History of tu

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History of trade union

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History of tu

  1. 1. HISTORY OF TU TU – outcome of factory system – Based on labour philosophy (united v stand divided v fall)
  2. 2. <ul><li>Fourteen decades old – 1860 – Philanthropists & social reformers – inhuman working conditions – difficulties – Strike committees – demanding privileges </li></ul><ul><li>145 yrs – put into 6 periods </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1.Pre 1918 <ul><li>Bengal – 1860 – Dinbandhu Mitra – (dramatist & Social reformer) + journalists – hardship of cultivators & plantation workers – Govt – Indigo committee – report – cruelties by plantation owners (aid of British law) – abolished </li></ul><ul><li>1875 – Sarobji Shapuri – Bengal – Poor working conditions – Secretary of State – Ist Factory Commission – Factories Act enacted - 1881 </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Act – not meet Child labour & Women workers – Another Commission(1884) – N.K.Lokhande – Bombay – memorandum signed by 5300 workers – rest on Sunday – ½ hr recess – Hrs btn 6.30 to sunset – payment within 15 th -injury compensation </li></ul><ul><li>1889 – Bombay – workers demanded the same </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>No use – another representation to Govt – 1890 – Now signed by 17000 workers – Started Bombay Mills association – Lokhande (president) – Labour journal (Dinbandhu) – placed demands b4 Factory Labour Commission(1890) – Bangalee (member) – gave due consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Several unions were formed </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants (India & Burma) – 1897 – Indian Companies Act –Printers Union – 1905 – Calcutta – Bombay Postal Union – 1907 - Kamgar Hityardhak Sabha – 1910 </li></ul><ul><li>Post 1890 – several strikes – Bombay(1894) – Big strike – Mill operatives of Ahmadabad – Feb 1896 – Weekly to fortnightly wage system – Strike unsuccessful </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Jute Industries Calcutta(1896) – Bombay(1897)- daily wages – Plague – Press & Machine section of Madras(1903) – overtime work without payment – 6 month – Starvation & hardship – returned to work </li></ul><ul><li>2 yrs later – Govt of India Press – Calcutta – questioned </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-payment on Sunday & gazetted holidays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imposition of irregular fines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low rate of overtime pay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refusal of authorities to grant leave on medical certificate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Strike continued – returned on partial fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Dec 1907 - Eastern railway workshop – Increment of wages – After 6 days – xtra allowance due to famine – Bombay postal union & Indian telegraph Association – 1908 – Textile cooperative workers – in sympathy – Bal Ganga dhar Tilak – 1910 – reduction of working hours – commission setup – recommended - 12 hours a day </li></ul>
  9. 9. Certain features <ul><li>Movement led by philanthropists & social reformers not by workers </li></ul><ul><li>No trade Union in modern sense </li></ul><ul><li>Association relied on petition, memoranda, other constitutional means to place demands </li></ul><ul><li>Early movement confined to revolt against conditions of child labour & women workers in various industries </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of strikes - grievance redressed </li></ul><ul><li>Strike - problem of law & order – police charging strikers </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1918 - 1924 <ul><li>Era of Modern trade unionism </li></ul><ul><li>Madras labour union,Ahmedabad Textile labour Association, Indian Seamen’s Union, Calcutta Clerk’s Union, All India Postal </li></ul><ul><li>All India Trade Union Congress started 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Trade unions – strikes – Economy down – Increased Wages not match for Price rise – Labour shortage – Due to Influeza </li></ul>
  11. 11. Factors responsible for growth <ul><li>Demand for Indian goods rose – shortage in shipping facilities – Same – trade unions – bargaining position </li></ul><ul><li>Political conditions helped growth of TU – mutually needed </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution in Russia – impact on TU movement </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide Unrest in the post-war period </li></ul><ul><li>India – International labour Organisation (1919) –Govt didn’t consult unions – need to organise – AITUC formed – members sent – changed Govt attitude </li></ul>
  12. 12. 1925 - 1934 <ul><li>Split in AITUC – Leftist & Rightist </li></ul><ul><li>Wing All India Trade Union Federation 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Influence – Hardship of workers – decrease in Industrial conflict – 2 reasons - Trade Disputes act(1929) – Failure in lockouts & strikes led to strife </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Unions Act 1926 – registration of TU & legal protection </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Disputes Act(1929) – adhoc conciliation of board & court of enquiry for settlement of trade disputes – Affects whole community </li></ul>
  13. 13. 1935-1938 <ul><li>Unity forced – revival – 1935 All India Red Trade Union Congress – merged with AITUC – 1938 agreement btn AITUF & AITUC – NTUC affiliated with AITUC </li></ul><ul><li>Factors – Change of political setup (Congress Govt) – Strengthen TU & Conditions of Labour – Working class weakened better conditions – Mgt Changed attitude on TU </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>1938 – Bombay Industrial Disputes Act – features </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsory recognition of TU by employers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right to employee – case thro – representatives (or) Govt labour Officer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certification of standing orders – Working conditions known to workmen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Court – where Arbitration / Conciliation didn’t do good </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition of strike & lockout </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 1939-1946 <ul><li>WWII – Chaos – in IR – unrest due to – Price rise no pace to wage increase – Split in AITUC – Post war retrenchment & unemployment – Increase in TU & Women workers & strikes </li></ul><ul><li>1946 – Industrial enactment act – uniformity in workmen employment & minimise conflict –employer more than 100 employees define conditions & make it known to workers </li></ul><ul><li>BIRA – recognition of TU & Rights </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1947-since <ul><li>TU diversified on Political considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Labour leaders of Congress party – Indian National Trade Union Congress(1947) </li></ul><ul><li>1948 Socialist party – Hind Mazdoor Sabha </li></ul><ul><li>1949 – United trade Union Congress </li></ul><ul><li>1947 - Industrial Disputes Act – Strike prohibition without prior intimation & Trade Unions (amendment) Act – recognition of TU & Penalties for unfair practices </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>23 Jul 1954 Bharatiya Mazdoor party (BJP) – Check communist unions </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in Trade union Act 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Patna 21 Mar 1964 – All India Trade Union Congress by independent Unions – but vain </li></ul><ul><li>2 changes in the act in 1964 </li></ul><ul><li>Split - Centre of Indian Trade Union by Marxist communist from AITUC’70 –United Trade Union Congress Lenin Sarani (1970-72) </li></ul>

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