Umi lasmina media gender revised[1]


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That great leap never has been handling good by women in general as well as women movement. It was results of great obstacle by patriarchal system of the government, as well as with everything rules Indonesia; cultures, education, economy and social.
This paper will underline media coverage on women in headline news, as female “figure” not in term of statue of photo, but words which represent a woman’s name and individual existence in headline, and women’s issues in front page.

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Umi lasmina media gender revised[1]

  1. 1. … Women in Government AVery Limited Media Coverage on Women Umi Lasmina History of Women in Government A Very Limited Media Coverage on Women Prepared by Umi Lasmina, Jakarta-Indonesia Women Worlds 05 Congress, International Interdisciplinary Congress on Women 2005, June 19-24 Seoul - South Korea 1
  2. 2. … Women in Government AVery Limited Media Coverage on Women Umi Lasmina Indonesia History of Women in Government A Very Limited Media Coverage on Women A very limited story (her stories) of women in relating their contribution to governthe nation is acute. Women’s contribution is often taken for granted. First, Since the newIndonesia government formally established in 1945, the year of Indonesian Independent,women has not given the chance to exercise power to govern, and second if they had, andembrace the power to make contribution to govern (in executive), history and mediaalmost always given less space for acknowledge them. Furthermore, Indonesian women has limited opportunities to involved ingovernment or in term of three partied as part of executives board. Yet the achievementof Indonesian woman to be a president in 2001, Megawati Soekarnopoetri did not changethe situation, which was the contribution of her reign to govern the nation is lessacknowledge in stories and media. There were almost neither as president nor as woman’spresident. Although woman has already been ‘elected’ as President (substituted Presidentwhom has been impeach by parliament), but with muslim majority population, Indonesiahas been enter a great leap for a women’s movement. That great leap never has been handling good by women in general as well aswomen movement. It was results of great obstacle by patriarchal system of thegovernment, as well as with everything rules Indonesia; cultures, education, economy andsocial. This paper will underline media coverage on women in headline news, as female“figure” not in term of statue of photo, but words which represent a woman’s name andindividual existence in headline, and women’s issues in front page. Women mention inheadline news is to show us, how woman was involved in major issues or big issues of inthe country according to media people. Headline as main news reflected by mostimportance news of which published at that day1. This is the way we have seen, hownews media headline include woman as female---in quantity of news coverage. I will notanalyze representation of woman’s perspective in headline, but how many women isincluded in period of a month headlines of daily newspaper. Woman’s role in public lifeor politics is still limited, though there was a female’s president. I chose sample from thenews in Kompas by year of 2002. The quantity of female figure in headline news will bring idea on how and in whatcondition woman usually become part of the subject in headline. This is very importantway to see woman’s representation as creator and be part of big national issue. Indonesiahas female president. And many times, though it’s not mention in news media, accusationhave made for woman’s leader (president) failure, for reason that because she was awoman. And if the president is male, and fail, media and most people always never judgein related with his gender. The quantity of female in headline could bring reader, especially women’s readera sense of women mirror women. It was too, would bring a sense of other women’sfeeling (readers) that they too, could participate and contributed for the nation. Thoughvery seldom, women who has chance to be presented in headline, are almost always inrelated with their position in the government as head/vice executives where their havepower as decision maker their, in local as well national level. It would be a simply as waywoman identify woman, without stereotype. Women mirror themselves in the news. Thewomen’s contribution has been long given for the country but almost never beenacknowledge by the media, as well in historical note.1 Lesmana Tjipta., 20 Tahun Kompas, profil pers Indonesia dewasa ini, Jakarta:Erwin-Rita.,1985., page.53. 2
  3. 3. … Women in Government AVery Limited Media Coverage on Women Umi Lasmina The invisibility of women in headline news and national historical note, werecommon situation where the majority of parliament members were male, and publicpositions as well media still within patriarchal bias. This paper will show those facts byusing sample Kompas, a national newspaper whose local supplement published forreaders in Java (West Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta and East Java). As leading dailynewspaper published since 1965, has millions of reader throughout Indonesia. And Java ischosen as one of the island where many women become executive officer or head of localgovernment (City Major). With common argument that it is still a great expectation to accomplish forimplementing and endorse women’s issues and interests if woman with power is still fewand very limited numbers, as it was stated by Drude Dahlerup,” Don’t expect us to makemuch difference as long as we are only a few woman in politics. It takes critical mass ofwomen to make a fundamental change in politics”2. in Indonesia, though there are fewprogress situations in several provinces, especially in Java, where women become thehead of executive for regency /district as City Major, this is why I choose Java for thesubject areas of survey. Within period of time 2002 the paper will focus headline, frontpage and regular profile article in Kompas. The survey will show how the media news coverage, in related with woman asfemale figure, how many woman’s in government official presented in headline. Firstand main effort is to show the frequency of woman as female (non gender related-but asex) is told in headline news. Limited within this context are the un-proportional spacesof non-stereotype as female in government position and woman’s issue brought in news. Itry not to examine woman’s feminist perspective on the news, because it might need hugeeffort and already predict disappointed result. The second is to create link in relating thenews coverage between women with or without position in official government bodies,and the frequency of them in the news. It is a way to show, the awareness of the media of “the other sex” presence in theheadline. It includes if the paper mention word of “woman” “wife” “daughter” withintheir headline news. These might have varied interpretation and meaning though, but I itcould mirror the woman see woman in the news, in very limited way. This is how the roleof the media in portraying women. The quantity of newspaper in portraying womenmight as well have the effect for women identify themselves in sense of public areas, butagain, this might need a lot of works to examine it. It is, limited media coverage on women, merely woman as gender representationof female, will brought a horizon to think of how media not necessary cover women asequal as their male counterpart, as citizen. Specifically middle-upper class woman whoheld public offices do not share equal space of page in newspaper, as with man. By examine of how many words frequency of woman figure within Headline ofKompas (National edition) newspaper, and frequency of woman’s issue on front page inKompas (Java editions), taken into the sign and symbol of woman to be seen in reality ofnews media. The content analysis will bring us to the amount how media bureaucracy andjournalist habit t presenting women in their news. And how many times, during headlinenews, give space for woman’s president to be mention in news and cover in headline 3.Within this range, I use concept of content analysis as ‘research technique for theobjective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content ofcommunication’. It is semiotic and content analysts in general4. The limited numbers of2 Dahlerup, Drude.,Women’s Beyond numbers, edited by Azza Karram, et.,all., Stockholm., IDEA: 1998,3 Stempel III, Guido H., Analisis Isi., (Content Analysis) as translated by Rakhmat, Jalaludin Drs., andKasta., Arko Drs., Arai Komunikasi Bandung: 1983., p.114 Van Zoonen, Liesbet., Feminist Media Studies.,London.Sage Pubication;1994.,p.85 3
  4. 4. … Women in Government AVery Limited Media Coverage on Women Umi Lasminawords of woman’s name and figure in text will become a signifier of women’s presencein headlines and issues as woman’s existence in whole news. The amount of finding thewords of woman’s figure is similar with quantity and quality of women in wholerepresentation of woman in Kompas and whole news media in Indonesia. This findingstoo, will show us that having the press freedom and have a woman as the country’s headgovernment, not necessarily accommodate women as part of big news to be cover beyondstereotype.History of Women In Government: short list women Indonesian women’s movement became big part of shareholder for Indonesian’swomen’s interest, their contribution to escort the women’s in government in necessary.As Margaret Stacey and Marion Price stated “a strategy of encouraging women to gainpower position must have clearly linked with continuing discussion as how to we canachieve liberty, equality and comradeship as well the importance of women with power tobe kept closely in touch with well and organized women’s movement. 5 But in Indonesia,the great leap of women’s movement by having the woman president, has not yet ready toescort those great power of a woman. Woman has to face the difficulties against male biasand male dominated system of government, which showed in the making of regulation,where women’s interest and issues was abandoned. Since Independence of the Nation, in August 1945 Indonesia has very limitedwomen in government position, especially in national level. It was not until 1946 whenthe third Cabinet was formed, a woman appointed to be a minister. She was Maria UlfahSubadio, who became Social Minister in Sjahrir cabinet (Prime Minister while Soekarnowas a President). She was a member of PERWARI Persatuan Wanita Republik Indonesiaand Perhimpunan Perempuan Indonesia. PERWARI was a largest women’s organizationat that time and PPI was a coordinating organization for many women’s organizations.The next woman to be appointed to become minister was SK Trimurti, as LabourMinister. She was a member of PBI Indonesia Labour Party. That was a very short historyafter Indonesia Independence day. After the year of 1950 to 1978, there were seldom woman officer at national andlocal government. One of them was only Maria Ulfah who was Secretary for PrimeMinister, and she was a former minister in cabinet 1946. Other position in this period forwomen in government was supporting institution such as government’s own hospital,research institute and university. In legislative body, women run for seat in parliamentrather different than male counterparts. In Old Order from first election 1955 to 1965, with liberal multy parties systemwomen has small opportunity to practice in politics and compete with other candidate.The result of first general election in 1955, has 17 women member of parliament (MP)out of 272 or 6,3 % of women MPs. Within those period women did not share same attention for media coverage asmen. The headline that include woman’s figure was not different than today. Womanfigure mostly in related their link with bureaucracy or male officer to be in headline, orfront page. The most coverage woman’s issues and woman figure to be presented, to becovered in newspaper that period were in year of 1953, where women was planned toheld demonstration against government regulation PP19/Th.1952, and the demonstrationagainst its regulation on December 17, 1953. The regulation was induced and passed bypresident Soekarno has allowed civil servant practicing polygamy6. Almost all media put5 Margareth Stacey and Marion Price Women in politics and Society in The Third World, Second Edition.,Peter Calvert and Susan Cail., Pearson Education Ltd.England:20016 .Lasminah. Umi., Demonstrasi Perwari Menolak P19.Thn.1952., script for graduated University ofIndonesia.,1995 4
  5. 5. … Women in Government AVery Limited Media Coverage on Women Umi Lasminawoman’s action in demonstration in headlines. Other than that, woman’s figure mostlypresented in front page photo of wife of president or any foreign woman delegation metwith president. In New Order era, 1966-1998, women rarely have chance to practice politicsfreely. The military influenced Government set up a mono political culture. Most womenwho joint in politics were women who have relation with bureaucrat or military. Generalelection 1992, Women MPs reach highest number, there were 62 out of 500, or 12,5%,but mostly those women were daughter, sisters of bureacrats or military officers. The lastelection 2004, there were 61 women’s MPs out of 550 MPs or 11,1 %. And most of themdid not practice politics as road for women’s empowerment and progressiveness. The woman minister has been chosen again during the midterm of Soeharto’s era(1966-1998). At this time, Indonesia was like under pressure by international communityto give a woman chance to be head in executive. The first woman minister in Soeharto’seras was Mrs. Lasijah Sutanto, a first Young Minister of Women’s Role in 1978. It wascalled young minister, to indicated that the as new formed ministry. In 1983, Women’sRole ministry become State Minister of Women’s Role with no portfolio, or department,that means the all the budget and operational for the ministry activities was token fromThe State Minister. Mrs Lasijah Sutanto succession with Mrs.A.Soelasikin Moerpratomo in 1987, andcontinued her post until 1993. The Women’s role minister for 1993-1998 was Mrs.MienSugandhi, and 1998-1999 women’s role minister was Mrs.Hj.Tuty Alawiyah. Those arethe ministers from New Order era, whose president was Soeharto. They were all aGolongan Karya cadre, a political organization reign Indonesia for almost 32 years since1967. Not until 1998 Women’s Role minister change their name with Women’sEmpowerment Minister, and had a minister from Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (The RisingNation Party), Mrs.Khofifah Indar Parawangsa. Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa is a new formparty after Soeharto’s dawn. Those shows short list of women’s minister, compare to allmember of minister since 1978 to 1998, 7 women’s minister to150 member of maleministers or 5,3% women’s minister for 20 years of Indonesia national government. When students movement and women’s movement grow all over Indonesia, withdemand Soeharto to resigned, so was Soeharto’s influence became less and less. Publicand media start to notice issues of woman’s participation in politics. Because amemorable action of a group women and mothers called Suara Ibu Peduli (Voice ofconcern Mothers) in Hotel Indonesia circle in 21 February 1998. Women’s middle classmovement has great attention by national and international media. The women who hasbeen leading in action; Karlina Leksono Supelly, Gadis Arivia and Wilasih, were arrestedby police, and had been interrogated for almost 24 hours. Their photo shows all over themedia, national and international media. Soeharto regime was in alert. Two months aftertheir actions, students occupied the parliament building with demand, Suharto resign.Suharto resigned May 21, 1998. That was the time for beginning of Indonesia newdemocratic system. The year of 1998 too, became beginning year of change for women’sposition in government. But their story too, for most of time vanish from mainstreamhistory, secluded with mass students demo. Later on in 1999, Indonesia held general election, yet another multy parties hasbeen participated. This was a new time for a rebound democracy. The winner party wasPartai Democracy Indonesia Perjuangan/PDIP (Indonesia Democratic Party of Struggle)chair by first ever woman lead big party, Megawati Soekarnopoetri. The situation afterlegislative election was confusing, people who chose PDIP wanted Megawati to bepresident. Due to Islamic issues brought by politician, especially Partai Amanat Nasional(National Messenger Party) and Muhamadiyah leader Amien Rais, that woman wasforbidden to be a nation leader. Megawati failed to grasp the right that her party rights as 5
  6. 6. … Women in Government AVery Limited Media Coverage on Women Umi Lasminawinner. She was not posted as president, instead the General Assembly chose her as vicepresident. It was KH Abdurrahman Wahid leadership was, again another starting point forgood woman’s movement. He was has tight relationship with women’s activist. In facther wife, Sinta Nuriyah was a member of commissioner of National Commission of AntiViolence against Women (formed 1998). During Wahid era, Government has induced aregulation for every offices department to have Pengharusutamaan Gender (GenderMainstreaming Program) with President Instruction No 9/Thn.2000. The instruction wasa follow up program of CEDAW implementation. One of the ministers of his era wasKhofifah Indar Parawangsa as Women’s Empowerment minister. During her work timeas minister for 2 years, Women’s Empowerment minister has a tight relationship withwomen’s feminist activist. It was another time in history of having two women posted in cabinet minister,one in Women’s Empowerment Minister and the other was Housing Minister. It washappened because the president of Indonesia, KH.Abdurrahman Wahid was/is wellknown to have close relation with women’s movement, and has been great supporter forwomen’s rights issues. The Abdurrahman Wahid reign was only for two years. He wasousted by the parliament in July 2001, and vice president Megawati, was automaticallychosen to replace him. At the same time, Megawati still a chair of PDIP. During Megawati presidency, many women become head of government offices,national and local in compare with previous government. Though there were not exactsargument that could explain this was related situation, the fact that during the Megawatiera that women’s role in government increased is something we cannot deny. And the factthat in many districts, the PDIP’s were endorse women to become a City Major, such asin Nganjuk, East Java and Kebumen Central Java. Highest positions of women in executive level for national and local governmentare varied since 1999 first election. As we know, Megawati already achieve the highestposition for executive level as President, but other than that there are very limited numberof women in executive in national level. There are only 3 women ministers duringMegawati presidency. Minister for women’s empowerment: Sri Rejeki Soemaryoto, tradeand industry minister: Rini Soewandi and secretary general for Internal AffairsDepartment Siti Nurbaya, and the latest one woman chosen to be a Deputy Governor ofBank Indonesia is Miranda Goeltom. And at the local level, highest position for executivewas Vice Governor of Banten Province, Hj Rt Atut Chosiyah and Major for some districtor regent in East Java, West Java, Central Java and North Sulawesi. Many women wereleader of Rukun Tetangga and Village. As for Major of regency in Majalengka West Javais Hj.Tutty Hayati Anwar SH, Major of Demak regent is Endang Setyaningsih, Major forKaranganyar district is Rina Iriani, and Kebumen’s district Rustriningsih. All womenexecutive is too, joint a political party before they were chosen to be executives by LocalParliament (DPRD). The lowest level position for government executive is leader ofRukun Tetangga branch of sub village areas where consists about 300 families for each.Leader for village is Lurah, and there are many women as Lurah. Such in Panarung,Central Kalimantan, Zulhikmah Ravieq, Lurah Salatiga, Central Java, Siti Sulami, danLurah Mangungsari Dra Nunuk Dartini Msi in Central Java and in Selong, vice Lurah inSouth Jakarta. Though it is still very limited number of woman in government, women becomemore and more visible in politics. It was excess of freedom of the press and freedom toform organization has brought condition that there were increasing numbers of newspeople as experts and commentators from various backgrounds. And many of them talk ofsocial and politics situation, few were woman, such as Chusnul Mar’iyah (later becomeone of Member of National Elections Committee), Smita Notosusanto and Nursyahbani 6
  7. 7. … Women in Government AVery Limited Media Coverage on Women Umi LasminaKatjasungkana (a chair of Indonesia Women’s Coalition for Justice and Democracy).Theirs comment mostly about political situation on women and politics in general.Usually their views broadcast in television, radio and printed in newspaper, but againrarely be part of headline news and front page coverage.Limited Media Coverage on Women Kompas is a leading newspaper, published since 1965, and well known for itsquality to be one of the best newspapers today, as an objective and check-recheck newssources. Choosing Kompas as main research target merely for its relation with power andhow its published voices rather accountable compare to other media, beside it’s a longand survive newspaper to date. Kompas survive the ‘accusation’ and gossip as a Christianresonance. And to now, it is the biggest prints national newspaper daily, to which hasmore number of women in board of editor. Kompas has 24 women out 121 editors,compare to overall newspaper bureaucracy in Indonesia which not even reach to 3 %women7. As news media, Kompas become one of the pint points to know what wasimportant circumstances take place in the country. People read their headlines and scanfront pages. Government looks, and driven to responds, sometimes on what have beenpresented in Kompas, especially in headline and front page. They event react by using hakjawab (Counter Act) by using media against what has been published in news. 8 And in one of my interview with a young educated woman whose her office isKompas subscriber and she read newspaper in her office, she said she read headlines, andif there is a woman’s issue in front page, she usually stop to read the title scan a bit, and ifit is interesting subject she might read to finished at that time. On other subject title infront page, she usually not doing read scan9. In Kompas though, women’s comment mostly put in page 4 where its contentcolumn for law and politics news. Unlike other male counterpart, where their commentmight quoted and become title for the news in front page whether or not it follow otherstory in the news. Women comments put in other page, if quoted for title usually followother big action concerning the issue. The big action is such as demonstration, protest orcontroversial regulation. Almost none, women commentator created certain issue thatmight be a title. The moment for women to join and melting with the change was hardlybe left to follow in print media. And women’s writer opinion seldom published inOpinion section of Kompas, whether it is related or not with equal opportunity or equaljudgment for quality. We never know.This table shows limited frequency female figure could be part in cover in daily news aspart of the headline news.7 .Daniel Dhakidae., in opening launch of book of Ani Widyani Soetjipto’s Perempuan dalam Politik bukanGerhana., Jakarta April 29,20058 . Kompas headline and front page on March, 18,19,20, 2005 about fact on the alert and danger of Hungerin East Nusa Tenggara, has been great concern for government, and they tried to clarified the fact usingother media, television to counter the news.9 Interview with Yuli, (age 27) 4 April, 2005, Jakarta 7
  8. 8. … Women in Government AVery Limited Media Coverage on Women Umi LasminaTable 1 Woman in Headline January 2002National Headline Kompas January 2002 Times of Women mention in Month(27-30 Main Headline news days) Subject President Women’s Other Total Female official Figure Economy 3 1 1 5 Politics 8 3 11 Social 2 1 3 Legal Culture Total 13 1 5 19Note: Women’s official: woman with as head executive in government office national/ local and in National Army orPolice.,Other : woman Sample of News title January (HEADLINE)Pertamina Diperintahkan Lakukan Operasi Pasar January 6, 2002, (Pertamina being ordered to do MarketOperation) (Economy)> Has two woman figure mention: president Megawati and Titi Suprapti, a supplier/trader of kerosene.Banjir Besar Landa Medan 5 Tewas dan 6 Hilang, Bandara ditutup Big Flood occur Medan5 Died and 6 missing, Airport closed (Social)> Has five woman figure mention: they are victims of floodTable 1 show us that women’s figure only mention 19 times in headlines a month ormostly in politics (8 times), because of woman’s president, she have been mention to bepublished in headline for 13 out of 19 times in a month. Worse of it, there is one mentionword “president” but not without name, it was a quotation words from a minister,Menurut Suwoto, …. “Hasil Keputusan Presiden yang menetapkan walikota berhentiitulah yang disebut berhalangan tetap.Bisa juga karena meninggal….” (According toSuwoto, what it mean to be static condition of unavailable is a legilative product whichlegalized by President). The word president within this context is blur, which president.But it is only person with understanding that a president in here referred to institutionalorganization, with authority of presidency. While other woman only mention 5 times.But for several headlines, there were more than one female figure most of them victims ofthe flood (social news) Big flood in Medan where I could identify woman’s figure bytheir names. As in one headline about fuels, where PERTAMINA, government’s to heldmarket operation, due to difficulty of people to get fuels. One of the agents presented innews is woman. My interpretation is that only in a major disturbance that non-officialwoman’s figure would presence as part of casualties. As the same with victims of flood,plane crash and legal case where woman’s presence in news usually related with the mainsubject person. 8
  9. 9. … Women in Government AVery Limited Media Coverage on Women Umi Lasmina Table 2 Woman’s figure in Headline March 2002 National Women in news frequency Month (27-30 day) Kompas Female Female ’s Other Total woman Figure March 2002 President officer Economy 3 3 Politics 5 5 Social Legal 2 2 6* 10 Culture TOTAL 7 5 6 18 *3 times in three days headline was Akbar Tanjung’s Wife. Akbar Tanjung was a Golkar chairman who has been detained due to allegation for corruption. Three other names of woman’s figures were related with Tommy Soeharto’s ( trial. Tommy Soeharto was/is well known as womanizer, has many mistresses because of his wealth of fortune and good looking face. When he was arrested for the first time, it was because of police trace hidden information from one of his woman. Sample of News title March 2002 (HEADLINE)Penegakan Hukum Nasional dibawah Tekanan Politik (National Law Enforcement is under political pressure) Kompas. March,9,2002> Has a woman figure mention: president Megawati. (politics)Tommy diancam hukuman mati. (Tommy is threaten to have Death Sentence) Kompas March22,2002> has three woman’s figure in news, 2 witnesses of Tommy case (Ny.Sokinah, Hetty Siti Hartika), andTommy’s lawyer Elza Syarif (legal)Akbar Tanjung Tunjuk Pengacara Baru (Akbar Tanjung appointed new lawyer)>Has a woman’s figure in news, a wife of Akbar Tanjung, Krisnina Akbar Tanjung. (legal) Kompas March 23, 2002Table 3 Women Issue in Front Page of Kompas NationalMonth: January 2002Date Women’s Issue title Female figure mention Issue19 “Bunga” atau kerudung Laporan dari Durkani, woman live in Requin Women in Afganistan conflict, areas “Flower” or Veil, report from Afganistan Afganistan28 Perpanjangan Kader terbaik Muhamadiyah Prof.Dr.Siti Chamamah Soeratno Women in untuk menjadi pimpinan Nasional (leader of Aisyiah. A women mass politics (mass (Lengthening Best Cadre of Muhamadiyah organization of Muhamadiyah) organization) to become National Leader)29 Photo news: No.4 Rank Women Tennis Martina Hingis, Monica Seles, Jelena Women in sport Association Martina Hingis with Jelena Dokic Dokic and Monica Seles in JapanTable 3 shows us in general, that women’s issue rarely be pick in front page. In KompasNational, there were 7 news in front page, daily (30 days x 7news), and approximately 9
  10. 10. … Women in Government AVery Limited Media Coverage on Women Umi Lasminaonly 2 women issue content news in a month for front page. In general it was only 2women’s issue out of 210 news is equal 0,95 % monthly.Table 4 Women Issue in Front Page Local section of Kompas East JavaMonth: October 2002Date Title in Front Page of Women’s Issue Female’s figure Main Issue mention15 Perempuan Berperan Cegah Disitegrasi 0 politics Women had role to prevent disintegration17 8% Perempuan mengidap Inkontinensia 0 health 8% of women had inkontinensia19 Foto News: Mengalah, demi menghemat duduk di economy belakang pengayuh becak, sementara barang di depan Give in, for conserve and sit in the back of becak driver, while stock in the front.Table 4 is funny, there were 2 news related women’s issue, but there were not woman’sfigure in the news. On the news “Perempuan Berperan Cegah Disitegrasi /Women hadrole to prevent disintegration”, it was a quotation statement stated by an male academic.And the other news in table 5, again its male researcher who doing research about sexhabit of female student in “Deliti, Virginitas Mahasiswi Yogyakarta/Research conduct on College Student Virginity in Yogyakarta”. Where the news onlypresent a male resource person, a researcher.Table 5 Women Issue in Front Page of Local Pages of Kompas Central JavaMonth: August 2002Date Title of Front page of Women’s Issue Women’s figure mention2 Deliti, Virginitas Mahasiswi Yogyakarta 0 Research conduct on College Student Virginity in Yogyakarta6 Mengadu ke DPRD DIY, 35 TKI Kesulitan Minta Dana Asuransi 1 Difficult to get insurance, 35 Indonesia Migrant Workers counseled to Yogyakarta local parliamentTable 6. Women Issue in Front Page of Local Pages of Kompas East JavaMonth: March 2002Date Sample of Others Title of Front page of Women’s Issue Women’s figure mention issue18 Pelecehan Buruh diadukan ke Polres 2. Yuni Susilawati: a women’s Sidoarjo (Sexual Harassment against worker worker leader, Ice (not real reported to Police) name): victim of sexual Issue Violenc against women harrashment26 Majikan yang menganiaya pembantu 5. Suna, Yenni are maid; diperiksa jiwanya. (Employee who abused Ratjh, Sunarsih, victims of maid is examined its soul) violence by employee, Ny Ita: Issue Violence against women wife of employee1 Golkar Jatim prohibit 0 their cadres to go to High Court of Justice Though the samples did not represent all media coverage of women. The findingis that there was very limited media coverage, stereotype and do not give much credit for 10
  11. 11. … Women in Government AVery Limited Media Coverage on Women Umi Lasminawomen. Stereotype was, as woman, you might be presented in headlines, if you are a wifebureaucrat, or daughter of a well- known male figure. It was much easier to find womenrepresent as female figure in media, that for sure, but of course you could not find itanywhere in front page and headline, not in Kompas too. In Indonesia, a way to find woman’s figure is seek by their names. Though didnot put Mr, Ms, or Mrs before names, there are certain indication for customary names formale and female. And especially for most woman’s journalist, they sometimes put a wordwoman (perempuan), in front of name or status of a person, to make sure the reader willhave background information. Many news headline, we could see more of woman names as name for hospital orboats, but that is not what I intend to. Woman figures whose I seek for content analysisare women, representing with no gender role stereotype and preference. And that waslimited. If we would find more women as female figure in front-page color, of women’sfemale figure, we might see much (Nama dan Peristiwa) Name and Event. This page isreadable by most of Kompas reader. The survey by Kompas prove about their reader isalways read Nama dan Peristiwa in page 12 (backpage), for almost 40 %, often for above80%, and only slightly reader do not read Nama dan Peristiwa.10 And I see this rubricfunction is for intermezzo. Women (and men) who mostly presented in section arecelebrities, artist, actors or actresses, from Indonesia or outside. The average estimationwas only 4 out 50 women in public offices (Indonesia or foreign) out of people (mostlycelebrities) to be published in back-page of Name and Event rubric.Conclusion Media coverage for Politics, is like Sports, where male is still the owner for all ofthese pages11 and headline of Kompas mostly politics. Even though Indonesia’s head ofexecutive is a woman, there is no guarantee, that woman’s figure would be part ofimportance news. Well woman’s figure might shows in headline photo, but it is not news.It is importance photo, a good photo, but not yet importance news, though sometimes thephoto is side with news about the photo. For women’s figure in photo, was mostly photofor attract reader to read further more, especially in Saturday and Sunday edition.Woman’s figure has space photo color in left side of front page. But though limited coverage on women in politics, women who had publicprofession could be more comfort with media, than their peers in Western Country. InIndonesia, media rarely criticize or underline performance of women’s officers. It was forcelebrity media most underline or give commentary performance, because of course theyhave more space in front of pages for women’s public officers. Unlike their peers of head of executive, in Denmark, when a male reporter wroteabout Denmark new young woman’s Justice Minister Ms. Espersen “Are you going totouch her tits then?” asked my Mrs. As the last thing before I left home on that rainyMonday morning.”Never,” I answered a little too fast.12 Though sometimes news inKompas mention too, what color of dress that president wearing, it was merely forinformation during particular occasion as in Mother’s day commemoration, or when sheis going to do an opening ceremony. Fortunately Indonesian press did not obsessed withperformance of their female pubic officers or excecutives.10 .Presentasi Hasil Angket Pembaca Kompas Harian, 2004, oleh Puslitbis Litbang Kompas.11 .Jones, Ray, J.Murrell, Audrey and Jackson, Jenifer., Pretty Versus Powerful in the Sports Pages: PrintMedia Coverage of U.S Women’s Olympic Gold Winning Teams., Journal of Sport and Social Issues,Vol.23, No.2, 1999 p.183-192.12 Moustgaard Andersen, Ulrikke., The Handbag, The Witch and the Blue Eyes Blond., presentation madeon the international conference Mass Media in (Re)Distribution of Power, 12-14 January 2005. 11
  12. 12. … Women in Government AVery Limited Media Coverage on Women Umi Lasmina The importance to presence woman’s figure in headlines news and front page,especially women’s issues in front page for Kompas, as leading media, that claim to havemore than 600.000 copies, which reach millions readers is crucial for create a equalsphere in news space. As a leading media, other media will look and follow what inKompas done, especially if it good way to attract more readers, buyers, and maybesubscribers. We know, that Kompas do not gain money and profit from selling theirnewspaper copies, but from advertising. But of course, they will have more attention frompublic, and have a better newspaper image, if they have the courage to embrace more ofwoman figure to be present news headline. Why what is that, because more women, willbuy and read Kompas. More women could identify themselves in the news, and it’sheadline, and front page. Women might still look for their stories and figure in woman’smagazine, and they to might be looking for their story and figure in daily newspaper. Itwould be a story of inclusive way to acknowledge women as citizen, as politics and socialcreatures that could be part of national-regional news. Women will no longer excludedfrom national story, male universe in media is deconstructed, with human (male andfemale) news stories. We might be agreed that news has to be present hard fact of what happening todayor last night, become news might be printed in “today” news on headline and front pageof daily newspaper. But it is hard fact too that woman’s life in general sometimes relatedwith story in headline and front page. And how that journalist and bureaucracy injournalist find out that, we do not know, until there is an effort to doing it. In every singlething that happened in national and regional level, journalist have to seek and presentwoman as apart of it, in important and not so important role. Since media have considerpower to frame our understanding of public life, to set the agenda on key issues and toinfluence political process13. And Kompas is one of media with greater influence to createpublic opinion from headline and front page. And I will not argue that Kompas too, its capitalist tool media. But it is too onemedia which dare to present different angle on selecting to be published news. As whenno other media covered Socialist Forum, Kompas put the News in front page with photoinsert of Hugo Chaves’s of Venezuale president, and on the other day placed big photo ofFidel Casto with Hugo Chaves in foreign section. Everyone, the reader of Kompasespecially (middle to upper class people) who has knowledge about background ideologymight be reading behind the lines of what it meant. If woman figure to be present more in headlines and front page, it will bring a newway of deconstruction male space in press. That newspaper space is not only for male,masculine figure especially in Kompas. We know, there is other newspaper who broughtwoman’s figure in almost everyday front page---but again, not many woman would readthis newspaper, because of its presentation of woman most only as victims of rape, orrobbery or sexploitation figure for male reader14. As result, again woman will seek ‘news’about them, where presented only once in a week (weekly women’s magazine orwoman’s tabloid), two week (woman’s magazine or tabloid) or monthly (monthlywoman’s magazine). The question is, are Kompas dare to try and give woman more spacein headline and front page and other pages too, so they will not only buy weekly, monthlymedia to seek their woman-identify- woman, and woman do not feel isolated withnationwide event in Indonesia. And for knowingly that Kompas’s news content is not13 Lawrence, Dr.Carmen.,Woman’s Politicians and The Media.,www.carmenlawrence.com14 .There are daily newspaper with focus on politics and crime where woman often be presented in headlineand front page: Rakyat Merdeka, Post Kota, Sinar Pagi and Sinar Harapan. 12
  13. 13. … Women in Government AVery Limited Media Coverage on Women Umi Lasminadetermined by market forces, there is hope to change to be better media that representingwoman, not only as stereotype but as pubic figure and politicians. (U/L @2005)umeegila@yahoo.comBibligrafiDahlerup, Drude.,Womens Beyond numbers, edited by Azza Karram, et.,all., Stockholm., IDEA: 1998,Davies, Kath., Dickey Juliene., Stratford, Teresa., eds., Out of Focus, writing on Women and The Media.,London: The Women’s Press 1987.Jones, Ray, J.Murrell, Audrey and Jackson, Jenifer., “Pretty Versus Powerful in the Sports Pages: Print Media Coverage of U.S Womens Olympic Gold Winning Teams”., Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol.23, No.2, 1999Lasminah. Umi., Demonstrasi Perwari Menolak P19.Thn.1952., script for graduated University of Indonesia.,1995., unpublished.Lawrence, Dr.Carmen.,Womans Politicians and The Media.,www.carmenlawrence.comLesmana Tjipta., 20 Tahun Kompas, profil pers Indonesia dewasa ini, Jakarta:Erwin- Rita.,1985.Margareth Stacey and Marion Price.,Women in politics and Society in The Third World, Second Edition., Peter Calvert and Susan Cail., Pearson Education Ltd.England:2001Moustgaard Andersen, Ulrikke., The Handbag, The Witch and the Blue Eyes Blond., presentation made on the international conference Mass Media in (Re)Distribution of Power, 12-14 January 2005.Norris, Pippa., Women and Media and Politics., Oxford.1997.Puslitbis Litbang Kompas.Presentasi Hasil Angket Pembaca Kompas Harian, 2004Stempel III, Guido H., Analisis Isi., (Content Analysis) as translated by Rakhmat, Jalaludin Drs., and Kasta., Arko Drs., Arai Komunikasi Bandung: 1983.Van Zoonen, Liesbet., Feminist Media Studies.,London.Sage Pubication;1994. Interview with Yuli, (age 27) 4 April, 2005, Jakarta Kompas, January 2002 Kompas, March 2002 Kompas, October 2002 Kompas, February 2005 Kompas, March 2005 13