Water and Minerals
<ul><li>By weight, the human body is 50-70% water by weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle tissue is about 73% water </li></...
Fig. 9.1
<ul><li>Solvent to host the body’s chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water...
Sources and Loss of Water Fig. 9.4
<ul><li>The AI for water (from food and beverage sources): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men: 15 cups/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Fig. 9.5
<ul><li>Basic metal elements that are essential to human health are minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Major minerals – need more ...
<ul><li>What makes minerals more readily absorbed by the body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing conditions of crops impact th...
<ul><li>Electrolyte – influences fluid balance and water distribution in the body </li></ul><ul><li>40% of salt is sodium ...
Fig. 9.7
Fig 9.8
Sodium <ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Normal blood pressure: 120/80 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li>High blood pressure: 140/90 or above </li></ul><ul><li>Many ...
<ul><li>Therapy:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diet lower in sodium, low in fat, high in fruits and vegetables, rich in calcium a...
<ul><li>Electrolyte </li></ul><ul><li>Other functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Potassium <ul><li>Deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be caused by vomiting, diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May con...
<ul><li>Electrolyte </li></ul><ul><li>Part of stomach acid (hydrochloric acid) </li></ul><ul><li>Source: primarily salt ad...
<ul><li>99% of body calcium found in bones and teeth </li></ul><ul><li>1% in blood calcium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crucial r...
<ul><li>Bone remodeling occurs constantly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts construct mineral crystals in bones </li></ul>...
<ul><li>AI = 1000 mg/day for adults </li></ul><ul><li>AI = 1200 mg/day if over 51 years old </li></ul><ul><li>AI = 1300 mg...
<ul><li>“ Porous bone” </li></ul><ul><li>Bones lose calcium, become weak and brittle, may break with little pressure or a ...
<ul><li>Essential oxygen-carrying part of hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Used by hundreds of enzymes as a cofactor </li></ul...
<ul><li>Recommendations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men and post-menopausal women: 8 mg/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women of...
<ul><li>One of the most common nutrient deficiencies worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>At risk: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children –...
<ul><li>Iron-deficiency anemia – normal red blood cell production inhibited, leading to less oxygen-carrying capacity </li...
<ul><li>Iron poisoning – most common cause poisoning death in children under 6 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Hemochomatosis ...
<ul><li>Cofactor for about 100 enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Helps “turn on” genes in DNA, leading to protein production for g...
<ul><li>Deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rash, diarrhea, reduced sense of taste and smell, hair loss, hindered growth in ...
<ul><li>70-80% is used in the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in regulating metab...
<ul><li>Fluoride inhibits bacterial damage to tooth enamel, inhibiting tooth decay </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly importan...
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Water and minerals ch 8 and 10 11

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Water and minerals ch 8 and 10 11

  1. 1. Water and Minerals
  2. 2. <ul><li>By weight, the human body is 50-70% water by weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle tissue is about 73% water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat tissue is about 20% water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where is water found in the body? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intracellular fluid (inside cells) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracellular fluid (outside cells) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma (fluid of blood) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interstitial fluid (between and surrounding cells) </li></ul></ul></ul>Water in the Body
  3. 3. Fig. 9.1
  4. 4. <ul><li>Solvent to host the body’s chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water has a high heat capacity (resists change in temperature) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooling = perspiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>600 kcal of energy “lost” in 1 quart of sweat! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body fluids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urine, joint lubricants, saliva, bile, amniotic fluid </li></ul></ul>Functions of Water
  5. 5. Sources and Loss of Water Fig. 9.4
  6. 6. <ul><li>The AI for water (from food and beverage sources): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men: 15 cups/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women: 11 cups/day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluid replacement critical during illness with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating </li></ul><ul><li>During/after exercise, 2-3 cups of water for every pound lost </li></ul>Hydration
  7. 7. Fig. 9.5
  8. 8. <ul><li>Basic metal elements that are essential to human health are minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Major minerals – need more of these </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: calcium, sodium, potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trace minerals – less required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: iron, zinc, fluoride </li></ul></ul>Minerals
  9. 9. <ul><li>What makes minerals more readily absorbed by the body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing conditions of crops impact the amount of minerals in produce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxalate (spinach, rhubarb) and phytate (whole grains) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal nutrient status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single mineral supplementation </li></ul></ul>Mineral Bioavailability
  10. 10. <ul><li>Electrolyte – influences fluid balance and water distribution in the body </li></ul><ul><li>40% of salt is sodium </li></ul><ul><li>The numbers for sodium: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AI = 1500 mg/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL = 2300 mg/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average intake in the U.S. = 3000-6000 mg/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 tsp salt = 2000 mg </li></ul></ul>Sodium
  11. 11. Fig. 9.7
  12. 12. Fig 9.8
  13. 13. Sodium <ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endurance sports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May lead to dehydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May encourage calcium loss in urine </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Normal blood pressure: 120/80 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li>High blood pressure: 140/90 or above </li></ul><ul><li>Many times, no specific cause </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly ¼ of adults have hypertension, even higher percentage of older adults </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries become scarred and narrowed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to develop atherosclerotic plaque </li></ul></ul>Hypertension
  15. 15. <ul><li>Therapy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diet lower in sodium, low in fat, high in fruits and vegetables, rich in calcium and potassium (DASH diet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce alcohol </li></ul></ul>Hypertension Fig. 9.26
  16. 16. <ul><li>Electrolyte </li></ul><ul><li>Other functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of blood pressure, heartbeat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in many foods, particularly fruits and vegetables </li></ul></ul>Potassium
  17. 17. Potassium <ul><li>Deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be caused by vomiting, diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May contribute to high blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause some bone loss, kidney stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disrupted heartbeat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cramps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be caused by kidney disease if kidneys do not filter out excess potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rare from foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can slow or stop heart </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Electrolyte </li></ul><ul><li>Part of stomach acid (hydrochloric acid) </li></ul><ul><li>Source: primarily salt added to foods </li></ul>Chloride
  19. 19. <ul><li>99% of body calcium found in bones and teeth </li></ul><ul><li>1% in blood calcium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crucial role in muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, blood clotting, blood pressure regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood calcium concentration tightly controlled at the expense of bone calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood tests may not indicate low calcium while bones may have significant calcium loss </li></ul></ul>Calcium
  20. 20. <ul><li>Bone remodeling occurs constantly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts construct mineral crystals in bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoclasts break down mineral crystals to be released from bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When bones are stressed, they become more dense (weight-bearing exercise) </li></ul></ul>Calcium
  21. 21. <ul><li>AI = 1000 mg/day for adults </li></ul><ul><li>AI = 1200 mg/day if over 51 years old </li></ul><ul><li>AI = 1300 mg/day if 9 to 18 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Average intake: women 650 mg/day, men 900 mg/day </li></ul><ul><li>Peak bone mass develops around age 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: dairy products, dark green leafy vegetables, fish with bones (sardines), fortified soy and fruit juices and breakfast cereals </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle factors that increase urinary calcium excretion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking and excess caffeine, protein, alcohol, sodium </li></ul></ul>Calcium
  22. 22. <ul><li>“ Porous bone” </li></ul><ul><li>Bones lose calcium, become weak and brittle, may break with little pressure or a gentle fall </li></ul><ul><li>Older females at highest risk </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate calcium intake during teen years and twenties, along with weight-bearing exercise throughout the lifespan crucial to protect bone density </li></ul>Osteoporosis
  23. 23. <ul><li>Essential oxygen-carrying part of hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Used by hundreds of enzymes as a cofactor </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that affect iron absorption: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heme sources – animal sources only (hemoglobin and myoglobin), best absorbed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-heme sources – plant, some animal sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legumes, green leafy vegetables, whole grains/enriched grains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetarians need to consume more iron to make up for lower bioavailability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phytic acid and oxalic acid decrease iron absorption </li></ul></ul>Iron
  24. 24. <ul><li>Recommendations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men and post-menopausal women: 8 mg/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women of child-bearing age: 18 mg/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnant women: 27 mg/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average intakes: 17 mg/day for men, only 12 mg/day for women </li></ul></ul>Iron
  25. 25. <ul><li>One of the most common nutrient deficiencies worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>At risk: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children – may cause stunted growth, apathy, irritability, learning disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menstruating and pregnant women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetarians </li></ul></ul>Iron Deficiency
  26. 26. <ul><li>Iron-deficiency anemia – normal red blood cell production inhibited, leading to less oxygen-carrying capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other symptoms: fatigue, pale appearance, poor tolerance to cool weather, immune system impairment, decreased ability to think and work </li></ul></ul>Iron Deficiency
  27. 27. <ul><li>Iron poisoning – most common cause poisoning death in children under 6 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Hemochomatosis – causes iron overload </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic defect allows continued absorption of iron past the body’s ability to store it safely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron accumulates in tissues, leading to severe organ damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High risk for heart disease, diabetes, liver cirrhosis and cancer </li></ul></ul>Iron Toxicity
  28. 28. <ul><li>Cofactor for about 100 enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Helps “turn on” genes in DNA, leading to protein production for growth </li></ul><ul><li>Immune system function </li></ul><ul><li>Food sources: protein-rich foods, whole grains, peanuts, beans </li></ul>Zinc
  29. 29. <ul><li>Deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rash, diarrhea, reduced sense of taste and smell, hair loss, hindered growth in children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does zinc help prevent colds? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No strong evidence that colds are prevented by zinc if adequately nourished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megadosing on zinc has a depressing effect on the immune system! </li></ul></ul>Zinc
  30. 30. <ul><li>70-80% is used in the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in regulating metabolic rate, promoting growth and development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficiency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goiter – enlarged thyroid gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cretinism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: most important is iodized salt </li></ul>Iodine
  31. 31. <ul><li>Fluoride inhibits bacterial damage to tooth enamel, inhibiting tooth decay </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly important in infancy and childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: some natural or fluoridated water, tea, seaweed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toothpaste, mouthwash </li></ul></ul><ul><li>40-60% fewer dental caries </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to higher fluoride may lead to tooth mottling </li></ul>Fluoride

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