tip </li></ul><ul><li>Hotel “volunteered” servants (group)  seeking for tips </li></ul>
  50. 50. Architecture of hotel <ul><li>Indo-Islamic architecture </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Domes </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic design </li></ul><ul><li>(arch) </li></ul>
  52. 52. Painting in hotels
  53. 53. <ul><li>Religious belief </li></ul><ul><li>Indian color </li></ul><ul><li>Let more tourists know about Indian arts </li></ul><ul><li>Attract folk artist </li></ul>
  54. 54. Servants in Hotel <ul><li>Wear Sherwani </li></ul><ul><li>(promote culture in India) </li></ul><ul><li>Less women-to-men ratio </li></ul><ul><li>( women are not fee to work, or may not be permitted to participate in service </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Industry) </li></ul><ul><li>Colour Yellow -symbolize richness, golden </li></ul><ul><li>- a lucky colour </li></ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul><ul><li>- Symbolize luck </li></ul>
  56. 56. Customers targeting <ul><li>Business travelers * stay in business hotel - crafts, buying cloth - textiles were popular </li></ul><ul><li>- with lower price - with Indian color and style - great softness, vivid colors and translucent texture </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Leisure travelers in resort hotel - like their beaches, cruises, diving, golf, romantic escapes, safari and adventure, snow and ski, etc </li></ul>
  58. 58. Hotel Spa <ul><li>traditional Indian wellness treatments </li></ul><ul><li>unfolds a way of life wherein the life force is the bedrock of wellness </li></ul><ul><li>maintain physical, mental and spiritual equilibrium. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment rooms </li></ul><ul><li>meditation and yoga pavilions, relaxation pools and fully-equipped gym </li></ul><ul><li>pure Indian herbs, indian aromatherapy oils, natural creams and special ingredients </li></ul>
  59. 59. Culture Impact on Tourism
  60. 60. Duration <ul><li>A long journey for leisure, usually last for more than ten days </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>People travel to explore the India culture and heritage </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. visit the temples </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Mountaineering </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. The Mighty Himalayan Mountains of India </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>Wildlife in India </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>Camel Safari </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>Join the festivals </li></ul><ul><li> e.g. the Dussehra Festival </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>Medical Tourism </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>Business traveling </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>Nightlife: cultural shows </li></ul><ul><li>No alcohol </li></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>Casino in GOA </li></ul><ul><li>culture restriction? </li></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><li>Dress code of the women travelers: as proper as you can </li></ul><ul><li>Respect the senior travelers ( India respect the elderly) </li></ul>
  71. 71. Impact of Culture on India Food and beverage business <ul><li>What to eat when traveling to India? </li></ul><ul><li>Spicy </li></ul><ul><li>combat the flu virus </li></ul><ul><li>healing and magical qualities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more valuable than gold or precious stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trade of spices : an extraordinarily influential factor in history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>add flavor and nutrients to dishes without fat or calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offer significant health benefits </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. <ul><li>Indian Chai </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spiced milk tea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made up of rich black tea and spices including whole cardamom pods pieces of stick cinnamon ginger cloves and pepper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Herb teas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the oldest and most reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>form of supplementation soothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>liquids provide hydration and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a fresh herbal taste </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. <ul><li>Filtered coffee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a favorite among South Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very sweet, milky version of coffee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian wines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>good red and a decent pink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition has been imposed in some states like Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Haryana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>** refreshing juice instead of wines in hospitality F&B </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. <ul><li>Herbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used for medicines, perfumes and Superstitious rituals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. Amla: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rich in Vitamin C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>good and black hair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has a cooling effect on our body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Medical Tourism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  75. 75. <ul><li>Alcohol: not culture of India </li></ul><ul><li>Bar : serving lower and middle/higher class </li></ul><ul><li>Large clubs are only found in 5-star hotel </li></ul><ul><li>Mumbai  travelers went to lively atmosphere and cheap beer </li></ul>
  76. 76. Reference <ul><li>Quinn, Brian. (1992-1993). World Travel Guide. : London,Columbus Press. P.403-421 </li></ul><ul><li>Hotel Overseas Jul-Sep 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>BMI India Tourism Report Q4 2009. : Business Monitor International LTD. </li></ul><ul><li>Carol E.henderson (2002). Culture and Customs of India, : Westport,CT: Greenwood Press. </li></ul><ul><li>India Chai Recipes, Retrieved October 17, 2009 from http://www.indianfoodsco.com/Recipes/hotbev_images/ChaiRecipes.htm </li></ul><ul><li>India Chai Recipes, Retrieved October 17, 2009 from http://www.indianfoodsco.com/Recipes/hotbev_images/ChaiRecipes.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Krannich,ronald L & Krannich, Caryl Rae (2000). Traveling smart. In The treasures and pleasure of India:Best of the Best (pp. 23-56). : Manassas Park, VA. Impact Publication. </li></ul>

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