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Lecture 5 levels of system


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Levels of System
Level of Management

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Lecture 5 levels of system

  1. 1. Inam Ul-Haq Lecturer in Computer Science University of Education Okara Campus, Levels of System UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 1
  2. 2. Organisation Hierarchy • A hierarchy (say “higher arky”) is an arrangement where there are different levels of authority or power. • Organisations usually have a hierarchical structure, where some people are more powerful or important than others. UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 2
  3. 3. Typical hierarchy in organisations UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 3
  4. 4. Typical hierarchy in organisations STRATEGIC UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 4
  5. 5. Typical management hierarchy in organisations TACTICAL STRATEGICSTRATEGIC UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 5
  6. 6. Typical management hierarchy in organisations TACTICAL OPERATIONAL STRATEGICSTRATEGIC UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 6
  7. 7. STRATEGIC DECISION MAKERS • The very highest level of the hierarchy • Make very big decisions that: • Must consider the whole organisation, not just part of it • Are expensive • Are long-term (e.g. years) • Could be disastrous if wrong • Define the nature of the organisation • Changes the organisation’s future UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 7
  8. 8. STRATEGIC DECISION MAKERS Typical Strategic level job titles: - Chairman - President - CEO (Chief Executive Office) - Board of Directors - General Manager UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 8
  9. 9. Tactical Management • These people are still high-level, and make important decisions in their own areas • But they follow instructions from above: from the strategic management. • Tactical managers implement the decisions made at the strategic level. • They take a big idea and work out how to make it happen • Their decisions are usually limited to a sector of the org (e.g. advertising, transport) rather than the whole org. • Project management is mostly tactical except planning Google it: Tactical Management UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 9
  10. 10. Typical Tactical-Level Job Titles • Advertising manager • Personnel manager • Creative director • Manager of information systems • Communications director • Chief Financial Officer UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 10
  11. 11. Tactical decisions • Implement strategic decisions • Are medium-term (e.g. months, weeks) • Are passed down to the next level of management… UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 11
  12. 12. Operational Management • Operational managers directly manage non-management staff and the public. • They make day-to-day decisions that are vital to actually make things, sell things, provide services. • They are at the ‘coal face’ doing business and making money. Google it: Operational Management UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 12
  13. 13. Typical operational job titles • Store manager • Foreman • Army Sergeant Google: what about IS? UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 13
  14. 14. Example • Super-shop, a country wide chain of grocery stores wants to increase its profit. • The board of directors discusses how to best achieve this. • They decide they will move into the pharmacy sector and include chemist shops in their stores. • This is a big departure from their usual business. It’s a strategic decision. UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 14
  15. 15. Tactical • The directors instruct the tactical managers to implement the decision. • The personnel manager advertises for pharmacists to be employed. • The publicity manager plans a TV & newspaper campaign to advertise the change. • The facilities manager puts out tenders for the construction work needed. UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 15
  16. 16. Operational • The builders arrive at a local supermarket. • The supermarket manager instructs staff to reorganise shelving to allow the construction of the pharmacy. • The manager chooses and arranges training for staff who will be working in the pharmacy. UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 16
  17. 17. Non-management • Cheryl, the checkout chick, empties out the shelves where the pharmacy will be built. • Her decision-making is limited to “I’ll need to get a trolley to take these cans to the other shelves.” UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 17
  18. 18. Drawing the line • Sometimes it’s hard to decide whether a decision is strategic, tactical or operational. • It can depend on the size of the organisation. UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 18
  19. 19. Drawing the line • Judge whether the decision will have a significant impact on the organisation over quite some time. That would be strategic. • If the decision is made to implement a decision made by a higher-ranking person (but it doesn’t actually achieve the end by itelf), it’s tactical. • If a decision actually leads workers to doing something that makes the plan work, it’s operational. UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 19
  20. 20. Thanks to: Thanks to: Mark Kelly These slideshows may be freely used, modified or distributed by teachers and students anywhere on the planet (but not elsewhere). They may NOT be sold. They must NOT be redistributed if you modify them. UniversityofEducationOkaraCampus 20