Eating disorders ch13

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Eating disorders ch13

  1. 1. EATING DISORDERS
  2. 2. EATING DISORDERS <ul><li>Disordered eating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual change from typical eating pattern as seen with an illness, holiday, a response to a stressful event, desire to improve appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eating disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal eating patterns that can lead to serious health risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often with history of abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged by culture obsessed with thin body image for women, built body image for men </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. TYPES OF EATING DISORDERS <ul><li>Three main classifications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anorexia nervosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-induced semi-starvation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulimia nervosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binge eating followed by “purging” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binge-eating disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsive overeating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binge eating without purging </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. ANOREXIA NERVOSA <ul><li>Means “nervous loss of appetite” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-induced semi-starvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drastically lower calorie intake than needed to maintain a healthy weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight is typically less than 85% of expected weight for height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BMI often less than 17.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 out of 10 victims are women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak onset age: 15 to 19 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevalent in sports and activities that emphasize leanness </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. ANOREXIA NERVOSA <ul><li>Characteristics and warning signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distorted body image (thinks she is “fat” when she is actually underweight) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfectionist, compulsive, competitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling of power or purity by controlling eating and weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to please others, cooperative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsessed with fear of weight gain (may weigh self multiple times daily) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preoccupation with food, calories, cooking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls hunger with huge water/diet soft drink intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible purging behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. ANOREXIA NERVOSA: HEALTH CONSEQUENCES <ul><li>Excessive weight loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of fat stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold intolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lanugo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakened, small heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bloating, constipation, abdominal pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of menstruation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>osteoporosis </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ANOREXIA NERVOSA: TREATMENT <ul><li>Combination of health specialists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May include hospitalization with very low weight or serious health complications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional intervention to develop realistic view of food </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. BULIMIA NERVOSA <ul><li>Means “great ox hunger” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binge eating and compensatory purging behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical victim: woman in her 20s or 30s, unmarried </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretive about binge and purge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel disorganized, out of control with food </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. BULIMIA NERVOSA <ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal or near-normal body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participates in binge/purge behavior at least twice a week for 3 months or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression, history of sexual abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant family conflicts, lack of clear family structure or roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binge – usually less than 2 hours, may contain up to 10,000 kcal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purge – effort to remove calories, by vomiting, use of laxatives or diuretics, vigorous exercise </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. BULIMIA NERVOSA: HEALTH CONSEQUENCES <ul><li>Electrolyte imbalance due to vomiting and diarrhea (laxative abuse) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May lead to irregular heartbeat, life-threatening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dental health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion of tooth enamel from stomach acid exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of salivary glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esophageal tears, ulcers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue, impaired thought processes </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. BULIMIA NERVOSA: TREATMENT <ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression, abuse history </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medical care, dental care as needed </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional intervention to change attitudes toward food </li></ul>
  12. 12. BINGE-EATING DISORDER <ul><li>Most common eating disorder in industrialized nations </li></ul><ul><li>Periods of uncontrolled eating, usually done secretively </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May control eating in public </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depression, other mental health issues common </li></ul><ul><li>May develop “grazing” patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Snacking over extended periods of time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress or conflict are frequent triggers for bingeing </li></ul>
  13. 13. BINGE-EATING DISORDER <ul><li>Warning signs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodes of binge eating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat when not hungry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent dieting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight fluctuations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapy to learn to separate emotions and separate physiological hunger from emotional need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing support appears to improve recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight-related diseases (obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, etc.) may need to be addressed </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. FEMALE ATHLETE TRIAD <ul><li>Eating disorders are prevalent in “lean” sports like swimming, gymnastics, dance </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced body weight (from fat) leads to amenorrhea and cessation of estrogen production </li></ul><ul><li>Amenorrhea leads to decreased calcium absorption, bone loss </li></ul>

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