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Ch 1 a


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Impatica Biology 2113 chapter one by Mrs. Jan House Summer of 2011

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Ch 1 a

  1. 1. 1 1Elaine N. Marieb The Human Body: An Orientation
  2. 2. REQUIRED TEXTBOOK• Anatomy & Physiology, 4th edition• Marieb• BIO 2113/2114• Janyce House, Instructor
  3. 3. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology• Anatomy – the structure of body parts – Gross or macroscopic – Microscopic – Developmental• Physiology – the function of body parts
  4. 4. Microscopic Anatomy• Cytology –• Histology –
  5. 5. Physiology• Considers the operation of specific organ systems – Renal – – Neurophysiology – – Cardiovascular –• Focuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level
  6. 6. Physiology• Understanding physiology:• Physics• Pathophysiology – abnormal or disease body function
  7. 7. Principle of Complementarity• Function always reflects structure• What a structure can do depends on its specific form
  8. 8. Levels of Structural Organization• Chemical –• Cellular –• Tissue –• Organ –• Organ system –• Organismal –
  9. 9. Levels of Structural Organization Smooth muscle cell Molecules 2 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules Atoms 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to Smooth form molecules muscle tissue Heart3 Tissue level Cardiovascular Tissues consist of system Blood similar types of cells vessels Epithelial tissue Smooth Blood muscle vessel tissue (organ) 6 Organismal level Connective The human organism is made tissue up of many organ systems 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different 5 Organ system level types of tissues Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely Figure 1.1
  10. 10. Bio. 2113 - Organ Systems of the Body - p. 6• Integumentary system• Skeletal system• Muscular System• Nervous System
  11. 11. Bio. 2114 - Organ Systems of the Body - p. 6 &7• Endocrine System• Cardiovascular System• Lymphatic System/Immunity• Respiratory System• Digestive System• Urinary System• Male and Female Reproductive Systems
  12. 12. Organ Systems Interrelationships• The integumentary system protects the body from the external environment• Digestive and respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in nutrients and oxygen
  13. 13. Organ Systems Interrelationships • Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood • Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems Figure 1.2
  14. 14. Necessary Life Functions I• Maintaining boundaries – the internal environment remains distinct from the external – Cellular level – – Organismal level –• Movement – locomotion, propulsion (peristalsis), and contractility• Responsiveness –• Digestion –
  15. 15. Necessary Life Functions II• Metabolism –• Excretion –• Reproduction – – Cellular – an original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells – Organismal – sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person• Growth –
  16. 16. Survival Needs• Nutrients –• Oxygen –• Water –• Maintaining normal body temperature –• Atmospheric pressure –
  18. 18. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms• CONTROL MECHANISMS FOR HOMEOSTASIS: – Receptor – changes (stimuli) – Control center – determines the set point at which the variable is maintained – Effector – responds to the stimulus
  19. 19. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms 3 Input: Control center 4 Output: Information Information sent sent along along efferent afferent pathway to pathway to Receptor (sensor) Effector Change 2 detected by receptor 5 Response of effector feeds back to influence1 Stimulus: magnitude of Produces stimulus and change returns in variable variable to homeostasis Variable (in homeostasis) Figure 1.4
  20. 20. Negative Feedback• In negative feedback systems, the output shuts off the original stimulus• Examples: Regulation of blood glucose levels; body temperature