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Gr 4 system theory and methodologies


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Gr 4 system theory and methodologies

  1. 1. Nazia manzoor 07, Sumaira akbar 14, Anum Gill 18 Amna nawaz 24, Maria shahid 48, Amara zafar 53 Group no. 4 BBA HONS MORN 8th, 2010-2014 System theory and methodologies System theory and methodologies1
  2. 2. Systems are elements in interaction it is also a management methodology as it is a way of analyzing and thinking about organization Systems Theory Definition System theory and methodologies2
  3. 3. Systems Types: Open Vs. Closed  An open system interacts with its environment.  A closed system receives no inputs from its environment & entropy or decay sets in.  Systems have different levels of being open or closed.  A variety of inputs is required to help a system to remain open.  Implications  Need to create as open a system as possible to avoid entropy System theory and methodologies3
  4. 4. Systems Concepts:  hierarchy Systems are nested in a hierarchy, that is, systems consist of subsystems and systems operate within environments  Boundaries Boundaries are the interface between a system and its subsystems or a system and its environment  Inputs All systems have: Inputs  processes  output   Criteria (feedback loop)  System theory and methodologies4
  5. 5. System development methodology A system development methodology refers to the framework that is use to structure plan and control the process of developing an information system. Types of methodologies (to develop an IS)  Waterfall method  prototyping  rapid application development RAD System theory and methodologies5
  6. 6. Structured methodology (“Waterfall”) System theory and methodologies6
  7. 7. Waterfall Model Waterfall is a linear approach to software development. In this methodology, the sequence of events is something like:  Requirements  Design  Implementation  Verification  Maintenance System theory and methodologies7
  8. 8. Waterfall Model (Conti.)  In a true Waterfall development project, each of these represents a distinct stage of software development, and each stage generally finishes before the next one can begin. There is also typically a stage gate between each; for example, requirements must be reviewed and approved by the customer before design can begin. System theory and methodologies8
  9. 9. Prototyping Model  Prototyping  Building a scaled-down working version of the system (i.e. a prototype) System theory and methodologies9
  10. 10. Prototyping Model (Conti.) Prototyping is an attractive idea for complicated and large systems for which there is no manual process or existing system to help determining the requirements. The prototype are usually not complete systems and many of the details are not built in the prototype. The goal is to provide a system with overall functionality. System theory and methodologies10
  11. 11. RAD = Rapid Application Development model System theory and methodologies11
  12. 12. Phases in RAD Model the phases in the rapid application development (RAD) model are: Business modeling: The information flow is identified between various business functions. Data modeling: Information gathered from business modeling is used to define data objects that are needed for the business. . System theory and methodologies12
  13. 13. RAD Model (Conti.) Process modelling: Data objects defined in data modelling are converted to achieve the business information flow to achieve some specific business objective. Description are identified and created for CRUD of data objects Application generation: Automated tools are used to convert process models into code and the actual system. Testing and turnover: Test new components and all the interfaces. System theory and methodologies13
  14. 14. RAD Model (Conti.) RAD model is Rapid Application Development model.  In RAD model the components or functions are developed in parallel as if they were mini projects. The developments are time boxed, delivered and then assembled into a working prototype. This can quickly give the customer something to see and use and to provide feedback regarding the delivery and their requirements. System theory and methodologies14
  15. 15. Model of Information system of the firm System theory and methodologies15
  16. 16. Why use Information Systems in firms?  Each group in a firm has different need for information  Operational Excellence  Productivity  Efficiency  Agility  Develop New Product and Services  Attain Customer Intimacy and Service  Improve Decision Making  Accuracy  Speed  Promote Competitive Advantage  Ensure Survival System theory and methodologies16