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A group of chronic CNS disorders characterized by recurrent seizures.

Seizures are sudden, transitory, and uncontrolled episodes of brain dysfunction resulting from abnormal discharge of neuronal cells with associated motor, sensory or behavioral changes.

Published in: Health & Medicine


  2. 2. Epilepsy <ul><li>A group of chronic CNS disorders characterized by recurrent seizures . </li></ul><ul><li>Seizures are sudden, transitory , and uncontrolled episodes of brain dysfunction resulting from abnormal discharge of neuronal cells with associated motor, sensory or behavioral changes. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Seizures <ul><li>Seizures result when there is an imbalance between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission </li></ul><ul><li>Epileptic seizure The clinical manifestations (symptoms and signs) of excessive and/or hypersynchronous , abnormal activity of neurons in the cerebral cortex </li></ul>
  4. 4. Epilepsy <ul><li>There are 2.5 million Americans with epilepsy in the US alone. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 40 forms of epilepsy have been identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy is symptomatic in that the majority of drugs prevent seizures, but neither effective prophylaxis or cure is available. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Causes for Acute Seizures <ul><li>Trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Encephalitis </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Birth trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal from depressants </li></ul><ul><li>Tumor </li></ul><ul><li>High fever </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoglycemia </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme acidosis </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme alkalosis Hyponatremia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypocalcemia </li></ul><ul><li>Idiopathic </li></ul>
  6. 6. Causes for Acute Seizures
  7. 7. Seizures <ul><li>The causes for seizures can be multiple, from infection, to neoplasms, to head injury. In a few subgroups it is an inherited disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Febrile seizures or seizures caused by meningitis are treated by antiepileptic drugs, although they are not considered epilepsy (unless they develop into chronic seizures). </li></ul><ul><li>Seizures may also be caused by acute underlying toxic or metabolic disorders, in which case the therapy should be directed towards the specific abnormality. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Neuronal Substrates of Epilepsy The Brain The Synapse The Ion Channels/Receptors ions
  9. 9. Cellular and Synaptic Mechanisms of Epileptic Seizures (From Brody et al., 1997)
  10. 10. Abnormal Excitation Excitation Inhibition GABA glutamate, aspartate
  11. 11. Restoring Balance Reduce excitation Increase inhibition Excitation Inhibition
  12. 12. Goals of Therapy <ul><li>Seizure free </li></ul><ul><li>No/minimal adverse effects </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy optimized based on comorbid conditions and their treatment </li></ul><ul><li>AED monotherapy preferred </li></ul><ul><li>Improved quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Early, aggressive treatment </li></ul>
  13. 13. Epilepsy Classification Tonic- clonic Tonic Myoclonic Atonic Infantile spasms Absence Simple Partial Epilepsy Partial Epilepsy Generalized Epilepsy Simple Partial Epilepsy Secondary Generalized
  14. 14. Classification of Epileptic Seizures <ul><li>I. Partial (focal) Seizures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Partial Seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex Partial Seizures </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>II. Generalized Seizures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence Seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tonic Seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atonic Seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clonic and Myoclonic Seizures </li></ul></ul>Classification of Epileptic Seizures
  16. 16. I. Partial (Focal) Seizures <ul><li>Simple Partial Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Partial Seizures. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Scheme of Seizure Spread Simple (Focal) Partial Seizures Contralateral spread
  18. 18. <ul><li>A. Simple Partial Seizures ( Jacksonian ) </li></ul><ul><li>Involves one side of the brain at onset. </li></ul><ul><li>Focal w/motor, sensory or speech disturbances. </li></ul><ul><li>Confined to a single limb or muscle group. </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure-symptoms don’t change during seizure. </li></ul><ul><li>No alteration of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>EEG: Excessive synchronized discharge by a small group of neurons. Contralateral discharge. </li></ul>I. Partial (Focal) Seizures
  19. 19. Scheme of Seizure Spread Complex Partial Seizures Complex Secondarily Generalized Partial Seizures
  20. 20. <ul><li>B. Complex Partial Seizures (Temporal Lobe epilepsy or Psychomotor Seizures) </li></ul><ul><li>Produces confusion and inappropriate or dazed behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Motor activity appears as non-reflex actions. Automatisms (repetitive coordinated movements). </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety of clinical manifestations. </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness is impaired or lost. </li></ul><ul><li>EEG: Bizarre generalized EEG activity with evidence of anterior temporal lobe focal abnormalities. Bilateral. </li></ul>I. Partial (focal) Seizures
  21. 21. II. Generalized Seizures <ul><li>Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Absence Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Tonic Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Atonic Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Clonic and Myoclonic Seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>Infantile Spasms </li></ul>
  22. 22. II. Generalized Seizures <ul><li>In Generalized seizures, both hemispheres are widely involved from the outset. </li></ul><ul><li>Manifestations of the seizure are determined by the cortical site at which the seizure arises. </li></ul><ul><li>Present in 40% of all epileptic Syndromes. </li></ul>
  23. 23. II. Generalized Seizures (con’t) <ul><li>Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment of neurons throughout the cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Major convulsions, usually with two phases: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Tonic phase </li></ul><ul><li>2) Clonic phase </li></ul><ul><li>Convulsions: motor manifestations, may or may not be present during seizures, excessive neuronal discharge. Convulsions appear in Simple Partial and Complex Partial Seizures if the focal neuronal discharge includes motor centers; they occur in all Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures regardless of the site of origin. Atonic, Akinetic, Absence Seizures are non-convulsive </li></ul>
  24. 24. II. Generalized Seizures (con’t) <ul><li>A. Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Tonic phase : </li></ul><ul><li>- Sustained powerful muscle contraction (involving all body musculature) which arrests ventilation. </li></ul><ul><li>EEG: Rythmic high frequency, high voltage discharges with cortical neurons undergoing sustained depolarization, with protracted trains of action potentials. </li></ul>
  25. 25. II. Generalized Seizures (con’t) <ul><li>A. Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Clonic phase : </li></ul><ul><li>- Alternating contraction and relaxation, causing a reciprocating movement which could be bilaterally symmetrical or “running” movements. </li></ul><ul><li>EEG: Characterized by groups of spikes on the EEG and periodic neuronal depolarizations with clusters of action potentials. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Scheme of Seizure Spread Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures Both hemispheres are involved from outset
  27. 27. Neuronal Correlates of Paroxysmal Discharges Generalized Seizures
  28. 28. Neuronal Correlates of Paroxysmal Discharges
  29. 29. <ul><li>B. Absence Seizures ( Petite Mal ) </li></ul><ul><li>Brief and abrupt loss of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes with no motor manifestations. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually symmetrical clonic motor activity varying from occasional eyelid flutter to jerking of the entire body. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical 2.5 – 3.5 Hz spike-and-wave discharge. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually of short duration (5-10 sec), but may occur dozens of times a day. </li></ul>II. Generalized Seizures
  30. 30. <ul><li>B. Absence Seizures ( Petite Mal ) (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>Often begin during childhood (daydreaming attitude, no participation, lack of concentration). </li></ul><ul><li>A low threshold Ca 2+ current has been found to govern oscillatory responses in thalamic neurons (pacemaker) and it is probably involve in the generation of these types of seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>EEG: Bilaterally synchronous, high voltage 3-per-second spike-and-wave discharge pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>spike phase: neurons generate short duration depolarization and a burst of action potentials. No sustained depolarization or repetitive firing. </li></ul>II. Generalized Seizures
  31. 31. Scheme of Seizure Spread Primary Generalized Absence Seizures Thalamocortial relays are believed to act on a hyperexcitable cortex
  32. 32. Neuronal Correlates of Paroxysmal Discharges Generalized Absence Seizures
  33. 33. Scheme of Seizure Spread
  34. 34. II. Generalized Seizures (con’t) <ul><li>C. Tonic Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Opisthotonus, loss of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Marked autonomic manifestations </li></ul><ul><li>D. Atonic Seizures ( atypical ) </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of postural tone, with sagging of the head or falling. </li></ul><ul><li>May loose consciousness. </li></ul>
  35. 35. II. Generalized Seizures (con’t) <ul><li>E. Clonic and Myoclonic Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Clonic Seizures: Rhythmic clonic contractions of all muscles, loss of consciousness, and marked autonomic manifestations. </li></ul><ul><li>Myoclonic Seizures: Isolated clonic jerks associated with brief bursts of multiple spikes in the EEG. </li></ul><ul><li>F. Infantile Spasms </li></ul><ul><li>An epileptic syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks, although fragmentary, are often bilateral. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by brief recurrent myoclonic jerks of the body with sudden flexion or extension of the body and limbs. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Pattern of AED Use AED #1 AED #2 Failure of initial monotherapy Alternative monotherapy Adjunctive therapy as bridge to alternative monotherapy
  37. 37. Mechanisms of Action of AEDs <ul><li>Sodium channel blockade </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium channel blockade </li></ul><ul><li>Glutamate antagonism </li></ul><ul><li>GABA potentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Carbonic anhydrase inhibition </li></ul>White HS. Epilepsia . 1999;40(suppl 5):S2-S10.
  38. 38. Treatment of Seizures <ul><li>Goals : </li></ul><ul><li>Block repetitive neuronal firing. </li></ul><ul><li>Block synchronization of neuronal discharges. </li></ul><ul><li>Block propagation of seizure. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize side effects with the simplest drug regimen. </li></ul><ul><li>MONOTHERAPY IS RECOMMENDED IN MOST CASES </li></ul>
  39. 39. Treatment of Seizures <ul><li>Strategies : </li></ul><ul><li>Modification of ion conductances. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase inhibitory (GABAergic) transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease excitatory (glutamatergic) activity. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Actions of Phenytoin on Na + Channels <ul><li>Resting State </li></ul><ul><li>Arrival of Action Potential causes depolarization and channel opens allowing sodium to flow in. </li></ul><ul><li>Refractory State, Inactivation </li></ul>Na + Na + Na + Sustain channel in this conformation
  41. 41. GABAergic SYNAPSE <ul><li>Drugs that Act at the GABAergic Synapse </li></ul><ul><li>GABA agonists </li></ul><ul><li>GABA antagonists </li></ul><ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines </li></ul><ul><li>GABA synthesizing enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>GABA uptake inhibitors </li></ul><ul><li>GABA metabolizing enzymes </li></ul>GAD GAT GABA-T
  42. 42. GLUTAMATERGIC SYNAPSE <ul><li>Excitatory Synapse. </li></ul><ul><li>Permeable to Na + , Ca 2+ and K + . </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium ions block channel in resting state. </li></ul><ul><li>Glycine (GLY) binding enhances the ability of GLU or NMDA to open the channel. </li></ul><ul><li>Agonists: NMDA, AMPA, Kianate. </li></ul>Mg ++ Na + AGONISTS GLU Ca 2+ K + GLY
  43. 43. Chemical Structure of Classical Antiseizure Agents <ul><li>X may vary as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Barbiturates - C – N - </li></ul><ul><li>Hydantoins - N – </li></ul><ul><li>Oxazolidinediones – O – </li></ul><ul><li>Succinimides – C – </li></ul><ul><li>Acetylureas - NH 2 –* </li></ul><ul><li>*(N connected to C2) </li></ul>Small changes can alter clinical activity and site of action. e.g. At R1, a phenyl group (phenytoin) confers activity against partial seizures, but an alkyl group (ethosuximide) confers activity against generalized absence seizures .
  44. 44. Properties of an Ideal Antiepileptic Drug <ul><li>Effective for seizure type / seizure syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Wide therapeutic index </li></ul><ul><li>No organ toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>No teratogenicity </li></ul><ul><li>No drug-drug interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Long half-life </li></ul><ul><li>No protein binding </li></ul><ul><li>Water soluble </li></ul><ul><li>No active metabolites </li></ul>
  45. 45. Treatment of Seizures <ul><li>Structurally dissimilar drugs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbamazepine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valproic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BDZs.(RIVOTRIL) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New compounds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Felbamate (Japan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabapentin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamotrigine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiagabine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topiramate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigabatrin </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Pharmacokinetic Parameters
  47. 47. Effects of three antiepileptic drugs on high frequency discharge of cultured neurons <ul><li>. </li></ul>(From Katzung B.G., 2001) Block of sustained high frequency repetitive firing of action potentials.
  48. 48. CLONAZEPAM (RIVOTRIL) <ul><li>Clonazepam exhibits pharmacological properties which are common to benzodiazepines and include anticonvulsive sedative, muscle relaxing and anxiolytic effects. </li></ul><ul><li>As with other benzodiazepines these effects are thought to be mediated mainly by post-synaptic GABA mediated inhibition. </li></ul>
  49. 49. CLONAZEPAM (RIVOTRIL) <ul><li>Properties and effects </li></ul><ul><li>Show pharmacological properties common to benzodiazepines </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti convulsive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sedative </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle relaxing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiolytic effects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Thought to be mediated mainly by post-synaptic GABA mediated inhibition. </li></ul>
  50. 50. CLONAZEPAM (RIVOTRIL) <ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Quick & Complete </li></ul><ul><li>C max within 1-4 hours after an oral dose </li></ul><ul><li>Bioavailability 90% after oral administration </li></ul>
  51. 51. CLONAZEPAM (RIVOTRIL) <ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>After a single oral dose of 2mg </li></ul><ul><li>Onset of action within 30-60 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of action for 6-8 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Mean volume of distribution is 31/kg (approx) </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma protein binding is 85 % </li></ul><ul><li>Crosses the placental barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Detected in maternal milk </li></ul>
  52. 52. CLONAZEPAM (RIVOTRIL) <ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>The main metabolite is 7-amino-cloazepam (slightly active) </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urine 50-70 % </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faeces 10-30 % </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 53. CLONAZEPAM (RIVOTRIL) <ul><li>Elimination </li></ul><ul><li>The elimination half-life is between 20 and 60 hours (mean 30 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>No dose adjustment is required in patients with renal failure. </li></ul><ul><li>The elimination half-life in neonates is within the range reported for adults. </li></ul>
  54. 54. CLONAZEPAM (RIVOTRIL) <ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><li>As a first-line drug in typical absences (petit mal) </li></ul><ul><li>Atypical absences (Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome) </li></ul><ul><li>Myoclonic seizures and atonic seizures (Drop Syndrome) </li></ul><ul><li>As second-line agent in infantile spasms (West Syndrome) </li></ul><ul><li>Rivotril is indicated as a third line drug </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tonic-clonic seizures(grand mal) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple and comlex parial seizures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>secondary generalized tonic-clonis seizures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 55. CLONAZEPAM (RIVOTRIL) <ul><li>Precautions </li></ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines should be used with extreme caution in patients </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H/O Alcohol or drug abuse. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In infants and small children </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(may cause increased production of saliva and bronchial secretion) </li></ul><ul><li>The dosage of Rivotril must be carefully adjusted to individual requirements in patients: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COPD </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compromised hepatic function </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With other centrally acting medication or other anti convulsant. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H/O depression and/or suicide attempts should be kept under close supervision </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 56. CLONAZEPAM (RIVOTRIL) Dosage And Administration The dosage of Rivotril must be individually adjusted according to the patient's clinical response, tolerance of the drug and the patient's age Age group Initial dose Maintenance dose Infant &children upto 10 years (or over to 30kg body weight) 0.01-0.03mg/kg/day 0.05-0.1mg/kg/day For children over 10years Or over 30kg 1.2mg/day 1.5-3mg/day For Adults 1-2mg/day 2-4mg/day
  57. 57. Management Of Epilepsy Other types
  58. 58. Management Of Epilepsy <ul><ul><ul><li>Neuro-surgical intervention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ketogenic diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vagus nerve stimulation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Management Of Epilepsy <ul><ul><ul><li>Non Pharmacological </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precautions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social issues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family education for epilepsy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  60. 60. General precautions for epileptic patients <ul><ul><ul><li>Caffeine free diet {tea, cola, coffee} </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TV (> 10feet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flickering light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Driving (>one year) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sports (Swimming, Riding) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid sleep deprivation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Dehydration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Stress </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 61. COMPETITIVE DRUGS Used To Treat Epilepsy
  62. 62. PHENYTOIN (Dilantin) <ul><li>Oldest nonsedative antiepileptic drug. </li></ul><ul><li>Fosphenytoin, a more soluble prodrug is used for parenteral use. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fetal hydantoin syndrome”. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers and preparations. </li></ul><ul><li>It alters Na + , Ca 2 + and K + conductances. </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits high frequency repetitive firing. </li></ul><ul><li>Alters membrane potentials. </li></ul><ul><li>Alters a.a. concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>Alters NTs (NE, ACh, GABA) </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Ataxia and nystagmus. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive impairment. </li></ul><ul><li>Hirsutism </li></ul><ul><li>Gingival hyperplasia. </li></ul><ul><li>Coarsening of facial features. </li></ul><ul><li>Dose-dependent zero order kinetics. </li></ul><ul><li>Exacerbates absence seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>At high concentrations it causes a type of decerebrate rigidity. </li></ul>
  63. 63. PHENYTOIN (Dilantin) <ul><li>Variable and incomplete absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Peak concentration after 3 - 12 hours </li></ul><ul><li>90 % protein bound </li></ul><ul><li>95 % metabolized in liver </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism - non-linear kinetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small dose increment - large increase in blood level </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. PHENYTOIN (Dilantin) <ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibits insulin secretion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interferes with calcium and vitamin D metabolism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug-induced allergic reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life-threatening hematological and dermatological conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Drug interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficacy and toxicity dependent on unbound fraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces CBZ levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases efficacy of oral contraceptives </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Phenytoin (Dilantin) <ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of partial and generalized convulsive seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dosage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 - 8 mg/kg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapeutic range 10 - 20 µ g/ml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 mg and 30 mg caps; 50 mg tabs; oral suspension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paradoxical increase in seizures at high concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>IV use in status epilepticus </li></ul>
  66. 67. CARBAMAZEPINE (Tegretol) <ul><li>Tricyclic, antidepressant (bipolar) </li></ul><ul><li>3-D conformation similar to phenytoin. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of action, similar to phenytoin. Inhibits high frequency repetitive firing. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases synaptic activity presynaptically. </li></ul><ul><li>Binds to adenosine receptors (?). </li></ul><ul><li>Inh. uptake and release of NE, but not GABA. </li></ul><ul><li>Potentiates postsynaptic effects of GABA. </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolite is active. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Autoinduction of metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and visual disturbances. </li></ul><ul><li>Granulocyte supression. </li></ul><ul><li>Aplastic anemia. </li></ul><ul><li>Exacerbates absence seizures. </li></ul>
  67. 68. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) <ul><li>Chemically related to tricyclic antidepressants </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most commonly used AEDs </li></ul><ul><li>Slowly absorbed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>peak concentration 2-6 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>75% protein bound </li></ul><ul><li>10,11-epoxide metabolite also has antiepileptic properties </li></ul><ul><li>Average half-life 10-20 hrs, on chronic therapy </li></ul>
  68. 69. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) <ul><li>Dose related toxicity similar to phenytoin </li></ul><ul><li>GI side effects more common </li></ul><ul><li>All common allergic and idiosyncratic toxic effects also occur </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent leukopenia common (not clinically significant </li></ul><ul><li>Augments effects of ADH </li></ul>
  69. 70. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) <ul><li>Drug interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PHT and PB decrease CBZ levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erythromycin and propoxyphene increase CBZ levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug of choice in most patients with simple and complex seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also effective in generalized convulsive seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid use in patients with CHF; or h/o bone marrow depression </li></ul></ul>
  70. 71. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) <ul><li>Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available in 100 mg; 200 mg tablets; suspension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available in a slow release preparations (Tegretol XR; Carbatrol) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usual dose 15-25 mg/kg in four divided doses </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic range 8 - 12 µ g/ml </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy initiated gradually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug given with meals to minimize GI side effects </li></ul></ul>
  71. 73. OXCARBAZEPINE (Trileptal) <ul><li>Closely related to carbamazepine. </li></ul><ul><li>With improved toxicity profile. </li></ul><ul><li>Less potent than carbamazepine. </li></ul><ul><li>Active metabolite. </li></ul><ul><li>Use in partial and generalized seizures as adjunct therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>May aggravate myoclonic and absence seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of action, similar to carbamazepine It alters Na + conductance and inhibits high frequency repetitive firing. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Hyponatremia </li></ul><ul><li>Less hypersensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>and induction of hepatic </li></ul><ul><li>enzymes than with carbamazepine </li></ul>
  72. 74. Oxcarbazepine <ul><li>Indication: Complex partial seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium channel antagonist </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacokinetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage over carbamazepine: Not autoinducing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxcarbazepine is a prodrug, metabolized to active metabolite--monohydroxycarbamazepine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatically metabolized, can induce other drugs’ metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete oral absorption, 60% protein bound (33% for metabolite) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half-life 2 hours (of metabolite is 9 hours) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initial dosage is 300 mg bid, increased by 600 mg qwk to maintenance of 1200 mg bid </li></ul><ul><li>Dosage forms: 150, 300, 600 mg tablets (Trileptal) </li></ul>
  73. 75. PHENOBARBITAL (Luminal) <ul><li>Except for the bromides, it is the oldest antiepileptic drug. </li></ul><ul><li>Although considered one of the safest drugs, it has sedative effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Many consider them the drugs of choice for seizures only in infants. </li></ul><ul><li>Acid-base balance important. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for partial, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and febrile seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Prolongs opening of Cl - channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks excitatory GLU (AMPA) responses. Blocks Ca 2+ currents (L,N). </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits high frequency, repetitive firing of neurons only at high concentrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Sedation. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive impairment. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Induction of liver enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>May worsen absence and atonic seizures. </li></ul>
  74. 76. PHENOBARBITAL (Luminal) <ul><li>Completely absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>40%-60% protein bound </li></ul><ul><li>20-40% renal excretion, remainder metabolized in liver </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma half-life is 96 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sedation in adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>irritability and hyperactivity in children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interferes with vitamin D and calcium metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vitamin K deficiency in neonates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduces folate levels - megaloblastic anemia </li></ul></ul>
  75. 77. PHENOBARBITAL (Luminal) <ul><li>Drug interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enzyme inducer - reduces levels of many drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial seizures and generalized convulsions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IV Phenobarbital for status epilepticus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 - 4 mg/kg in adults; 3 - 6 mg/kg in children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes 2 - 3 weeks for steady state levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usual therapeutic range 15 - 40 µ g /ml </li></ul></ul>
  76. 78. PRIMIDONE (Mysolin) <ul><li>Metabolized to phenobarbital and phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA), both active metabolites. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective against partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbed completely, low binding to plasma proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be started slowly to avoid sedation and GI problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Its mechanism of action may be closer to phenytoin than the barbiturates. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Same as phenobarbital </li></ul><ul><li>Sedation occurs early. </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal complaints. </li></ul>
  77. 79. VALPROATE (EPIVAL,EPILIM) <ul><li>Fully ionized at body pH, thus active form is valproate ion. </li></ul><ul><li>One of a series of carboxylic acids with antiepileptic activity. Its amides and esters are also active. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of action, similar to phenytoin. </li></ul><ul><li> levels of GABA in brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits the GABA-transporter in neurons and glia (GAT). </li></ul><ul><li> [aspartate] Brain ? </li></ul><ul><li>May increase membrane potassium conductance. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated liver enzymes including own. </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting. </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal pain and heartburn. </li></ul><ul><li>Tremor, hair loss, </li></ul><ul><li>Weight gain. </li></ul><ul><li>Idiosyncratic </li></ul><ul><li>hepatotoxicity. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative interactions with other antiepileptics. </li></ul><ul><li>Teratogen: spina bifida </li></ul>
  78. 80. VALPROATE (EPIVAL,EPILIM) <ul><li>Broad spectrum of action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective in generalized convulsive seizures; nonconvulsive seizures and partial seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pharmacokinetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak levels in 1-4 hours (regular tabs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% protein bound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>95% metabolized in liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half-life 9-18 hours </li></ul></ul>
  79. 81. VALPROATE (EPIVAL,EPILIM) <ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GI side effects in about 16% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anorexia; nausea; vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dose-related CNS side effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sedation; ataxia; tremor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alopecia; weight gain Teratogenicity - neural tube defects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Valproate levels increased by drugs that compete for protein binding sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PHT; CBZ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Valproate increases levels of CBZ; PHT and PB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valproate-induced encephalopathy with hyperammonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibits platelet aggregation </li></ul></ul>
  80. 82. VALPROATE (EPIVAL,EPILIM) <ul><li>Valproate levels increased by drugs that compete for protein binding sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PHT; CBZ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Valproate increases levels of CBZ; PHT and PB </li></ul>
  81. 83. VALPROATE (EPIVAL,EPILIM) <ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug of choice for mixed seizure disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most effective in generalized convulsive and non convulsive seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also used for partial seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usual daily dose 15 - 60 mg/kg, divided doses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>125, 250 and 500 mg capsules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usual effective blood concentration 50-100 µ g/ml </li></ul>
  82. 84. ETHOSUXIMIDE (Zarontin) <ul><li>Drug of choice for absence seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>High efficacy and safety. </li></ul><ul><li>VD = TBW. </li></ul><ul><li>Not plasma protein or fat binding </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of action involves reducing low-threshold Ca 2+ channel current (T-type channel) in thalamus. </li></ul><ul><li>At high concentrations : </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits Na + /K + ATPase. </li></ul><ul><li>Depresses cerebral metabolic rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits GABA aminotransferase . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phensuximide = less effective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methsuximide = more toxic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Gastric distress, including, pain, nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Lethargy and fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Hiccups </li></ul><ul><li>Euphoria </li></ul><ul><li>Skin rashes </li></ul><ul><li>Lupus erythematosus (?) </li></ul>
  83. 85. Ethosuximide (Zarontin) <ul><li>Pharmacokinetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completely absorbed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak plasma concentration in 2- 3 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negligible protein binding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70-90% metabolized in liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half-life 40 hours </li></ul></ul>
  84. 86. Ethosuximide (Zarontin) <ul><li>Low toxicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GI side effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CNS side-effects similar to other anticonvulsants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug of choice for absence seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May exacerbate convulsions if used alone in patients with mixed seizures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  85. 87. Ethosuximide (Zarontin) <ul><li>Available in 250 mg caps and 250mg/5ml syrup </li></ul><ul><li>Daily dose 10-30 mg/kg in two divided portions </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic range 40 - 100 µ g/ml </li></ul><ul><li>Start with 250 mg/day. Increase by 250 mg every 4 -7 days until seizures controlled </li></ul>
  86. 88. VIGABATRIN (  -vinyl-GABA) <ul><li>Absorption is rapid, bioavailability is ~ 60%, T 1/2 6-8 hrs, eliminated by the kidneys. </li></ul><ul><li>Use for partial seizures and West’s syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>Contraindicated if preexisting mental illness is present. </li></ul><ul><li>Irreversible inhibitor of GABA-aminotransferase (enzyme responsible for metabolism of GABA) => Increases inhibitory effects of GABA. </li></ul><ul><li>S(+) enantiomer is active. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Drowsiness </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Weight gain </li></ul><ul><li>Agitation </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosis </li></ul>
  87. 89. LAMOTRIGINE (Lamictal) <ul><li>Add-on therapy with valproic acid (w/v.a. conc. have be reduced => reduced clearance). </li></ul><ul><li>Almost completely absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>T 1/2 = 24 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Low plasma protein binding </li></ul><ul><li>Effective in myoclonic and generalized seizures in childhood and absence attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves blockade of repetitive firing involving Na channels, like phenytoin. </li></ul><ul><li>Also effective in myoclonic and generalized seizures in childhood and absence attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Diplopia </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Somnolence </li></ul><ul><li>Life threatening rash “Stevens-Johnson” </li></ul>
  88. 90. Lamotrigine <ul><li>Triazine derivative. Indication: Adjunct for complex partial seizures (though can be used as monotherapy. Also used for generalized seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium channel antagonist, inhibits glutamate release </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacokinetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completely absorbed orally, 55% protein bound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolized by glucuronidation in the liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half-life 25 hr as monotherapy, 50+ hours with valproic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initial dose is 25 mg bid (12.5 mg bid with valproic acid), titrate by 25 mg qwk to maintenance between 300-500 mg/dy in 2 divided doses </li></ul><ul><li>Dosage forms: 25, 100, 150, 200 mg tablets (Lamictal) </li></ul>
  89. 91. FELBAMATE (Felbatrol) <ul><li>Effective against partial seizures but has severe side effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of its severe side effects, it has been relegated to a third-line drug used only for refractory cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Aplastic anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Severe hepatitis </li></ul>
  90. 92. TOPIRAMATE (Topamax) <ul><li>Rapidly absorbed, bioav. is > 80%, has no active metabolites, excreted in urine.T 1 /2 = 20-30 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks repetitive firing of cultured neurons, thus its mechanism may involve blocking of voltage-dependent sodium channels </li></ul><ul><li>Potentiates inhibitory effects of GABA (acting at a site different from BDZs and BARBs). </li></ul><ul><li>Depresses excitatory action of kainate on AMPA receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Teratogenic in animal models. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Somnolence </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive slowing </li></ul><ul><li>Paresthesias </li></ul><ul><li>Nervousness </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor </li></ul><ul><li>Urolithiasis </li></ul>
  91. 93. Topiramate <ul><li>Indication: Partial and generalized seizures, Lennox-Gastaut (drop attacks) </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium and calcium channel antagonist, increases GABA-mediated antagonism, weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacokinetics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% absorbed, hepatic metabolism, half-life 19-23 hours, less with another AED if inducing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initial dosage is 25-50 mg qdy, titrate by 25-50 mg qwk until target dose of 400 mg/dy </li></ul><ul><li>Dosage forms: 25, 100, 200 mg tablets, 15 and 25 mg sprinkles (capsules) (Topamax) </li></ul>
  92. 94. TIAGABINE (Gabatril) <ul><li>Derivative of nipecotic acid. </li></ul><ul><li>100% bioavailable, highly protein bound. </li></ul><ul><li>T 1/2 = 5 -8 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Effective against partial seizures in pts at least 12 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Approved as adjunctive therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>GABA uptake inhibitor  aminibutyric acid transporter (GAT) by neurons and glial cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal pain and nausea (must be taken w/food) </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Nervousness </li></ul><ul><li>Tremor </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty concentrating </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Asthenia </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional liability </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosis </li></ul><ul><li>Skin rash </li></ul>
  93. 95. Tiagabine <ul><li>Indication: Complex partial epilepsy. May exacerbate generalized seizures! </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits GABA intake at the axonal terminal, increasing level in synapse </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacokinetics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% absorbed, 96% protein bound, half-life 7-9 hours, hepatic metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initial dosage 4 mg/kg/dy, increased by same q1-2 wk to 32-56 mg/dy in 2-3 divided doses </li></ul><ul><li>Dosage forms 2, 4, 12,16, 20 mg tablets (Gabitril) </li></ul>
  94. 96. ZONISAMIDE (Zonegran) <ul><li>Marketed in Japan. Sulfonamide derivative . Good bioavailability, low pb. </li></ul><ul><li>T 1/2 = 1 - 3 days </li></ul><ul><li>Effective against partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>Approved by FDA as adjunctive therapy in adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of action involves voltage and use-dependent inactivation of sodium channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibition of Ca 2+ T-channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Binds GABA receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates 5-HT and DA </li></ul><ul><li>neurotransmission </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Drowsiness </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>High incidence of renal stones (mild anhydrase inh.). </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolized by CYP3A4 </li></ul>
  95. 97. GABAPENTIN (Neurontin) <ul><li>Used as an adjunct in partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not induce liver enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>not bound to plasma proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>drug-drug interactions are negligible. </li></ul><ul><li>Low potency. </li></ul><ul><li>An a.a.. Analog of GABA that does not act on GABA receptors, it may however alter its metabolism, non-synaptic release and transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity: </li></ul><ul><li>Somnolence. </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness. </li></ul><ul><li>Ataxia. </li></ul><ul><li>Headache. </li></ul><ul><li>Tremor. </li></ul>
  96. 98. Gabapentin <ul><li>Indication: Complex partial seizures (adjunct) </li></ul><ul><li>Structurally related to GABA (  -amino butyric acid) </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of action is not known. Suspected to be another sodium channel antagonist </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacokinetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not metabolized. Bioavailability is 60% at low doses, 3% protein bound, half-life 5-7 hrs (50+ hours in renal failure) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initial dosage is 100-300 mg daily, increase by 100-300 mg q2-3dy until maintenance dosage of at least 300 mg tid is reached </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum dose (insert) is 3600 mg, real-world maximum dose is 4800 mg daily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dosage forms are 100/300/400/600 mg capsules, 600/800 mg tablets </li></ul>
  97. 99. Safety issues with old and new AED’s Phenytoin Aplastic anemia,hepatic failure,Stevens-Johnson syndrome Carbamazepine Aplastic anemia, hepatic failure, Stevens-Johnson syndrome Valproic acid Hepatic failure, pancreatitis, thrombocytopenia Gabapentin None known Lamotrigine Rash, Steven’s –Johnson Topiramate Renal calculi, open angle glaucoma, hypohydrosis, hepatic failure? Tiagabine Spike-wave stupor Levetiracetam None known Oxcarbazepine Rash Zonisamide Renal calculi, rash, hypohydrosis, aplastic anemia?
  98. 100. AED Partial GTCC Lennox-Gastaut JME Absence Valproic acid + + + + + Zonisamide + + ? ?+ ? Lamotrigine + + + ? + Topiramate + + + ?+ ? Levetiracetam + + ? ?+ ? Ethosuximide - - - - + Phenytoin + + - - - Carbamazepine + + - - - Oxcarbazepine + + - - - Gabapentin + + - - - Tiagabine + + - - -
  99. 101. Status Epilepticus <ul><li>Status epilepticus exists when seizures recur within a short period of time , such that baseline consciousness is not regained between the seizures. They last for at least 30 minutes. Can lead to systemic hypoxia, acidemia, hyperpyrexia, cardiovascular collapse, and renal shutdown. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common, generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus is life-threatening and must be treated immediately with concomitant cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic management. </li></ul>
  100. 102. Treatment of Status Epilepticus in Adults <ul><li>Initial </li></ul><ul><li>Diazepam, i.v. 5-10 mg (1-2 mg/min) </li></ul><ul><li>repeat dose (5-10 mg) every 20-30 min. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul><ul><li>Phenytoin, i.v. 15-20 mg/Kg (30-50 mg/min). </li></ul><ul><li>repeat dose (100-150 mg) every 30 min. </li></ul><ul><li>Phenobarbital, i.v. 10-20 mg/Kg (25-30mg/min). </li></ul><ul><li>repeat dose (120-240 mg) every 20 min. </li></ul>
  101. 103. DIAZEPAM (Valium) & RIVOTRIL <ul><li>Benzodiazepines. </li></ul><ul><li>Will also be discussed with Sedative hypnotics. </li></ul><ul><li>Given I.V.. </li></ul><ul><li>1 ° f or treating status epilepticus </li></ul><ul><li>Have muscle relaxant activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Allosteric modulators of GABA receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Potentiate GABA function by increasing the frequency of channel opening. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Sedation </li></ul><ul><li>Children may manifest a paradoxical hyperactivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul>
  102. 104. Treatment of Seizures <ul><li>PARTIAL SEIZURES ( Simple and Complex, including secondarily generalized) </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs of choice: Carbamazepine </li></ul><ul><li>CLONAZEPAM Phenytoin </li></ul><ul><li> Valproate </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives: Lamotrigine, p henobarbital , primidone, oxcarbamazepine. </li></ul><ul><li>Add-on therapy : Gabapentin, topiramate, tiagabine, levetiracetam, zonisamide. </li></ul>
  103. 105. Treatment of Seizures <ul><li>PRIMARY GENERALIZED TONIC-CLONIC SEIZURES ( Grand Mal ) </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs of choice: Carbamazepine Phenytoin </li></ul><ul><li> Valproate* </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives: Lamotrigine, phenobarbital, topiramate, oxcartbazepine, primidone, levetiracetam. </li></ul><ul><li> * Not approved except if absence seizure is involved </li></ul>
  104. 106. Treatment of Seizures <ul><li>GENERALIZED ABSENCE SEIZURES </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs of choice: Ethosuximide </li></ul><ul><li>CLONAZEPAM </li></ul><ul><li> Valproate* </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives: Lamotrigine, clonazepam, zonisamide, t opiramate (?) . </li></ul><ul><li>* First choice if primary generalized tonic-clonic seizure is also present . </li></ul>
  105. 107. Treatment of Seizures <ul><li>ATYPICAL ABSENCE, MYOCLONIC, ATONIC* SEIZURES </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs of choice: Valproate </li></ul><ul><li>Clonazepam </li></ul><ul><li>Lamotrigine** </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives: Topiramate, clonazepam, zonisamide, felbamate . </li></ul><ul><li>* Often refractory to medications. </li></ul><ul><li>**Not FDA approved for this indication. May worsen myoclonus. </li></ul>
  106. 108. Treatment of Seizures <ul><li>INFANTILE SPASMS </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs of choice: Corticotropin (IM) or Corticosteroids (Prednisone) </li></ul><ul><li> Zonisamide </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives: Clonazepam, nitrazepam, vigabatrin, phenobarbital. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  107. 109. Treatment of Seizures in Pregnancy <ul><li>Phenytoin Phenobarbital </li></ul><ul><li>Carbamazepine Primidone </li></ul><ul><li>They may all cause hemorrhage in the infant due to vitamin K deficiency, requiring treatment of mother and newborn. </li></ul><ul><li>They all have risks of congenital anomalies (oral cleft, cardiac and neural tube defects). </li></ul><ul><li>Teratogens: Valproic acid causes spina bifida. </li></ul><ul><li>Topiramate causes limb agenesis in rodents and hypospadias in male infants. </li></ul><ul><li>Zonisamide is teratogenic in animals . </li></ul>
  108. 110. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ANTISEIZURE DRUGS <ul><li>With other antiepileptic Drugs: </li></ul><ul><li>- Carbamazepine with </li></ul><ul><li>phenytoin Increased metabolism of carbamazepine </li></ul><ul><li>phenobarbital Increased metabolism of epoxide. </li></ul><ul><li>- Phenytoin with </li></ul><ul><li>primidone Increased conversion to phenobarbital. </li></ul><ul><li>- Valproic acid with </li></ul><ul><li>clonazepam May precipitate nonconvulsive status epilepticus </li></ul><ul><li>phenobarbital Decrease metabolism, increase toxicity. </li></ul><ul><li>phenytoin Displacement from binding, increase toxicity. </li></ul>
  109. 111. ANTISEIZURE DRUG INTERACTIONS <ul><li>With other drugs: </li></ul><ul><li>antibiotics  phenytoin, phenobarb, carb. </li></ul><ul><li>anticoagulants phenytoin and phenobarb  met. </li></ul><ul><li>cimetidine displaces pheny, v.a. and BDZs </li></ul><ul><li>isoniazid  toxicity of phenytoin </li></ul><ul><li>oral contraceptives antiepileptics  metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>salicylates displaces phenytoin and v.a. </li></ul><ul><li>theophyline carb and phenytoin may  effect. </li></ul>
  110. 112. Table 2. Proposed Mechanisms of Antiepileptic Drug Action ↓ Na+ ↓Ca+ ↓K+ ↑ Inh. ↓Excitatory channels channels channels transmission transmission ________________________________________________________________________________ Established AED’s PHT +++ CBZ +++ ESM +++ PB + +++ + BZD’s +++ VPA + + ++ + New AED’s LTG +++ + OXC +++ + + ZNS ++ ++ VGB +++ TGB +++ GBP + + ++ FBM ++ ++ ++ ++ TPM ++ ++ ++ ++ LEV + + + ________________________________________________________________________________ +++ primary action, ++ possible action, + probable action. From P. Kwan et al. (2001) Pharmacology and therapeutics 90:21-34. [Data from Upton (1994), Schachter (1995), McDonald and Kelly (1995), Meldrum (1996), Coulter (1997), and White (1999).]