OFFICE AUTOMATION, TYPES, OFFICE
SUBMITTED TO (MR.INAM UL HAQ)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. What is Office Automation?
Advantages of office automation
Diagram of office automation
2. Types Of Office Automation
a. Document management systems
Difference between typewriter and word processing
Principle of good design
Image processing system
b. Message handling systems
c. Teleconferencing systems
3. Office Information System
diagram of ois
4. Pros And Cons Of Office automation system
What is office automation?
Office automation refers to the varied computer machinery and software used to
digitally create, collect, store, manipulate, and relay office information needed for
accomplishing basic tasks. Raw data storage, electronic transfer, and the
management of electronic business information comprise the basic activities of
an office automation system.
1. Office automation helps in optimizing or automating existing office
2. The backbone of office automation is a LAN, which allows users to transmit
data, mail and even voice across the network. All office functions,
including dictation, typing, filing, copying, fax, Telex, microfilm and records
management, telephone and telephone switchboard operations, fall into
this category. As office methods evolved to take full advantage of new
technologies, there was a corresponding increase in innovations tailormade to optimize office processes.
3. Office automation was a popular term in the 1970s and 1980s as the
desktop computer exploded onto the scene.
Office automation is intended to provide elements which make it possible
to simplify, improve, and automate the organization of the activities of a
company or a group of people.
For example: management of administrative data, synchronization of
If considering that company organizations require increased
communication, today, office automation is no longer limited to simply
capturing handwritten notes. In particular, it also includes the following
Exchange of information
Management of administrative documents
Handling of numerical data
Meeting planning and management of work schedules
Advantages of office automation are
Office automation can get many tasks accomplished faster.
It eliminates the need for a large staff.
Less storage is required to store data.
Multiple people can update data simultaneously in the event of changes in
ONE USER INTERFACE (AUTOMATION)
There are three major types/categories of office applications are:
1. Document management systems
2. Message handling systems
3. Teleconferencing systems
1. Document management systems
a) Word processing
Word processing: software lets you create, edit, store, retrieve, and print a text
document. Let us examine each part of the definition.
Text document:is any text that can be keyed in, such as a memo, letter, fax, and
Creation: is the original composing and keying in of the document,
Editing: is making changes to the document to fix errors or improve its content,
like deleting a sentence, correcting a misspelled name, or moving a paragraph.
Formatting: refers to adjusting the appearance of the document to make it look
appropriate and attractive. For example, centralize the heading, make wider
margins, or use of double spacing.
Storing: the document means saving it on disk so it can be accessed on demand.
Retrieving: the document means bringing the stored document from disk back
into computer memory so it can be used again or changed some way.
Printing: is producing the document on paper, using a printer connected with the
Difference between typewriter and word processing
Some people think that WP is a glorified typing, but there are many advantages of
WP on typewriter. The main difference between the typewriter and WP is the
separation of typing from printing; when you use WP, typing the document and
printing the document do not occur at the same time; you print the document on
the paper whenever you like. Perhaps you want to print an intermediate draft, just
to see how it looks, and then continue making changes.
Second difference between WP and typewriter is that you can save/store your
keyed data when you use a word processing package. You can make changes as
you go along, or even at some later time, and print out a revised or perfect copy.
The key difference here is that only the changes themselves are retyped, not the
The ability to print at will and to store work distinguishes WP from typewriter. But
these are not the only two hallmarks. A word processing package is a
sophisticated tool with many options, which are as follows:
b) Desktop Publishing
Desktop publishing (DTP) enables you to produce well-designed pages that
combine charts and graphics with text and headlines in a variety off typefaces, it
lets you to do all this at your desk, without a ruler, pen or paste.
Desktop publishing is software involve, using a microcomputer, mouse, scanner,
laser or Ink Jet printer, for mixing text,, and graphics to produce high quality
output for commercial printing.
The features of DTP include:
Principle of Good Design
Desktop publishing programmers put many different fonts and images at your
disposal, but you can overwhelm a document if you crowd too much on to a
page. The guidelines that follow will help get favorable reviews for you and your
Use only two or three typefaces in a document.
Be conservative: Limit the use of decorative or unusual typefaces.
Use different sizes and styles of one typeface to distinguish between
different heading levels, rather than several typefaces.
Avoid cluttering a document with fancy border and symbols.
Do not use type that is too small to read easily just to fit everything on one
c) Image Processing System
Some firms have large volume of documents that must be maintained in files so
that the information can be retrieved when needed. Insurance companies and
banks fit in to this category. Initially these firms maintained files in paper form,
but the space requirement became intolerable. The solution was to store an
image of the document rather than the document itself. This office automation
application (AO) has recently being given the name imaging processing system
and is currently stimulating the most interest.
Image processing system is also called electronic image management system,
allow users to electronically capture, store, process, and retrieve images of
documents. These documents may include text, numeric data, handwriting,
graphics and photographs. In some cases these may be part of the same
Image processing technology promises to reduce the problem of paper overload
by providing information management with more efficient use of physical storage
space and increased productivity.
Optical Character Recognition (OCR), scanners are used to convert paper or
microfilm records to a digital format for storage in secondary storage devices.
Once stored, the images can be retrieved for displaying or printing.
Image processing system is used in problem solving when it is necessary to
review historical documents for the purpose of understanding a problem. An
operator accesses the document management system from a workstation and
produces a hardcopy output for the manager.
Reprographics is the process of reproducing multiple copies of a document.
Office personnel are usually responsible for making more than one copy of a
report, letter, or other documents. When documents are widely distributed, either
internally or externally, reprographics often includes collating, folding, binding,
or related tasks.
Multiple copies may be made in various ways. When only a few copies are
required, it may be cost effective to print out multiple copies using the printer
attached to the computer. Most of the time, however, photocopier is used.
2. Message Handling Systems
Telex is the service, which enables user to transmit and receive printed
messages over a telephone line. Users have to be telex subscribers, with
their own telex equipment and code number, in order to send or receive
messages. The telex service started in 1930 and from the mid-1970s it
developed significantly as an international message transmission system.
Data transmission speed as compare to other methods of
telecommunication is very slow and only a restricted set of characters can
be used in messages.
Fax machine connected to a telephone, uses computer technology and
communications links to send quality graphics, charts, text and
handwritings almost everywhere in the world. The sending material (paper)
is placed in the fax machine at one end, where it is digitized. Those digits
are transmitted across the miles and then reassembled at the other end to
form identical version of the original. All this activity takes only minute or
Personal computer users can send and receive faxes directly by means of a
fax/modem. The only missing ingredient in the scheme is paper.
Fax is not only faster than overnight delivery services, but it is also less
expensive. Fax contributes to problem solving by sending documents to
member of the problem solving team quickly and easily, regardless of their
Teletext is a system for supplying commercial and other information
through existing television networks. The data such as news, weather,
sports reports, stock market data, airline and train schedules, TV guides
etc. is transmitted via a television channel at the same time that the
channel is being used to broadcast conventional television.
d) Video text (view data)
Videotext or Viewdata gives a home user access to information in
databases via a personal computer or converted television set. The method
of Access is via telephone lines, coaxial cable, or optical fiber.
Videotext is similar to Teletext in that it provides electronic reference to
material but there are two main differences.
Firstly it is available to subscribers only.
Secondly it provides two-way communication. This means that users can
interrogate the data held in the system and also supply information to it.
The system uses a combination of telephones, computers, television, and
e) Electronic mail
E-mail is the process of sending messages directly from one computer to
another. In this system the sender transmits the message over the
telephone network to a central computer, which allocates disk storage to
act as an electronic mail box for each user. Using a password for secret
purposes the user then can collect the message when required.
Speed: (electronic transmission is almost instantaneous)
Economy: (no speed for stamp, labor, paper)
Efficiency: (a message is prepared once but can be sent to thousands at
the touch of a button)
Security: (access can be restricted by the use of password)
Document can be retrieved and stored to word processing and graphic
Electronic delivery and receipt can be requested.
The necessity for users to have a terminal close at hand, otherwise
messages can't be received or sent.
Electronic mail handles only one-way communication. However, if you
desire two-way conversation, you must either send multiple e-mail
messages back and forth or use another medium.
The limitation of only being able to communicate with registered users, but
not with other parties.
3. Teleconferencing Systems
The term teleconferencing refers to electronic meetings that involve people who
are at physically different sites. Telecommunication technology systems allow
meeting participants to interact with one another without traveling to the same
location. The major types of teleconferencing exist:
a. Audio teleconferencing
b. Video conferencing
c. Computer conferencing
a) Audio teleconferencing
Audio teleconferencing (conference phone calls) enables participants to hear
each other only. A speakerphone may be used at one or more locations to
allow groups to participate in the meeting. Audio teleconferencing is by far the
b) Video conferencing
Want to have a meeting with someone across the country .and go over some
documents, without having to go there? Videoconferencing is a method
whereby people in different geographical locations can have a meeting, and
see and hear one another, using computers and communications.
Videoconferencing systems range from small videophones to group
conference rooms with cameras and multimedia equipment. The system
combines voice and television images that allow two or more groups to
interact with one another. Video teleconferencing was first widely
demonstrated in 1964 at New York's World Fair when AT&T introduced its
c) Computer conferencing
Computer conferencing involves computer terminals and E-mail or electronic
Bulletin boards. Conference participants broadcast messages to each other
(or post them on a common electronic bulletin board) participants do not have
to be present to receive messages. The messages are keyed in and then
displayed on computer screens hence; the "conversations" that take place are
electronic. Computer conferencing is a method of sending, receiving, and
storing typed messages within a network of users.
Improvements in data communications, increased power of PCs and changes
in working practices are leading to the spread of telecommuting. This allows
employees to work at home using computer equipment, which is linked via the
public communications network to computers in head office.
Office information system
An office information system, or OIS (pronounced oh-eye-ess), is an information
system that uses hardware, software and networks to enhance work flow and
facilitate communications among employees. Win an office information system,
also described as office automation; employees perform tasks electronically
using computers and other electronic devices, instead of manually. With an
office information system, for example, a registration department might post the
class schedule on the Internet and e-mail students when the schedule is
updated. In a manual system, the registration department would photocopy the
schedule and mail it to each student’s house.
An office information system supports a range of business office activities such
as creating and distributing graphics and/or documents, sending messages,
scheduling, and accounting. All levels of users from executive management to
non-management employees utilize and benefit from the features of an OIS.
The software an office information system uses to support these activities
include word processing, spreadsheets, databases, presentation graphics, e-mail,
Web browsers, Web page authoring, personal information management, and
groupware. Office information systems use communications technology such as
voice mail, facsimile (fax), videoconferencing, and electronic data interchange
(EDI) for the electronic exchange of text, graphics, audio, and video. An office
information system also uses a variety of hardware, including computers
equipped with modems, video cameras, speakers, and microphones, scanners
and fax machines.
PROS AND CONS OF OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEM
Office automation can get many tasks accomplished faster
It eliminating the need for a larger staff
Less storage space is required for data
Copies can be easily transferred off site for safekeeping in case of fire or
Multiple people can be updated simultaneously in the event of schedule
older staff members may have a harder time adjusting to the new
technology and be unable to use it efficiently
it can be a lot harder to find
amount of money required to implement
the cost of maintenance of certain equipment