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Be seen! Be cited! Have impact! Open Access and the Academy of Science of SA (ASSAf)


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Presented during the Tshwane University of Technology, Open Access Symposium 22 October 2014

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Be seen! Be cited! Have impact! Open Access and the Academy of Science of SA (ASSAf)

  1. 1. Be Seen! Be Cited! Have Impact! Open Access and the Role of the Academy of Science of South Africa Ina Smith, Louise van Heerden 22 October 2014 1
  2. 2. What is Open Access? Open Access is the free, immediate, online availability of research articles, coupled with the rights to use these articles fully in the digital environment.
  3. 3. Why Open Access? • Research is expensive • Publishing on WWW comes at minimal cost • OA accelerates the pace of scientific discovery, encourages innovation, enriches education, stimulates the economy
  4. 4. Why Open Access? • Increased visibility, citations, impact • Encourages scientific dialogue, collaboration • Continuous review process • Rapid dissemination
  5. 5. Open Access Saving Lives Fifteen-year-old high school student Jack Andraka has created a pancreatic cancer test that is 168 times faster and considerably cheaper than the gold standard in the field.
  6. 6. Open Access Advancing Innovation
  7. 7. “Tesla Motors was created to accelerate the advent of sustainable transport. If we clear a path to the creation of compelling electric vehicles, but then lay intellectual property landmines behind us to inhibit others, we are acting in a manner contrary to that goal. Tesla will not initiate patent lawsuits against anyone who, in good faith, wants to use our technology.” – Elon Musk, CEO
  8. 8. Open Access Informing Society
  9. 9. Open Access Influencing Policy 2013 Article published in Food Control (Elsevier) 27 Feb. 2013 uploaded 12 Nov. 2013 984 downloads 13 May 2014 1 534 downloads 21 Oct. 2014 1 950 downloads 21 Oct. 2014 15 citations
  10. 10. Open Access Routes • Green: Institutional Repository (IR) Submit a 2nd copy of research output (articles), theses, dissertations, data sets, open educational resources (OERs), etc. • Gold: Open Access Journal Titles - Publish in OA journal titles - Offer OA journal hosting service
  11. 11. Institutional Repository • Central online archive • Collecting, digitally preserving, and disseminating digital copies of the intellectual output (research) of an institution • More accessible (open), more researchers, more impact
  12. 12. Institutional Repository Landscape Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR) 3 817 (SA 43) Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR) 2 600+ (SA 24) Webometrics Ranking Web of Repositories 1 983 (SA 22)
  13. 13. Example: SUNScholar
  14. 14. Open Access Journal • Peer-reviewed • Serve as forum for introduction and presentation for scrutiny of new research & critique existing research • Available online to reader without financial, legal, technical barriers
  15. 15. Scholarly Journal Publishing Landscape Database Titles Genamics JournalSeek 102 139 Thomson Reuters Master Journal List 16 970 Scopus SCImago Journal & Country Rank 29 385 JURN Directory 3 000 Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory 336 000+
  16. 16. Open Access Scholarly Journal Publishing Landscape 10 032 titles 10 032 titles
  17. 17. SA Open Access Scholarly Journal Publishing Landscape HMPG 11 AOSiS 26 AOSiS 26 ASSAf 47 ASSAf 47 SU 20 SU 20 AJOL 86 AJOL 86 Sabinet 95 OASPA Non-OASPA HMPG 11 Sabinet 95
  18. 18. Institutional Scholarly Journal Publishing Landscape Example: Stellenbosch University Open Access 59 Subscription 47 Total 106
  19. 19. THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE OF SOUTH AFRICA (ASSAf) The Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) receives funding from the Department of Science and Technology, along with the NRF, CSIR, HSRC and the SA National Space Agency. (Universities in turn receive funding from DHET) ASSAf’s Mission: Using science for the benefit of society
  21. 21. THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE OF SOUTH AFRICA (ASSAf) The 2006 Academy of Science of South Africa’s Report on a Strategic Approach to Research Publishing in South Africa revealed the invisibility of South African Research
  22. 22. INVISIBILITY -Papers published in 60 SA journals received not even 1 citation in any of the 9 000 WoS (TR) journals over a 15-year period -About 75% of SA scholarly research is not internationally visible or accessible •Of the 270+ South African scholarly journals accredited by DHET, only ±70 are indexed in the Web of Science (Thomson Reuter) (formerly known as ISI) academic citation index
  23. 23. INVISIBILITY (continued) •Journals from Africa & the Middle East comprise 1% of the Web of Science •Furthermore, articles (journals) published by commercial publishers are not available to researchers who cannot pay for the subscription fees which renders them invisible to the majority of South Africans -Journals that are mainly print based are not accessible via the Web -Quality of the content was very low at the time – not adhering to international standards
  24. 24. RESPONSE FROM GOVERNMENT •Department of Higher Education & Training (DHET): Encouraging journals to adhere to international editorial standards. ASSAf now evaluated the quality of SA journals for accreditation purposes on behalf of DHET •Department of Science & Technology (DST): The creation of an open access collection with optimal indexibility to promote South African scholarly research through enhanced visibility of and easier access to South African research, leading to higher citation rates and greater collaboration. DST & DHET approached the Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) for help
  25. 25. DST & DHET approached the Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) for help. Within the countries’ National System of Innovation (NSI) ASSAf’s Scholarly Publishing Programme has been mandated to focus on the QUALITY VISIBILITY ACCESS INDEXIBILITY of peer-reviewed South African scholarly publications
  26. 26. ASSAf EVIDENCE-BASED REPORTS for decision making SPP (Scholarly Publishing Programme) REPORTS e.g. Report on Research Publishing in SA Review National Scholarly Peer Review Panels Book Study Editors’ Forum Online Scientific Writing SciELO SA
  27. 27. 1st – QUALITY Towards a new quality assurance system in SA • In 2009 DHET approached ASSAf to undertake the quality evaluation of the content of South African journals • ASSAf is facilitating the external peer reviewing of SA journals • Aim: To establish their quality and their role in the nation’s knowledge capital and to provide journals with advice on how to improve their journals
  28. 28. Improving the quality of South African journals PEER-REVIEWING OF SA JOURNALS – +/- 270 SA journals divided into broad subject (discipline) groups – ASSAf has appointed panels and reviewers (from the ASSAf membership or other experts in the field) – Formulated process guidelines and editor questionnaires – Published 6 Reports: Social Sciences; Agriculture; Theology; Health; and Law – Rolling out the 8 groups as by end-2014
  29. 29. 2nd VISIBILITY Increasing visibility of SA scholarly research • Based on the Recommendations of the ASSAf Report on a Strategic Approach to Research Publishing in South Africa DST decided on the creation of an open access collection to improve the visibility of SA publications both locally and internationally • The collection would include SA journals recommended by the ASSAf Peer Review Panels for inclusion in the collection • The creation of a an open access SA collection is a service to the South African research community towards the development of a knowledge economy and new innovation in South Africa
  30. 30. 2nd VISIBILITY Increasing visibility of SA scholarly research • ASSAf selected the SciELO publishing model • In 2009 the SciELO SA open access platform was established • Currently: 45 titles in the collection • The journals that are peer-reviewed by ASSAf and indicate proven quality (peer review, international indexing) are invited to join the SciELO SA collection • Aim: to invite ± 180 titles out of 270 SA journal titles to join the collection
  31. 31. WHAT IS SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) ? •A digital library of open access journals •Portal to all the SciELO articles •A cooperative electronic publishing model aimed at developing countries •Originally from Brazil, currently in 12 countries with 3 more in development
  32. 32. WHY SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) ? Open access South African research becomes searchable through the SciELO network portal which feeds into the Web of Knowledge portal Exchange of metadata with other international databases Designed for the needs of developing countries The SciELO Network focuses on promoting the scientific publications from countries in the South, whereas the well-established ‘Web of Science’ has until recently been focused mainly on the scientific publications of developed countries in the North.
  33. 33. ORIGIN OF THE SciELO INDEX Scientific American, v.237, p.76-83. 1995  Research from developing countries are being excluded from the WoS/TR (JCR) indexing and citation system  Few journals of developing countries are read in or outside their country
  34. 34. So in line then with the mandate of the Academy of Science of South Africa to apply scientific thinking in the service of society one of these “Service to Society” projects is the creation of an open access full-text database of prestigious academic South African journals to improve access & visibility
  35. 35. • Managed by the Academy of Science of SA • Mainly funded by the Department of Science & Technology • Partially funded and endorsed by the Department of Higher Education & Training • Only high quality journal are included (ASSAf Peer Review Panels) • Strengthens the scholarly journal evaluation and accreditation systems in South Africa
  36. 36.
  37. 37. 3rd ACCESS SciELO Growth SciELO SA September 2014 Titles 47 titles Issues 598 issues Articles 9 721 articles
  38. 38. Growth in SciELO SA site visits 41
  39. 39. Growth in cities visiting SciELO SA 42
  41. 41. INCREASE IN VISIBILITY OF PRINT-ONLY JOURNALS Journal title Articles viewed From 2010 to date South African Orthopaedic Journal 136 951 Kronos: Southern African Histories 60 254 Psychology in Society (PINS) 32 678
  42. 42. 4th INDEXABILITY – MAXIMIZING LINKS The creation of optimal links from SciELO Journals to the main international databases increases the visibility and citations of these journals on national and international levels
  44. 44. IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS TO ENSURE CONTINUED QUALITY ASSURANCE, VISIBILITY AND ACCESSIBILITY FOR SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNALS • SciELO SA collection certified in April 2013 • Included on the Web of Knowledge platform • Have a signed a Memorandum of Agreement with DHET to quality peer review ALL South African journals • Proposed change in the DHET policy for the automatic accreditation of SciELO SA journals for subsidy purposes. Waiting for final notification from Parliament for 2015 publications
  45. 45. ACTION •Encourage researchers to publish in open access journals •Encourage editors to join ASSAf’s National Editor’s Forum
  46. 46. Ina Smith, Planning Manager: SciELO SA Louise van Heerden, Operations Manager: SciELO SA
  47. 47. Thank you Website: 50