Nutrition and the human body ch3


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Nutrition and the human body ch3

  1. 1. Nutrition and the Human Body Systems and Nutrient Interactions
  2. 2. Table 3.1
  3. 3. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arteries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Veins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, clotting factors, platelets, other components </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transports nutrients, waste products, gases, hormones, and helps with immune response and temperature regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portal vein – transports absorbed nutrients from small intestine to liver (except lipids) </li></ul></ul>Fig. 3.5
  5. 5. Lymphatic System <ul><li>Lymph vessels, lymph nodes, lymph fluid empties into cardiovascular system </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes foreign substances from blood and lymph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fights disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue fluid balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat absorption (first absorbed into the lymphatic system, then carried in the bloodstream) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Thinking Time <ul><li>Into which system are glucose and amino acids absorbed? Which structure carries them to the liver before being dispersed to the rest of the body? </li></ul><ul><li>Into which system is lipid absorbed? Which system eventually ends up carrying absorbed lipids? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nervous System <ul><li>Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate and control virtually all body activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific nutrition connections: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat coat on myelin sheaths (like “insulation” on live electrical wires) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some neurotransmitters formed from amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tryptophan  serotonin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tyrosine  dopamine, epinephrine </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Fig. 3.6
  9. 9. Endocrine System <ul><li>Glands and hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid gland, produces thyroid hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreas, produces insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal glands, produce adrenaline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates reproduction and cell metabolism </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Immune System <ul><li>Lymph system, skin, white blood cells, antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fights disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Nonspecific immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies are made from protein </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional deficiencies quickly lead to immunocompromised state </li></ul>
  11. 11. Thinking Time <ul><li>Why are antibodies and white blood cells part of “specific immunity?” </li></ul><ul><li>Why is skin the major component of “nonspecific immunity?” </li></ul><ul><li>Why does an elderly man with poor appetite and poor protein intake have an elevated risk for infections? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Urinary System <ul><li>Kidneys, ureters, bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter and remove waste and excess water-soluble vitamins and some minerals from blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help maintain acid-base balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form active vitamin D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make erythropoietin (hormone that stimulates red blood cell synthesis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make glucose from certain amino acids under fasting/starving conditions </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Digestive System <ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Most controlled by nervous system and hormones </li></ul>
  14. 15. Fig. 3.11 Enzymes – protein catalysts that help chemical or metabolic reactions to occur without being permanently changed themselves “ - ase” ending indicates an enzyme (ex: sucrase)
  15. 16. Digestive System <ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue, taste buds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flavor vs. taste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chewing, grinding, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salivary glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical digestion: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salivary amylase – begins digestion of starch </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lingual lipase – begins digestion of lipids </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Digestive System <ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swallow reflex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dysphagia – difficulty swallowing, serious health risk for inhaling food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GERD = gastroesophageal reflux disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peristalsis </li></ul></ul>Fig. 3.13 Fig. 3.12
  17. 18. Digestive System <ul><li>Stomach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 cup capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kill bacteria and parasites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inactivate biologically active proteins (“denatures” them) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convert digestive enzymes into active forms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convert minerals into more soluble forms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Digestive System <ul><li>Stomach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical digestion, cont. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pepsin – protein-digesting enzyme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activated by stomach acid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digests proteins into di- and tripeptides </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mucus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protects stomach from acid and enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Thinking Time <ul><li>Stomach acid protects us from the effects of biologically active proteins (enzymes and hormones) by denaturing them (change shape). When denatured, they are no longer active. Pepsin and other digestive enzymes break these proteins into amino acids, which are then absorbed and used by the body to make new proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the presence of bovine growth hormone in milk, or any other protein-based hormone or enzyme from a plant or animal, not of great concern for human health? </li></ul><ul><li>While food proteins are denatured, what happens to pepsin? </li></ul>
  20. 21. Digestive System <ul><li>Small intestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most digestion and absorption take place here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intestinal folds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Villi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microvilli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorptive cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brush border enzymes </li></ul></ul>Fig. 3.16
  21. 22. Digestive System <ul><li>Small intestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The structural features of this organ increase the absorptive surface over a flat tube by 600 times! That’s the size of a tennis court, covered by your small intestine! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intestinal folds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Villi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microvilli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorptive cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Digestive System <ul><li>Small intestine, cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessory organs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liver – produces bile from cholesterol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gall bladder – stores bile until dietary fat enters small intestine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreas – produces pancreatic juice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes, bicarbonate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Fig. 5.11
  23. 24. Thinking Time <ul><li>Why is there a thick layer of mucus covering the stomach wall? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is there NOT a thick layer of mucus covering the small intestine villi and absorptive cells? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of bicarbonate made by the pancreas? </li></ul>
  24. 25. Digestive System <ul><li>Large intestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbs some water, vitamins and minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial colonies ferment soluble fibers, produce vitamin K </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Diseases of the GI Tract <ul><li>Ulcers </li></ul><ul><li>GERD </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>IBS/IBD </li></ul><ul><li>Crohn’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul>