Social Mobilization - A Conceptual Understanding - Imran Ahmad Sajid
Social Mobilization: A ConceptualUnderstandingIMRAN AHMAD SAJIDLecturer (Social Work)ISSG, University of Peshawar
Development• Development means human progress, raisingthe quality of life of people and involvingthem in political, social and economicactivities that affect their lives (ZariRafiq.p.53).• How a given nation can obtainprosperity, civilization, and power by means ofagriculture, industry and commerce (WhiteGorden).
Community Development• Community Development is a processdesigned to create conditions of economicand social progress for the whole communitywith its active participation and fullestpossible reliance upon the communitysinitiative.“ (UN)
Community Development• Community development is the organizedeffort to improve the condition of communitylife, primarily through the enlistment of self-help and cooperative efforts fromvillagers, but with technical support fromgovernment or ngos (Zari Rafiq).
Social Mobilization• It is a tool for community development.
• The 2005 earthquake was amajor earthquake centered in the Pakistanadministered Kashmir near the city ofMuzaffarabad, also affecting and the KhyberPakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.• It occurred at 08:52:37 Pakistan Standard Timeon 8 October 2005.• It registered a moment magnitude of 7.6 makingit similar in size to the 1906 San Franciscoearthquake, the 1935 Quettaearthquake, the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, andthe 2009 Sumatra earthquakes.• As of 8 November, the government of Pakistansofficial death toll was 75,000.
• The earthquake also affected countries in thesurrounding region where tremors were feltin Tajikistan and western China, while officialssay nearly 1,400 people also died in Jammuand Kashmir and four people inneighboring NangarharProvince of Afghanistan.
• The severity of the damage caused by theearthquake is attributed to severeupthrust, coupled with poor construction.
Swiss Agency for Development andCooperation - SDC
• How do you make people learn to build thenew earthquake proof houses?• People don’t have facebook, internet, TV etc.
M. Kamran, Manager SDC, MansehraKamranOwner of the HouseEarthquake Proof House
1. Kamran took the project of building earthquake proofhouses in Balakot, Naran etc.2. He employed 3 social mobilizers.3. The project lasted for three years.4. The social mobilizers would go to a village and contact anyperson.5. The social mobilizers would inform him of their visit andproject.6. The initial contacted person would gather a few othermembers of his village.7. The social mobilizers would again visit the village andpresent their project to the gathering.
8. The gathering would select a few memebrs as avillage committee.9. The SDC social mobilizers would invite the villagecommittee members for the training on EarthquakeProof House building to Base-Camp Mansehra, wherean Engineer would give them training on building thehouse.10. It was the job of the village committee to train allother village members in building the eq.p. houses.11. On completion of the house along the givenguidelines, the family would be given a sum of3,00,000 Rs/- by ERA (Earthquake RehabilitationAuthority), Government of Pakistan.12. Now almost all the villages in the area have safehouses. Their community is a developed communityin terms of disasters.
What is Social Mobilization?• Mobilization is a Military terminology• To Mobilize = prepare forces for action• to organize people or resources in order to beready for action or in order to takeaction, especially in a military or civilemergency, or to be organized for this purpose.• When Military is mobilized, it is ready to attackthe enemy forces at any time.• When community is mobilized, it is ready toattack social problems at any time.
Social Mobilization• Social mobilization is a process of motivatingcommunities to organize in a cohesive group for anactive participation towards their own development(Zari Rafiq.p.199).• Mobilization refers to the process of formingcrowds, groups, associations and organizations for thepursuit of collective goal (Oberschall A, in ZariRafiq.p.199).• Social Mobilization means the art or skill of organizingpeople for some particular objective and leading themto the stage of self-reliance (Ikram Ullah Jan and AbidUllah Jan, in Zari Rafiq.p.200).
Social Mobility• Movement of a person or persons from onesocial status to another (Wallace and Wallace)• Vertical Mobility: Change in class, occupation& power position.• Horizontal Mobility: Change in positionwithout a change in status.
Social Movement• Organized group effort to resistor generate social change, or• A collective effort to promote orresist change (Horton & Hunt).• Characteristics:– Collective Action– Oriented towards Social Change• Elements:– Ideology behind the movement– Organizational framework– Consequences• Stages:• Preliminary Stage– Unrest• Popular stage –emergence ofleader• Formalizationstage-party, organizationetc• Institutionalizationstage• Dissolution stage
Key Elements of Social Mobilization• Four Key Elements of Social Mobilization1. Organizational Development2. Capital Formation for Development throughCommunity Savings3. Training for Human Resource Development4. Socio-Economic Development
1. Organizational Development• It is a process in which community membersand, especially the poor, form their owngroups or organizations based on commondevelopment interests and needs that are bestserved by organizing themselves as a group.
• Before a person becomes a member ofCommunity Based Organization (CBO), theindividual struggles against harsh conditions.
• Once he/she is organized in a group ororganization, the individual has the leverage(power to get things done) with which toaddress and tackle problems which he/shecould not have done alone (Pandey, 2002).
Types of Community BasedOrganizations1. Specific Focus Organizations2. Broad-Based or Multi-purpose organizations
i. CBOs with Specific Focus• E.g.– Earthquake Proof House Building CBOs– Child Protection CBOs– Tenants / Farmers CBOs– Woman Protection CBOs etc etc• Close organizations• Memberships is restricted to a specificcategory of community members
ii. Multi-Purpose/Broad-based CBOs• Aim to improve the condition the membersand the community in which they live.• Holistic focus• More inclusive of poor people• Effective for poverty alleviation, community-wide development and in establishing stronglinks with local governments (UC Nazims etc)
Factors promoting EffectiveOrganizational Development• Four factors:1. Building Democratic principles2. Building Leadership capacity of several members3. Building Incentives into the early stages4. Ensuring inclusive approach
i. Building Democratic Principles• Organization must be run on democratic principles.• It must have a constitution which shall reflect– Its objectives,– Its norms and values,– Its principles by which the CBO will function.• In order to build long-term commitment of members, itis necessary to promote– Norms and values such astolerance, inclusion, cooperation, and equality• It helps preventing the CBO from diverging intodestructing common good.
ii. Build Leadership Capacity• Building leadership capacity within the CBO isa must.• Likewise, instead of one individual, leadershipcapacity of several members must bedeveloped, in order to avoid dependency andcapture.Leadership=ability to lead Capacity: ability to do something
iii. Building Incentives• Why would you join an organization?• Building incentives into early stages offormation of CBO is necessary because…...• it creates interest among communitymembers for organizing.Incentive in shape of salary, control over CBOs resources etc.
iv. Inclusive Approach• In order to promote equal opportunities andprevent conflict, a social mobilizer has toadopt inclusive approach – i.e, leave room fornew membership.
2. Capital Formation for DevelopmentThrough Community Savings• Capital means “cash for investment.” or• a resource or resources that can be used togenerate economic wealth.• Capital Formation means “transfer of savingsto businesses.”
• Capital formation through mobilizing ofsavings enhances a CBOs power to realize itsfull potential.• Savings generated by individual members arethe assets of the CBO and are the first steptowards their self-reliance.
• Uses of Capital• CBOs capital can be used for– Internal credit with interest– Enable individual members to engagein income-generation activities– Strengthening CBOs capital base.– Enterprise development at communitylevel– Contribute to local developmentinitiativesEnterprise: business activities directedat profit
3. Training for Human ResourceDevelopment• Resource means “somebody or somethingthat is a source of help or information.”• Human Resources are all the people workingwithin a CBO.
• Community members can maximize theirpotential not only by organizing themselvesbut also by upgrading their existing skills tobetter manage new inputs. –e.g newcommunity initiatives, establishing links withlocal government.
• A social mobilizer can support– Direct training,– Exchange visits, and– other capacity building activities based on needsidentified by the members of the CBO.
• Some of the key skills might include,– advocacy skills,– accounting,– record keeping,– village profiling,– networking,– fundraising,– Organizational development,– Leadership skills,– Natural resource management skills, etc.
• For better human resource development, it isessential that trained individuals take-up theresponsibility to train other communitymemebrs.