FOOD SAFETY Protecting Against Foodborne Illness
TYPES OF CONTAMINATION <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common cause of foodborne illness </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
PEOPLE MOST AT RISK <ul><li>People with depressed immune system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS, cancer, liver disease, dia...
MONITORING THE FOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>USDA = U.S. Department of Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grains, produce, meat, poul...
MONITORING THE FOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>FDA = Food and Drug Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foods in interstate commerce (...
FOOD SUPPLY RISK <ul><li>Meat, dairy, eggs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moist, high protein = excellent growth medium </li></ul><...
FOOD PRESERVATION <ul><li>Salt, sugar, sulfite additives </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Pasteurization (h...
COMMON BACTERIAL INFECTIONS <ul><li>Salmonella </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meat, poultry, eggs, fish, sprouts, unpasteurized mil...
COMMON VIRAL INFECTIONS <ul><li>Norovirus (human rotovirus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From human intestinal tract and feces </...
PRIONS <ul><li>Mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE) </li></ul><ul><li>High in nervous tissue </li></u...
GOOD FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES <ul><li>Purchasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frozen and perishables last </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
GOOD FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash hands for at least 20 seconds </li></ul></ul><...
GOOD FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES <ul><li>Cooking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid “Danger Zone” of 40 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit for...
PESTICIDE USE <ul><li>Consumers do not like to buy produce that has been damaged by pests </li></ul><ul><li>Pests cause bi...
PESTICIDE USE <ul><li>Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some pesticides may be toxic, carcinogenic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
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Food safety ch15

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Food safety ch15

  1. 1. FOOD SAFETY Protecting Against Foodborne Illness
  2. 2. TYPES OF CONTAMINATION <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common cause of foodborne illness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce in host </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fungi and parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for far fewer cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People generally report more fear over chemical contamination of food than of bacterial contamination </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. PEOPLE MOST AT RISK <ul><li>People with depressed immune system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS, cancer, liver disease, diabetes, on immunosuppressant medications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pregnant women </li></ul><ul><li>Infants, young children </li></ul><ul><li>Older adults </li></ul>
  4. 4. MONITORING THE FOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>USDA = U.S. Department of Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grains, produce, meat, poultry, milk, eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ATF = Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms and Explosives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcoholic beverages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EPA = Environmental Protection Agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticide use, water quality </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. MONITORING THE FOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>FDA = Food and Drug Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foods in interstate commerce (except meat and eggs), seafood, food labels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CDC = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors outbreaks, national prevention programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local governments </li></ul>
  6. 6. FOOD SUPPLY RISK <ul><li>Meat, dairy, eggs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moist, high protein = excellent growth medium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption of raw or undercooked animal products </li></ul><ul><li>Deli, salad bars, pre-prepared foods, restaurants </li></ul><ul><li>Imported RTE (ready-to-eat) foods </li></ul>
  7. 7. FOOD PRESERVATION <ul><li>Salt, sugar, sulfite additives </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Pasteurization (high heat to sterilize) </li></ul><ul><li>Fermentation (production of acid and alcohol inhibits bacterial growth) </li></ul><ul><li>Irradiation (like in microwave cooking) </li></ul>
  8. 8. COMMON BACTERIAL INFECTIONS <ul><li>Salmonella </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meat, poultry, eggs, fish, sprouts, unpasteurized milk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E. coli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beef, fruits, vegetables, sprouts, yogurt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listeria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft cheese made with unpasteurized milk, deli foods (cross-contamination) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clostridium botulinum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Botulism, spores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improperly canned foods, dented cans, mushrooms, spinach, beef, honey </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. COMMON VIRAL INFECTIONS <ul><li>Norovirus (human rotovirus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From human intestinal tract and feces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food contamination with sewage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fecal-oral contamination </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. PRIONS <ul><li>Mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE) </li></ul><ul><li>High in nervous tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banned in animal feed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooking does not destroy prions </li></ul>
  11. 11. GOOD FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES <ul><li>Purchasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frozen and perishables last </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle fresh produce first, in plastic bags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use ice chest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid damaged containers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pasteurized dairy products only </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. GOOD FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash hands for at least 20 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitize utensils, counters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid cross-contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate cutting boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thaw frozen foods in refrigerator, under cold running water, or in microwave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash fresh produce in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid moldy food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use refrigerated meat quickly </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. GOOD FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES <ul><li>Cooking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid “Danger Zone” of 40 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit for more than 2 hours for perishable foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cook foods thoroughly to recommended temperature </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. PESTICIDE USE <ul><li>Consumers do not like to buy produce that has been damaged by pests </li></ul><ul><li>Pests cause billions of dollars in crop damage annually </li></ul><ul><li>FDA, EPA and the USDA enforce pesticide use standards </li></ul><ul><li>Annual tests demonstrate low levels of pesticides in foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washing reduces pesticide exposure </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. PESTICIDE USE <ul><li>Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some pesticides may be toxic, carcinogenic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticides may persist in environment, contaminate water supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organic foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grown without traditional pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More costly, less risk for chemical contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May still cause foodborne illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: poor food handling practices much more dangerous than risk of pesticide consumption of conventionally-grown produce </li></ul></ul>

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