Chapter 9 Nutrients that Function as Antioxidants   Lecture and Animation PowerPoint   Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Compani...
Nutrients That Function as Antioxidants: Lecture Outline <ul><li>Oxidation & reduction & free radicals </li></ul><ul><li>N...
Oxidation: Atom Review <ul><li>Protons & neutrons are found in the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons circle the nucleus ...
Oxidation: Atom Review <ul><li>Atoms bond together in molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction : gain of a negatively charged...
Oxidation: Atom Review <ul><li>Sharing electrons in outer shell makes bonds between atoms or molecules strong </li></ul><u...
Oxidation
Free Radicals <ul><li>Chemically reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Steals electron from adjacent stable molecule </li></ul><ul><l...
Free Radicals <ul><li>Can be helpful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune system uses to destroy disease-causing microorganisms <...
Free Radicals <ul><li>Have been linked to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis </li></...
Defending Against Free Radicals <ul><li>Enzyme Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selenium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manganes...
Nutrients That Provide an Antioxidant Role <ul><li>Vitamin E </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin A & the...
Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Functions <ul><li>Development of muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Development of central nervous system <...
Vitamin E (Tocopherol) as an Antioxidant <ul><li>Fat-soluble vitamin found in adipose tissue & cell membrane </li></ul><ul...
Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Deficiency <ul><li>Deficiency is rare because primary source of Vitamin E is plant oils and our di...
Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Excess <ul><li>Megadosing does not provide significant health benefits or prevent against oxidativ...
Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Nutrient Needs <ul><li>RDA for adults: 15 mg/day of alpha-tocopheral – the most active form of vit...
Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Food Sources <ul><li>Only synthesized by plants – particularly their oils – good sources include: ...
Hemolysis and Crenation
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid): Functions <ul><li>Collagen synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Carnitine synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Se...
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) as an Antioxidant <ul><li>May ↓ formation of cancer-causing nitrosamines in the stomach </li></u...
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid): Deficiency <ul><li>Causes scurvy because of ↓ reduced collagen synthesis </li></ul>
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid): Excess <ul><li>↑  iron absorption: problematic with hemochromatosis </li></ul><ul><li>UL is 2,0...
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid): Nutrient Needs <ul><li>Adult RDA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>75 mg/day for women </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid): Food Sources <ul><li>Citrus fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Strawberries </li></ul><ul><li>Green peppe...
Vitamin A (Retinoids): Functions <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Acne control – cellular reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>G...
Vitamin A (Retinoids): Deficiency <ul><li>Night blindness </li></ul><ul><li>Poor immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient m...
Vitamin A (Retinoids): Excess <ul><li>UL is 3,000 mcg of preformed vitamin A (3,000 RAE or 10,000 IU) for adult men and wo...
Vitamin A (Retinoids): Nutrient Needs <ul><li>RDA:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>700 mcg of RAE for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Vitamin A (Retinoids): Food Sources <ul><li>Preformed vitamin A (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid) found in: </li></ul><ul>...
Vitamin A (Carotenoids) <ul><li>Three carotenoids are provitamins - can be turned into vitamin A: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be...
Vitamin A (Carotenoids): Functions <ul><li>Vision: ↓ macular degeneration risk & ↓ cataract risk </li></ul><ul><li>CVD: ma...
Vitamin A (Carotenoids): Deficiency <ul><li>Eye disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired immunity </li></ul>
Vitamin A (Carotenoids): Excess <ul><li>High carotenoid concentration in blood (hypercarotenemia) can occur from large int...
Vitamin A (Carotenoids): Dietary Sources <ul><li>Dark green & yellow-orange vegetables and some fruits </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Phytochemicals <ul><li>Thousands of food substances in addition to 45 essential nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>No deficiency ...
Phytochemicals: Functions <ul><li>Antioxidants </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibit cancer & cell death </li></ul><ul><li>Alter absor...
Selenium (Se): Functions <ul><li>Trace mineral </li></ul><ul><li>Helps glutathione peroxidase: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gluta...
Selenium (Se): Deficiency <ul><li>Low blood levels linked to ↑ risk of some types of cancer (ex: prostate) </li></ul><ul><...
Selenium (Se): Excess <ul><li>Selenium toxicity has not been reported from food sources </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementation ...
Selenium (Se): Nutrient Needs <ul><li>RDA: 55 mcg per day for adults </li></ul><ul><li>DV used on supplement and food labe...
Selenium (Se): Food Sources <ul><li>Selenium content of soil where plant or animal food comes from predicts selenium conte...
Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Supplements – Who Needs Them? <ul><li>DSHEA Act of 1994 defines a supplement as: </li><...
Dietary Supplements <ul><li>Can be sold without proof that they are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Who May Need a Supplement? <ul><li>Post menopausal women at risk for osteoporosis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium & Vitamin...
Who May Need a Supplement? <ul><li>People with low calorie intakes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various vitamins & minerals if k...
Who May Need a Supplement? <ul><li>People on low-fat diets or low in plant oils and nuts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra vita...
Supplement Safety <ul><li>↑  vitamin K or vitamin E can alter anticlotting medication mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>↑  vita...
Supplement Summary <ul><li>Supplements can’t fix a poor diet </li></ul><ul><li>Supplements rarely prevent disease or are d...
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Ch9 Antioxidants

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Ch9 Antioxidants

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Nutrients that Function as Antioxidants Lecture and Animation PowerPoint Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. To run the animations you must be in Slideshow View . Use the buttons on the animation to play, pause, and turn audio/text on or off. Please Note : Once you have used any of the animation controls , you must click in the white background before advancing to the next slide.
  2. 2. Nutrients That Function as Antioxidants: Lecture Outline <ul><li>Oxidation & reduction & free radicals </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients that function as antioxidants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin E (tocopherol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin A (retinoids & carotenoids) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phytochemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selenium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrition and Your Health: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary Supplements – Who Needs Them? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Oxidation: Atom Review <ul><li>Protons & neutrons are found in the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons circle the nucleus in pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus is positively (+) charged </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons are negatively (-) charged </li></ul><ul><li>Positive & negative charges balance: atom has no overall charge </li></ul>
  4. 4. Oxidation: Atom Review <ul><li>Atoms bond together in molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction : gain of a negatively charged electron </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation : loss of a negatively charged electron </li></ul><ul><li>We derive energy from food in the form of ATP & other high-energy compounds </li></ul>
  5. 5. Oxidation: Atom Review <ul><li>Sharing electrons in outer shell makes bonds between atoms or molecules strong </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of these bonds produces stable compounds </li></ul><ul><li>A weak bond between atom or molecule -> possible molecule or atom left with an unpaired electron in its outer shell </li></ul><ul><li>Free electron = unstable atom = free radical </li></ul>
  6. 6. Oxidation
  7. 7. Free Radicals <ul><li>Chemically reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Steals electron from adjacent stable molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Results in new free radical </li></ul><ul><li>Chain reaction of instability </li></ul><ul><li>Body naturally tries to repair systems & destroy free radicals </li></ul>
  8. 8. Free Radicals <ul><li>Can be helpful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune system uses to destroy disease-causing microorganisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WBC produce to destroy bacteria, viruses & fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps body destroy dead cells (may prevent cancer) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be harmful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes loss of cell membrane integrity & cell collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to LDL -> plaque & atherosclerosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA alteration results in altered protein synthesis </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Free Radicals <ul><li>Have been linked to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arthritis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alzheimer’s disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cataracts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors ↑ free radical formation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air & water pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asbestos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic chemicals </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Defending Against Free Radicals <ul><li>Enzyme Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selenium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manganese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antioxidant Chemicals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin precursor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phytochemicals </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Nutrients That Provide an Antioxidant Role <ul><li>Vitamin E </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin A & the carotenoids </li></ul><ul><li>Phytochemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium </li></ul>
  12. 12. Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Functions <ul><li>Development of muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Development of central nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Antioxidant function </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains nervous tissue & immune function </li></ul>
  13. 13. Vitamin E (Tocopherol) as an Antioxidant <ul><li>Fat-soluble vitamin found in adipose tissue & cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids in these membranes are PUFAs </li></ul><ul><li>PUFAs susceptible to oxidative attack </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin E donates electrons or hydrogens to free radicals to make cell more stable </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin E important in areas exposed to ↑ levels of oxygen: RBCs and lungs </li></ul>
  14. 14. Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Deficiency <ul><li>Deficiency is rare because primary source of Vitamin E is plant oils and our diets are high in fat </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency can be problem in preterm infants as transfer from mother occurs late in pregnancy </li></ul>
  15. 15. Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Excess <ul><li>Megadosing does not provide significant health benefits or prevent against oxidative damage </li></ul><ul><li>Not stored in the liver – stored in fat tissue </li></ul><ul><li>UL is 1,000 mg/day </li></ul><ul><li>Excess can -> interference with vitamin K & clotting -> hemorrhage </li></ul>
  16. 16. Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Nutrient Needs <ul><li>RDA for adults: 15 mg/day of alpha-tocopheral – the most active form of vitamin E </li></ul><ul><li>DV on food labels is based on 20 mg </li></ul>
  17. 17. Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Food Sources <ul><li>Only synthesized by plants – particularly their oils – good sources include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salad oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Margarines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortified cereals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuts & seeds </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Hemolysis and Crenation
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid): Functions <ul><li>Collagen synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Carnitine synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin & norepinephrine synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Antioxidant </li></ul><ul><li>↑ iron absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Vital for immune function </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t prevent colds but may ↓ severity </li></ul>
  21. 21. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) as an Antioxidant <ul><li>May ↓ formation of cancer-causing nitrosamines in the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits development of botulinum toxin in cured meats </li></ul><ul><li>Develops flavor </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents rancidity </li></ul>
  22. 22. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid): Deficiency <ul><li>Causes scurvy because of ↓ reduced collagen synthesis </li></ul>
  23. 23. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid): Excess <ul><li>↑ iron absorption: problematic with hemochromatosis </li></ul><ul><li>UL is 2,000 mg/day </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach inflammation and diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>GI distress </li></ul>
  24. 24. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid): Nutrient Needs <ul><li>Adult RDA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>75 mg/day for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90 mg/day for men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smokers need an extra 35 mg+ because of ↑ oxidation by tobacco smoke in lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Average US consumption: 70-100 mg/day </li></ul>
  25. 25. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid): Food Sources <ul><li>Citrus fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Strawberries </li></ul><ul><li>Green peppers </li></ul><ul><li>Cauliflower & broccoli </li></ul><ul><li>Cabbage </li></ul><ul><li>Papaya </li></ul><ul><li>Romaine lettuce </li></ul><ul><li>Brighter F/V = more vitamin C </li></ul>
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Vitamin A (Retinoids): Functions <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Acne control – cellular reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Growth, development & reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Antioxidant </li></ul><ul><li>Carotenoids (vitamin A precursors) also have antioxidant properties </li></ul>
  28. 28. Vitamin A (Retinoids): Deficiency <ul><li>Night blindness </li></ul><ul><li>Poor immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient mucus production in intestines and lung cells </li></ul><ul><li>Poor cell health </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperkeratosis </li></ul><ul><li>Stunted growth if deficient during childhood </li></ul>
  29. 29. Vitamin A (Retinoids): Excess <ul><li>UL is 3,000 mcg of preformed vitamin A (3,000 RAE or 10,000 IU) for adult men and women </li></ul><ul><li>↑↑ vitamin A intake ↑ risk of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hip fracture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor pregnancy outcomes </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Vitamin A (Retinoids): Nutrient Needs <ul><li>RDA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>700 mcg of RAE for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>900 mcg of RAE for men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RAE units account for activity of both preformed vitamin A & carotenoids </li></ul><ul><li>DV on food labels is based on 1,000 mcg (5000 IU) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Vitamin A (Retinoids): Food Sources <ul><li>Preformed vitamin A (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid) found in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortified milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Butter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yogurt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortified margarines </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Vitamin A (Carotenoids) <ul><li>Three carotenoids are provitamins - can be turned into vitamin A: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta-carotene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha-carotene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta-cryptoxanthin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other carotenoids that may have health benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lycopene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zeaxanthin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lutein </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Vitamin A (Carotenoids): Functions <ul><li>Vision: ↓ macular degeneration risk & ↓ cataract risk </li></ul><ul><li>CVD: may oxidize LDL </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer prevention: antioxidant roles </li></ul>
  35. 35. Vitamin A (Carotenoids): Deficiency <ul><li>Eye disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired immunity </li></ul>
  36. 36. Vitamin A (Carotenoids): Excess <ul><li>High carotenoid concentration in blood (hypercarotenemia) can occur from large intake of carrots or beta-carotene pills </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary carotenoids don’t produce harmful effects </li></ul><ul><li>No UL </li></ul>
  37. 37. Vitamin A (Carotenoids): Dietary Sources <ul><li>Dark green & yellow-orange vegetables and some fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Carrots, spinach, greens, winter squash, sweet potatoes, broccoli, mangoes, cantaloupe, peaches & apricots </li></ul>
  38. 38. Phytochemicals <ul><li>Thousands of food substances in addition to 45 essential nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>No deficiency disease if not present in diet – they are not essential </li></ul><ul><li>Phytochemicals: health-promoting compounds found in plant food </li></ul><ul><li>Many foods contain hundreds of phytochemicals </li></ul>
  39. 39. Phytochemicals: Functions <ul><li>Antioxidants </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibit cancer & cell death </li></ul><ul><li>Alter absorption, production & metabolism of cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Mimic or inhibit hormones & enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>↓ formation of blood clots </li></ul><ul><li>↓ inflammation – affecting immune-related disorders </li></ul>
  40. 40. Selenium (Se): Functions <ul><li>Trace mineral </li></ul><ul><li>Helps glutathione peroxidase: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glutathione peroxidase chemically converts dangerous peroxides -> water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selenium spares vitamin E & helps maintain cell-membrane integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Activates thyroid hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Helps immune function </li></ul>
  41. 41. Selenium (Se): Deficiency <ul><li>Low blood levels linked to ↑ risk of some types of cancer (ex: prostate) </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle pain & wasting & heart damage </li></ul><ul><li>China’s Keshan province’s soil is known to be deficient in selenium </li></ul>
  42. 42. Selenium (Se): Excess <ul><li>Selenium toxicity has not been reported from food sources </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementation for long periods of time is toxic </li></ul><ul><li>UL is 400 mcg </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity signs: hair loss, weakness, cirrhosis </li></ul>
  43. 43. Selenium (Se): Nutrient Needs <ul><li>RDA: 55 mcg per day for adults </li></ul><ul><li>DV used on supplement and food labels is 70 mcg </li></ul><ul><li>Adults generally meet selenium needs </li></ul>
  44. 44. Selenium (Se): Food Sources <ul><li>Selenium content of soil where plant or animal food comes from predicts selenium content in plant or animal food </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil nuts, fish, meat & organ meats, shellfish, eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Some grains and seeds grown in selenium rich soil </li></ul>
  45. 45.
  46. 46. Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Supplements – Who Needs Them? <ul><li>DSHEA Act of 1994 defines a supplement as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A vitamin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A mineral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An herb or other botanical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An amino acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A dietary substance to supplement the diet </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Dietary Supplements <ul><li>Can be sold without proof that they are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supplements are a $24-25 billion industry in the US </li></ul><ul><li>FDA does not closely regulate the industry </li></ul>
  48. 48.
  49. 49. Who May Need a Supplement? <ul><li>Post menopausal women at risk for osteoporosis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium & Vitamin D </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adults over age 50: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin B12 consumed in synthetic form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women with ↑↑ menstrual bleeding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pregnant women: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>400 mcg per day synthetic folic acid </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Who May Need a Supplement? <ul><li>People with low calorie intakes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various vitamins & minerals if kcals <1,200 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strict vegans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra calcium, iron, zinc & vitamin B12 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newborns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single dose of vitamin K </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Those with limited sun exposure and many African-Americans & breastfed babies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin D </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Who May Need a Supplement? <ul><li>People on low-fat diets or low in plant oils and nuts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra vitamin E </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People with large amounts of food in diet coming from refined vs. whole foods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various vitamins & minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some older infants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluoride </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Supplement Safety <ul><li>↑ vitamin K or vitamin E can alter anticlotting medication mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>↑ vitamin B6 can offset action of L-dopa (used in treating Parkinsons) </li></ul><ul><li>↑ vitamin C can interfere with cancer regimen </li></ul><ul><li>↑ zinc can inhibit copper absorption </li></ul><ul><li>↑ folate can mask vitamin B12 deficiency </li></ul>
  53. 53. Supplement Summary <ul><li>Supplements can’t fix a poor diet </li></ul><ul><li>Supplements rarely prevent disease or are demonstrated to help cure disease </li></ul><ul><li>Megadoses of supplements can be harmful </li></ul><ul><li>High doses of one supplement can disrupt metabolism of other nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>When choosing a multivitamin – look for one as close to 100% of DV in the majority of nutrients </li></ul>

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