Ahmedabad Textile Industry’s Research Association
Coating and Laminating are Textile Finishing Processes
designed to add or improve function and to add value to a
material and/or to create a material with specific properties.
Purpose of Coating and Lamination
• The polymer coating on the nonwoven confers new
properties such as existing physical properties such as
• While the polymer mainly controls the chemical
properties, abrasion resistance and resistance to
penetration by certain liquid and gases.
For example, Waterproof jackets, protective clothing
for the police, army etc…
• Seat upholstery for automobiles, coaches and trains is
likely to be coated to improve abrasion resistance,
improve properties and reduce dust particle
A process of applying a polymeric material in viscous
form directly onto fabric or any other substrate.
A process of making composed material of two or more
layers, at least one of which is textile fabric bonded
closely by means of an adhesive or by the adhesive
properties of one or more of the component layers.
What is Lamination ?
History and Development in Coating on Textile Fabrics
• It is impossible to say exactly when human kind started to
coat the fabrics, but we can say that Egyptian started the
coating of fabrics. For example, the fabric wrapping the
mummies are the example of the ancient coating technology.
• With invention of rubber, raincoat was developed in mid
1500s by Latin-American Indians. In fact an “oil-cloth”
industry developed in England and Germany during 1700s
applying a variety of oils to cotton and silk for the
manufacture of garments, sails, tents and other coverings.
• Later in mid 1900s, nitro cellulose was discovered and
developed as fabric coating material for cotton. The coating
material became known as “gun-cotton”, “pyroxylin” and
• The earliest adhesive used by the people were natural
materials such as beeswax, tars, gums, derivatives from
animal & fish bones and rice products.
• Cellulose acetate was the first manufactured plastic to be
used to bond collars for shirts in 1930s, but this process used
solvents to soften the cellulose acetates. Hot melt adhesives
are now the focus of much attention because they are
solvent-less and also do not require large amount of energy
to dry off water.
• There are various techniques and several different types of
adhesives & machinery used in lamination process.
• It is generally relatively simple to produce a strong enough
bond, the challenge is to preserve the original properties of
the fabric & to produce a flexible laminate with required
appearance, handle and durability.
• Adhesives are available as water-based or solvent based fluids
or as “hot-melt adhesives”(HMA) i.e a material which is either
a solid or jelly & which melts on the application of heat.
• HMAs are produced in form of films, granules or as jellies.
• HMAs can be polyolefins, polyurethanes, polyesters,
polyamides or alloys or blends of different polymers or
• Which lamination process and which machinery to be used
are also determined by the physical properties of the fabric
being processed and by the performance requirement such as
bond strength and durability of the laminate being produced.
• The lamination process shortened production times, reduces
cost and allowed more consistent quality. Lamination
technique is also used to replace sewing in some applications
such as automobiles and even in sailings.
Facility at ATIRA
• The state-of-art machine LACOM (Lacom Kiener, Germany) for the
lamination and coating purpose.
Gravure-roller coating and laminating
- Dot coating
- Production of duplex and triplex
laminates by thermoplastic or reactive
hot melt adhesive systems
- Air permeable laminates
- Soft handle of the laminates
- Low energy consumption
Multi-roller coating and laminating
- Back coating of textiles
- Coating of airbag fabrics
- Full-cover coating of substrates
e.g. carpet backing, shoe toe
and heel stiffener, upholstery fabric,
- mattress ticking
- Air permeable laminates
- O.C.S. (Open Coating Structure)
- full cover coating
LACOM specification :
• Can coat and laminate on any commercial substrate up to
2000 mm width
• Can coat and laminate with wide range of adhesives such as,
– Hot melt Reactive Polyurethanes (PUR)
– Reactive Poly olefins (POR)
– Thermoplastic PVC
– Pressure sensitive adhesives PSA
– PET, PA, EVA, EPOXY, etc…
Aluminised Fabrics (Glass/ Aramid )
for Protective Clothing/Fashion wear
Protection against rain and cold
Self-adhesive coating of the foil
Floor Coverings/ Carpets
Other Applications in Different SectorsOther Applications in Different Sectors
Bonding of velour emery PaperScrubber
• Environmentally friendly due to water and solvent-free
• Low coating weight needed
• Elimination of dryer / low energy requirements
• No thermal stress of substrate
• High production speed possible
• Permanent or non-permanent adhesive coating possible
• Resistant to washing and dry cleaning
• Thermal Bonding in case of Nonwovens
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