Childhood through elders ch17 18


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Childhood through elders ch17 18

  1. 1. Lifecycle Nutrition Childhood, Adolescence and Elderly Nutrition
  2. 2. Measuring Growth <ul><li>Growth charts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow a child along a percentile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of growth charts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Height for Age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weight for Height </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Head Circumference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boys and Girls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>BMI not a valid health indicator in growing children </li></ul>
  3. 4. Nutrition Risks for Early Childhood <ul><li>Nutrients of concern: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein – high need for essential amino acids, RDA = 0.95-1.10 grams/kg body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron – stores depleted between 4 and 6 months of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc – critical for body growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin D – difficult to obtain enough from food, seasonal variation in production ability via sunlight exposure </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Early Childhood Eating Patterns <ul><li>Three main meals separated by snacks </li></ul><ul><li>Parents or caregivers are primary role models </li></ul><ul><li>Novel foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 exposures before a child no longer considers a food to be “new” anymore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satiety </li></ul><ul><li>Tiredness, hunger, excitement, consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy eating patterns begin early </li></ul>
  5. 6. Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture.
  6. 7. Nutrition Risks for Early Childhood <ul><li>Iron, vitamin deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Food jags </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet, fat flavors </li></ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul><ul><li>Constant snacking </li></ul><ul><li>Choking </li></ul>
  7. 8. Adolescent Nutrition <ul><li>Generally low risk </li></ul><ul><li>More peer influence, less parental influence </li></ul><ul><li>Eating disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anorexia nervosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulimia nervosa </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Alcohol and Nutrition <ul><li>Alcohol = ethanol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides 7 kcal/gram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One serving of alcohol depends on the alcohol content of the beverage (about 15 grams of ethanol per serving) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wine (4 oz) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beer (12 oz) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquor (1.5 oz) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Alcoholism – disease defined by the American Medical Association as impairment of physical and metal faculties due to chronic and excessive alcohol consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol is the most commonly abused drug worldwide </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Alcohol and Nutrition <ul><li>U.S. Dietary Guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you consume alcohol, do so in moderation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So what is moderate alcohol consumption? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 or fewer drinks/day for men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 or fewer drinks/day for women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NO alcohol intake is recommended during pregnancy due to risk of fetal alcohol syndrome </li></ul>
  10. 11. Alcohol and Nutrition <ul><li>Metabolism of alcohol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbed rapidly through stomach and small intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crosses cell membranes readily, including brain cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is released in urine, sweat, by lungs (BAC/breathalyzer) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rate of metabolism differs based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol dehydrogenase and gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic use </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Table 16.5
  12. 13. Alcohol and Nutrition <ul><li>Physical effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver toxicity and cirrhosis (fluid production/beer belly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral, esophageal, and stomach cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other organ damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat accumulation (beer belly) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Alcohol and Nutrition <ul><li>Social effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk to self and others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor work and school performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence, property damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of passing on alcoholic behaviors to children </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Elder Nutrition Source: Bobroff LB, Shelnutt KP. MyPyramid for older adults. 2007. University of Florida. Accessed 12-4-08. Reprinted with permission.
  15. 16. Elder Nutrition <ul><li>DETERMINE acronym </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Elder Nutrition <ul><li>Body composition changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased lean body mass, increased body fat percentage  decrease in BMR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrition risk factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcoholism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anorexia (poor appetite) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dysphagia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dentition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression or dementia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased mobility, fine motor skills </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Nutrition risk, cont.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food procurement and preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diminished sense of smell and taste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term care facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of spouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polypharmacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial hardship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Fig. 16.3.jpg
  19. 20. Nutrition Services in the Community <ul><li>Food Stamp Program </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Food Assistance Program </li></ul><ul><li>Child and Adult Care Food Program (for daycare situations) </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Nutrition Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congregate Meals Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home-Delivered Meals Program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Senior Center </li></ul><ul><li>Meals on Wheels </li></ul>