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EARLY DAYS OF VIDEO CODING STANDARDIZATION

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History of video coding standardization - delivered by Dr. Sakae Okubo, creator of H.261 at IMTC 20th Anniversary Forum

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EARLY DAYS OF VIDEO CODING STANDARDIZATION

  1. 1. EARLY DAYS OF VIDEO CODING STANDARDIZATION 10 October 2013 Sakae OKUBO VTV Japan Inc.
  2. 2. 1. Progress of video coding technologies 2. History of video coding standardization 3. Guiding principles of the H.261 development 4. Reference Model methodology for consensus building 5. Comparison of H.261 and H.265/HEVC standardization 6. Merits and demerits of standardization 7. Challenge to the video coding standardization Outline
  3. 3. 1. Progress of video coding technologies DCT Discrete Cosine Transform DPCM Differential PCM MC Motion Compensation PCM Pulse Code Modulation Simple Interframe Prediction Transform DCT Vector Quantization VQ Hybrid Coding MC + DCT + VLC MC + VQ + VLC Motion Compensated Interframe Prediction MC Block-based Coding DPCM PCM Pel-based Coding 1950s 1960s 1970s Early 1980s Late1980s and beyond Huffman Code Variable Length Coding (VLC) Arithmetic Code
  4. 4. 2. History of video coding standardization AVC: Advanced Video Coding HEVC: High Efficiency Video Coding MVC: Multiview Video Coding SVC: Scalable Video Coding • Year indicates when the first version was issued • Blue indicates common or twin text standard between ITU-T and ISO/IEC • Yellow mark indicates the presenter's involvement
  5. 5. 3. Guiding principles of the Specialists Group to develop H.261 • The Specialists Group should collaborate as closely as possible in defining a worldwide standard for 'second generation' codecs. • The best way to achieve this is eventually by conducting a 'hardware' related project involving international transmission tests. • The aim will be to jointly formulate a specification by means of largely independent but parallel hardware experiments in participating countries. • The Group will aim to avoid competition on standards, but at a later date competition on codec manufacture can be encouraged. As recorded in the report of the first meeting in December 1984
  6. 6. 4. Reference Model methodology for consensus building Original model RM1 Next model RM2 Proposal 1 to add a new element Proposal 2 to improve an existing element Merit of a proposal is demonstrated against the original model.
  7. 7. Reference Models in various standardization HEVC: High Efficiency Video Coding
  8. 8. 5. Comparison of H.261 and H.265/HEVC standardization Observations - H.265/HEVC required 10 times human efforts than H.261. - Starting early makes the work easy.
  9. 9. 6. Merits and demerits of standardization + A product from any company can be connected to the network or interwork with another product. + Low cost can be expected with mass production according to the standard. + “Non-tariff barrier” can be avoided by use of the standard. - Technology is fixed at the time of standardization. Example of digital TV broadcasting: Terrestrial digital broadcasting adopted MPEG-2 video coding in Japan. Currently 4 times higher efficiency H.265/HEVC video coding is available, but the replacement is impossible.
  10. 10. 7. Challenge to the video coding standardization Some (partial) solutions: - Specifying only the decoder to allow freedom of the encoder design - Use of negotiation if a bidirectional control channel is available - Software replacement in case of software codec How can we enjoy new evolving technologies by achieving standardization and backward compatibility at the same time?
  11. 11. Back up ‘B’ system RX ‘A’ system RX ‘A’ system RX ‘B’ system RX ‘A’/’B’ switchable RX Gateway ‘A’&’B’ system TX ‘B’ system TX ‘B’ system TX ‘A’ system TX a) Simulcasting b) Gateway c) Switchable receiver ‘A’ system: Current generation ‘B’ system: New generation TX: Transmitter RX: Receiver ‘A’ system stream ‘B’ system stream ‘A’ system stream ‘B’ system stream ‘B’ system stream ‘A’ system stream System evolution in one way communications

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