Grammar ingles


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Grammar ingles

  1. 1. Básicamente en el uso de los imperativos (órdenes, sugerencias, invitaciones, etc.) suelen presentarse tresalternativas, a saber: a) Cuando le PEDIMOS u ORDENAMOS a alguien que haga algo, se utiliza la forma básica del verbo sin el to infinitivo (come/go/do/wait/be, etc). Aquí tienes algunos ejemplos: Come here and look at this!! (¡¡Acércate a ver esto!!) I dont like you. Go away!! (Me desagradas. ¡¡Véte!!) Please, wait for me!! (Por favor, ¡¡espérame!!) Be quiet. Im working hard. (No hagas ruido. Estoy trabajando mucho.) Goodbye. Have a nice day!! (Adiós. ¡¡Que tengas un buen día!!)El negativo es dont... = do not (dont come/dont go/dont do/dont wait/dont be, etc.): Stay here!! Please, dont go!! (¡Quédate! Por favor, ¡no te vayas!) Dont be silly!! (¡¡No seas tonto!!) Be careful. Dont fall. (Ten cuidado. No te caigas.) ASKING FOR DIRECTIONS Excuse me... Where is ...? How do I get to ...? Whats the way to ...? Can you tell me the way to... ? GIVING DIRECTIONS movement: Go straight on (until you come to ...). Turn left/right (into ...-street). Take the 1st turning on the left/right Take the first/second road on the left/right Go along/down [a street] Go on for 3 blocks and then... Cross [a street] Go straight on/ahead Go past the traffic lights You cant miss it. location: Its on the left/right. Its opposite X Its near X Its next to X Its between X and X Its at the end of [a street] Its on/at the corner of X Its behind X Its in front of X Its (just) around the corner careful!: its right here/there = its exactly here/there (different from: its here on the right)
  2. 2. EXAMPLE- Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the station?- Sure. Go straight ahead and take the second turning on the right. Then go down the street until you see achurch. Turn left at the church and the station is on the right, next to the post office and opposite a bigbank. You cant miss it.- Thanks a lot. Bye.Word ListAsking for and Giving Directions How do I get to …? Whats the best way to …? Where is …? Go straight on (until you come to …). Turn back./Go back. Turn left/right (into …-street). Go along … Cross … Take the first/second road on the left/right Its on the left/right. straight on opposite near next to between at the end (of) on/at the corner behind in front of (just) around the corner traffic lights crossroads, junction signpost
  3. 3. CanCan is an auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb. We use can to: • talk about possibility and ability • make requests • ask for or give permissionStructure of Cansubject + can + main verbThe main verb is always the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to"). subject auxiliary verb main verb+ I can play tennis. cannot- He play tennis. cant? Can you play tennis?Notice that: • Can is invariable. There is only one form of can. • The main verb is always the bare infinitive.Use of Cancan: Possibility and AbilityWe use can to talk about what is possible, what we are able or free to do: • She can drive a car. • John can speak Spanish. • I cannot hear you. (I cant hear you.) • Can you hear me?Normally, we use can for the present. But it is possible to use can when we make present decisions aboutfuture ability. A. Can you help me with my homework? (present) B. Sorry. Im busy today. But I can help you tomorrow. (future)
  4. 4. can: Requests and OrdersWe often use can in a question to ask somebody to do something. This is not a real question - we do notreally want to know if the person is able to do something, we want them to do it! The use of can in thisway is informal (mainly between friends and family): • Can you make a cup of coffee, please. • Can you put the TV on. • Can you come here a minute. • Can you be quiet!can: PermissionWe sometimes use can to ask or give permission for something: A. Can I smoke in this room? B. You cant smoke here, but you can smoke in the garden.(Note that we also use could, may, might for permission. The use of can for permission is informal.)CouldCould is an auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb. We use could to: • talk about past possibility or ability • make requestsStructure of Couldsubject + could + main verbThe main verb is always the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to"). subject auxiliary verb main verb+ My grandmother could swim. could not- She walk. couldnt? Could your grandmother swim?Notice that: • Could is invariable. There is only one form of could. • The main verb is always the bare infinitive.
  5. 5. Use of Couldcould: Past Possibility or AbilityWe use could to talk about what was possible in the past, what we were able or free to do: • I could swim when I was 5 years old. • My grandmother could speak seven languages. • When we arrived home, we could not open the door. (...couldnt open the door.) • Could you understand what he was saying?We use could (positive) and couldnt (negative) for general ability in the past. But when we talk aboutone special occasion in the past, we use be able to (positive) and couldnt (negative). Look at theseexamples: Past General Specific Occasion My grandmother could speak A man fell into the river yesterday. The police were able to+ Spanish. save him. My grandmother couldnt speak A man fell into the river yesterday. The police couldnt save- Spanish. him.could: RequestsWe often use could in a question to ask somebody to do something. The use of could in this way is fairlypolite (formal): • Could you tell me where the bank is, please? • Could you send me a catalogue, please?May / mightmayWe can use may to ask for permission. However this is rather formal and not used very often in modernspoken English • May I borrow your pen? • May we think about it? • May I go now?We use may to suggest something is possible • It may rain later today. • I may not have time to do it today. • Pete may come with us
  6. 6. mightWe use might to suggest a small possibility of something. Often we read that might suggests a smallerpossibility that may, there is in fact little difference and might is more usual than may in spokenEnglish. • She might be at home by now but its not sure at all. • It might rain this afternoon. • I might not have time to go to the shops for you. • I might not go.For the past, we use might have. • He might have tried to call while I was out. • I might have dropped it in the street.Structure of Have toHave to is often grouped with modal auxiliary verbs for convenience, but in fact it is not a modal verb. Itis not even an auxiliary verb. In the have to structure, "have" is a main verb. The structure is: subject + auxiliary verb + have + infinitive (with to)Look at these examples in the simple tense: auxiliary subject main verb have infinitive verb I / You/ We / They have to+ work. He / She / It has to I / You/ We / They don’t- have to see the doctor. He / She / It doesn’t I / you/ we / Do they? have to go to school? Does He/ she/ itUse of Have toIn general, have to expresses impersonal obligation. The subject of have to is obliged or forced to act bya separate, external power (for example, the Law or school rules). Have to is objective. Look at theseexamples: • In France, you have to drive on the right. • In England, most schoolchildren have to wear a uniform. • John has to wear a tie at work.
  7. 7. Must (subjective obligation)We often use must to say that something is essential or necessary, for example: • I must go.Structure of MustMust is a modal auxiliary verb. It is followed by a main verb. The structure is:subject + must + main verbThe main verb is the base verb (infinitive without "to").Look at these examples:subject auxiliary must main verbI must go home.You must visit us.We must stop now. Use of MustIn general, must expresses personal obligation. Must expresses what the speaker thinks is necessary.Must is subjective. Look at these examples: • I must stop smoking. • You must visit us soon. • He must work harder.In each of the above cases, the "obligation" is the opinion or idea of the person speaking. In fact, it is nota real obligation. It is not imposed from outside.It is sometimes possible to use must for real obligation, for example a rule or a law. But generally we usehave to for this.We can use must to talk about the present or the future. Look at these examples: • I must go now. (present) • I must call my mother tomorrow. (future)We cannot use must to talk about the past. We use have to to talk about the past.Must not, Mustnt (prohibition)We use must not to say that something is not permitted or allowed, for example: • Passengers must not talk to the driver.
  8. 8. Structure of Must notMust is an auxiliary verb. It is followed by a main verb. The structure for must not is:subject + must not + main verbThe main verb is the base verb (infinitive without "to").Must not is often contracted to mustnt.Look at these examples: subject auxiliary must + not main verbI mustnt forget my keys.You mustnt disturb him.Students must not be late.NB: like all auxiliary verbs, must CANNOT be followed by "to". So, we say: • You mustnt arrive late. (not You mustnt to arrive late.)Use of Must notMust not expresses prohibition - something that is not permitted, not allowed. The prohibition can besubjective (the speakers opinion) or objective (a real law or rule). Look at these examples: • I mustnt eat so much sugar. (subjective) • You mustnt watch so much television. (subjective) • Students must not leave bicycles here. (objective) • Policemen must not drink on duty. (objective)We can use must not to talk about the present or the future: • Visitors must not smoke. (present) • I mustnt forget Taras birthday. (future)We cannot use must not to talk about the past. We use other structures to talk about the past, forexample: • We were not allowed to enter. • I couldnt park outside the shop.
  9. 9. Be able toAlthough we look at be able to here, it is not a modal verb. It is simply the verb be plus an adjective(able) followed by the infinitive. We look at be able to here because we sometimes use it instead of canand could.We use be able to: • to talk about abilityStructure of Be able toThe structure of be able to is:subject + be + able + infinitive be able subject main verb adjective infinitive+ I am able to drive. is not- She able to drive. isnt? Are you able to drive?Notice that be able to is possible in all tenses, for example: • I was able to drive... • I will be able to drive... • I have been able to drive...Notice too that be able to has an infinitive form: • I would like to be able to speak Chinese.Use of Be able toBe able to is not a modal auxiliary verb. We include it here for convenience, because it is often used like"can" and "could", which are modal auxiliary able to: abilityWe use be able to to express ability. "Able" is an adjective meaning: having the power, skill or means todo something. If we say "I am able to swim", it is like saying "I can swim". We sometimes use "be ableto" instead of "can" or "could" for ability. "Be able to" is possible in all tenses - but "can" is possible onlyin the present and "could" is possible only in the past for ability. In addition, "can" and "could" have no
  10. 10. infinitive form. So we use "be able to" when we want to use other tenses or the infinitive. Look at theseexamples: • I have been able to swim since I was five. (present perfect) • You will be able to speak perfect English very soon. (future simple) • I would like to be able to fly an airplane. (infinitive)ShouldWe use should for giving advice. • You should speak to him about it. • You should see a doctor. • You should ask a lawyer.We use should to give an opinion or a recommendation. • We should invest more in China. • They should do something about this terrible train service. • He should resign.Should expresses a personal opinion and is much weaker and more personal than must or have to. It isoften introduced by I think. • I think they should replace him. • I dont think they should keep the contract. • Do you think I should tell her?Aquí termina la información de la tercera unidad.La información que sigue es complementaria.
  11. 11. Modal auxiliary verbs 1 ( can ) Verbos modales auxiliares 1 (can) poder Can (poder) es el primero de los verbos modalesCan is the first modal auxiliary verb we are going auxiliares que vamos a estudiar. Para unato study. For an introduction to auxiliary verbs see introducción a los verbos auxiliares, lea unidadesfurther units. sucesivas. Usos: Si usted dice que puede hacer algo, Uses: If you say that you can do something, you quiere decir que tiene la habilidad, posee elmean you have the ability to do it, or you have conocimiento o la pericia para hacer algo. Haythe knowledge or skill to do it. There are of además otros usos de can que se explicarán máscourse other uses of can which will be explained adelante.later. I / you / he / she / it / we / they canCan has the same form for all the pronouns. Can (poder) presenta la misma forma para todos los pronombres.Prepositions of Time: at, in, onWe use: • at for a PRECISE TIME • in for MONTHS, YEARS, CENTURIES and LONG PERIODS • on for DAYS and DATESat in onPRECISE TIME MONTHS, YEARS, CENTURIES and LONG PERIODS DAYS and DATES
  12. 12. at 3 oclock in May on Sundayat 10.30am in summer on Tuesdaysat noon in the summer on 6 Marchat dinnertime in 1990 on 25 Dec. 2010at bedtime in the 1990s on Christmas Dayat sunrise in the next century on Independence Dayat sunset in the Ice Age on my birthdayat the moment in the past/future on New Years EveLook at these examples: • I have a meeting at 9am. • The shop closes at midnight. • Jane went home at lunchtime. • In England, it often snows in December. • Do you think we will go to Jupiter in the future? • There should be a lot of progress in the next century. • Do you work on Mondays? • Her birthday is on 20 November. • Where will you be on New Years Day?Notice the use of the preposition of time at in the following standard expressions:Expression Exampleat night The stars shine at the weekend I dont usually work at the Christmas/Easter I stay with my family at the same time We finished the test at the same time.
  13. 13. at present Hes not home at present. Try later.Notice the use of the prepositions of time in and on in these common expressions:in onin the morning on Tuesday morningin the mornings on Saturday morningsin the afternoon(s) on Sunday afternoonsin the evening(s) on Monday eveningWhen we say last, next, every, this we do not also use at, in, on. • I went to London last June. (not in last June) • Hes coming back next Tuesday. (not on next Tuesday) • I go home every Easter. (not at every Easter) • Well call you this evening. (not in this evening)Prepositions of Place: at, in, onIn general, we use: • at for a POINT • in for an ENCLOSED SPACE • on for a SURFACEat in onPOINT ENCLOSED SPACE SURFACEat the corner in the garden on the wallat the bus stop in London on the ceilingat the door in France on the doorat the top of the page in a box on the cover
  14. 14. at the end of the road in my pocket on the floorat the entrance in my wallet on the carpetat the crossroads in a building on the menuat the front desk in a car on a pageLook at these examples: • Jane is waiting for you at the bus stop. • The shop is at the end of the street. • My plane stopped at Dubai and Hanoi and arrived in Bangkok two hours late. • When will you arrive at the office? • Do you work in an office? • I have a meeting in New York. • Do you live in Japan? • Jupiter is in the Solar System. • The authors name is on the cover of the book. • There are no prices on this menu. • You are standing on my foot. • There was a "no smoking" sign on the wall. • I live on the 7th floor at 21 Oxford Street in London.Notice the use of the prepositions of place at, in and on in these standard expressions:at in onat home in a car on a busat work in a taxi on a trainat school in a helicopter on a planeat university in a boat on a shipat college in a lift (elevator) on a bicycle, on a motorbikeat the top in the newspaper on a horse, on an elephantat the bottom in the sky on the radio, on televisionat the side in a row on the left, on the right
  15. 15. at reception in Oxford Street on the way