Introduction session: social media skills course

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First of an eight part adult education course in social media skills. Feel free to re-use under a creative commons license.

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  • Communication theory- where does it come from, how has it been changed by the web, what is this new media age ?
  • Etmology: comes from the Latin communis, "common". Share information, ideas, attitudes, experiences. For what purpose? power – survival – co-operation – personal needs – relationships – persuasion – social needs – economic – information – making sense of the world – decision making – self expression (R. Dimbleby and G. Burton)
  • Models of communication: help us understand how we communicate and how this might change over time. There are 3 main barriers to communication: mechanical (technical), psychological (our or another’s reaction) and semantic (meaning). Transmission model, transactional/transformational model and ritual model
  • Aristotle: Speaker --- message --- Listener Rhetoric - "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion". Conduit metaphor: language functions like a conduit and transfers thoughts and feelings from one person to another. This passive model falls down however, instead depends on readers/viewers making sense of what they see/hear and the meaning they construct not extract. Historical context: represented communication as an orator addressing a large audience which was typical of the Greek culture of the time. Role of the listener was less important, although they were comprised of the free men of the democratic Greek society and thus were expected to answer the proposals, challenges and ideas of the orator. Transmission model and Aristotle. Sender—message—listener. Greek agora with orator and rhetorical skills given special acclaim. Message and listener less important.
  • Laswell (1948) who says what to whom in what channel with what effect Political scientist: communicator + message + medium + audience = impact Way of measuring impact of a communication. There must be a point to the communication. Historical context: Laswell, a political scientist, was focussed on the impact of a message in the years preceding World War II. Each element in his model could be optimised for larger impact e.g. Hitler use of emotive messages in moving film to reach the German public. His thought was developed within the context of the Second World War where political oratory became a main feature in diplomacy with figures like Adolf Hitler, Winston Churchill, Charles de Gaulle and the formation of ideological propaganda and radio. Chief of the Experimental Division for the Study of War Time Communications at the Library of Congress. Laswell, a political scientist, in the 40s, interested in the impact of a communication. Could optimise each element in model to increase impact – who says what to whom in what channel. He analyzed Nazi propaganda films to identify mechanisms of persuasion used to secure the acquiescence and support of the German populace for Hitler and his wartime atrocities.
  • Shannon-Weaver (1949) Back in 1949 Claude Shannon, an electrical engineer with Bell Telephone, and Warren Weaver, of the Rockefeller Foundation- attempted to do two things: Reduce the communication process to a set of mathematical formulas, Discuss problems that could be handled with the model – Focussed on transmission and reception of messages Involves a transmitter, a receiver and sources of noise. Info source—Transmitter --////-- Receiver ---- Destination (/// = noise) Noise can be external, internal, technical or semantic. Semantic noise is the problem connected with differences in meaning that people assign to words, to voice inflections in speech, to gestures and expressions and to other similar "noise" in writing. Duo of Shannon-Weaver two information scientists with Bell labs who devised a mathematical model of communication to help optimise it. Introduced notion of “noise”. Noise can be external, internal, technical or semantic. Semantic noise is the problem connected with differences in meaning that people assign to words, to voice inflections in speech, to gestures and expressions and to other similar "noise" in writing. Extra: Historical context: In 19 th C, the movement of information was seen as basically the same as the transport of goods or people, both being described as 'communication'. The influence of the transmission model is widespread in our daily speech when we talk of 'conveying meaning', 'getting the idea across', 'transferring information', and other examples of transmissive metaphors. Weakness : Intention: Treats communication as a means to a predetermined end. However, not all communication is intentional. C ontext: situational, social, institutional, political, cultural, historical. Meaning cannot be independent of such contexts e.g. situational context, it makes a lot of difference if the sender is an opinionated taxi-driver who drives aggressively, and the receiver is a passenger in the back seat whose primary concern is to arrive at the destination in one piece. Relationships: treats people as isolated individuals. Whereas ritual model sees communication as a shared social system. We are all social beings, and our communicative acts cannot be said to represent the expression of purely individual thoughts and feelings. Such thoughts and feelings are socio-culturally patterned. Purposes: The same TV images of a football match would have very different meanings for the fans of opposing sides.
  • Schramm (1954) – considered the fields of experience of the sender and receiver. The sender encodes the message based on their field of experience. If no commonality in the sender’s and receiver’s field of experience then communication does not take place. The extent to which the signal is correctly decoded depends on the extent of the overlap of the two fields of experience. Historical context: Known as father of communication studies. Schramm worked in the Office of War Information during WWII where he partially studies the nature of propaganda. His model highlights the need for a common language between sender and receiver e.g. in the case of a research scientist he/she must compose a lecture while considering the experience and knowledge of his/her audience. Weakness of this model is that it suggests that communication problems can be solved by technical accuracy- i.e. choosing the “right” symbols, preventing interference, and sending efficient messages. However misunderstanding relating to meaning are more to do with differences of shared concepts, beliefs, attitudes, and values. Field of experience is refers to the psychological frame of reference--- the orientation or attitudes which the source and receiver maintain toward each other. Schramm emerged in the 50s as the father of communication studies. See move towards transactional model. He considers the fields of experience of the sender and receiver. If no commonality between sender’s and receiver’s field of experience then communication does not take place. Need to know and tailor address to your audience.
  • David Berlo (1960) model of the ingredients of communication – identifies the controlling factors for the elements of communication. He emphasises the relationship between sender (source) and receiver. Schramm and Osgood took Berlo’s ideas and developed them further to describe a circular model of communication between the two parties. In this model, communication becomes a continuous process of messages and feedback thus allowing for interaction. Both parties alternate between being Sender and Receiver. Both parties do a lot of interpreting as they decode what they hear and encode what they want to say. This model also included context; a message may have different meanings, depending upon the specific context or setting; and also considered culture; message may have different meanings associated with it depending upon the culture or society. Weakness: This model while less linear still only account for simple communication between two parties. This does not address complex communication between several sources. Berlo in the same vein emphasises the relationship between sender (source) and receiver. He identifies controlling factors for the elements of communication (SMCR). We see here the influences that may determine how a source/receiver will operate in the communication process e.g. knowledge, background, ability to talk/write/think/speak etc. The message can be impacted by the package it is contained in i.e. the language and also the language of music, art, gestures. Schramm and Osgood took Berlo’s ideas and developed them further to describe a circular model of communication between the two parties. In this model, communication becomes a continuous process of messages and feedback thus allowing for interaction. This model also included context; a message may have different meanings, depending upon the specific context or setting; and also considered culture; message may have different meanings associated with it depending upon the culture or society. Extra: Messages fail to accomplish their purpose for many reasons. Senders may be unaware of perception of receivers. Choose less effective channel. Receivers may not be aware of, interested in, or capable of using messages. Weakness: This model while less linear still only account for simple communication between two parties. This does not address complex communication between several sources.
  • James W. Carey, holds that individuals exchange understandings not out of self-interest nor for the accumulation of information but from a need for communion, commonality and fraternity. Carey mentions that the main idea surrounding the transmission view of communication is that it’s a process where messages are transmitted and distributed in space in order for the control of distance and people On the other hand, Carey defines the ritual view of communication as being directed towards the maintenance of society and the representation of shared beliefs. He finds that the main objective is the maintenance of an ordered world. Carey continues to define communication as a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired and transformed. Communication–most common and mundane of human experiences; difficult to recognize just like the fish doesn’t recognize water; communication creates the ambience (water) of human existence. Echoes new media which aim to reach a form of sharing information, in which people are participants of their media, there is a sense of community, of give and take. Carey’s ritual model is usually described as an alternative to the transmission model and it also helps explain more complex communications that the transactional model fails to address. Carey comes from a social constructionist background (considers knowledge to be created in social settings) which informs his thinking. In this model individuals exchange understandings not out of self-interest nor for the accumulation of information but from a need for communion, commonality and fraternity. Sees communication–most common and mundane of human experiences; difficult to recognize just like the fish doesn’t recognize water; communication creates the ambience (water) of human existence. When we compare these models we can best identify the differences in perspective. Ritual model echoes new media which aim to reach a form of sharing information, in which people are participants of their media, there is a sense of community, of give and take.
  • Now have rapid transmission of small pieces of data. There can be several paths from the sender to the receiver: network based communication Interactive media are helping transform communication. Gone from one to many model to many to many model. Now have rapid transmission of small pieces of data There can be several paths from the sender to the receiver: network based communication.
  • What is the impact on the relationship between senders and receivers? New technologies give users unprecedented ability to modify and redistribute content as compared to traditional media. New media have produced a new kind of “knowledge space” or “communication space” that is disconnected from local, situated knowledge and experience. Levy sees this as an emancipatory break from older forms of knowledge that were linear, hierarchial and rigid.
  • Emergence of collective intelligence : Cognition (smart markets), Cooperation (P2P business, open source). Coordination- example Crowd sourcing: Distributed problem-solving and production model e.g. Social bookmarking . Pierre Levy: nobody knows everything but everyone has some expertise to participate and out of collective intelligence. Social negotiation in co-production of knowledge
  • Introduction session: social media skills course

    1. 1. Is this what you came to learn? No? Browse the newspaper clippings on your desktop, but you don’t need to speedread… it’s all available online…. Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    2. 2. Slightly different type of course… <ul><li>Teachers and learners collaborate to help everyone achieve their goals in a supportive, fun atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9zN_FTj7rTo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tonight: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search online resources effectively using Google and tabbed browsing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn a couple of basic models of communication theory and relate their relevance to the technical possibilities offered by social media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciate bookmarking tools as a way of re-finding web pages when needed through the process of “tagging” or labeling pages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe an example of the privacy and security concerns that accompany the use of social media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beginning with … the dreaded icebreaker… </li></ul>Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    3. 3. What is social media? <ul><li>&quot;a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, which allows the creation and exchange of user-generated content .” Kaplan, Andreas M.; Michael Haenlein (2010) . http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6W45-4XFF2S0-1/2/600db1bd6e0c9903c744aaf34b0b12e1 . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>content communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social networking sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>virtual game worlds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can you name some social networks? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Social media revolution <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lFZ0z5Fm-Ng </li></ul>Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    5. 5. What are the positives? <ul><li>Social contact </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing info </li></ul><ul><li>Crowdsourcing </li></ul><ul><li>Fun! </li></ul><ul><li>Politics/ activism </li></ul><ul><li>Anything else? </li></ul><ul><li>Does this graph surprise you? Why? </li></ul>Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    6. 6. Where are the kids? <ul><li>What sites do teenagers use to communicate? (Mulley Communications http://www.mulley.ie/teensurvey ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>97% Facebook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% Twitter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>46% Bebo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>36% Formspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25% Tumblr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23% blogger.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phone most treasured possession not PC http://mashable.com/2011/07/02/texting-teens-infographic/ </li></ul><ul><li>Important question: do you know what sexting is? </li></ul>
    7. 7. What are the risks? <ul><li>Where do you see the downsides to increased internet and social media use? </li></ul>Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    8. 8. What are the dangers? <ul><li>Facecrooks http://facecrooks.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>One in Four Schoolkids have tried Hacking http://www.siliconrepublic.com/strategy/item/15606-one-in-four-schoolkids-have </li></ul><ul><li>Others? London riots/Blackberry Messenger? http://holykaw.alltop.com/14-fun-facts-about-text-messaging-infographic </li></ul><ul><li>NB if you encounter any facebook problems here is the security advice page: https://www.facebook.com/help/?page=203917589649396 </li></ul>Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    9. 9. Questions to think about <ul><li>What do you think you use, or want to use social media for? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think the next developments will be? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you need in order to make the most of it with minimum risk? </li></ul>Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    10. 10. Information: Google tips and tricks <ul><li>Quotation marks: “Ann Brown” means only Ann when followed by Brown, not all the Anns and all the Browns… </li></ul><ul><li>Wild card * character says fill in the blank *New media communicat* </li></ul><ul><li>intitle:(searchterm) (result only if seachterm appears in window title)define:(searchterm) - dictionary (searchterm) works well too… </li></ul><ul><li>plus and minus: AIDS -Africa to exclude Africa but AIDS +Africa to prevent Google employing similar synonym termssearchterm </li></ul><ul><li>site: - this one is tricky as you have to omit the www. To search for Iraq on the New York Times webpage you would put iraq site:nytimes.com http://lifehacker.com/339474/top-10-obscure-google-search-tricks </li></ul>Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    11. 11. Using Internet Explorer 9 <ul><li>Typing any topic into the first tab to search it. If you press return it uses Bing automatically as your search engine and searches for the term. Not always a good thing. You can select Google instead with your mouse from the box that appears. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatively go to Google first by typing www.google.com </li></ul>Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence You can get rid of Bing if you want. http://www.pcworld.com/article/204718/get_rid_of_bing.html
    12. 12. Tabbed browsing Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence http://windows.microsoft.com/en-IE/windows-vista/Tabbed-browsing-in-Internet-Explorer-8-frequently-asked-questions
    13. 13. The privacy debate <ul><li>The rise of social networking online means that people no longer have an expectation of privacy , according to Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg . </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2010/jan/11/facebook-privacy </li></ul>Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    14. 14. OFFLINE WORLD Ann’s Ex work colleagues Ann’s Alumni Ann’s Family Ann’s Students ANN
    15. 15. ONLINE WORLD Ann’s Ex work colleagues Ann’s Alumni Ann’s Family Ann’s Students Ann Online
    16. 16. Privacy and security warning <ul><li>Anything you put on the Internet is public </li></ul><ul><li>It can be tracked and often is </li></ul><ul><li>Clear the Internet browsing history when you are using a public computer and LOG OUT </li></ul><ul><li>Plenty of good advice on Google Good to know http://www.google.com/goodtoknow/ </li></ul><ul><li>Create good passwords and use them </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pcworld.com/businesscenter/article/187454/creating_secure_passwords_you_can_remember.html </li></ul>Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    17. 17. Communication Theory Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    18. 18. Origins of the word “communication” <ul><li>Latin communis, “to make common” </li></ul><ul><li>share information, ideas, attitudes, experiences </li></ul>Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    19. 19. Models of Communication Transmission models Aristotle, Lasswell, Shannon-Weaver Transactional/transformational models Schramm, Berlo Ritual model Carey Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    20. 20. Speaker – message – Listener Who do you think this might be? How did people communicate in his day? How’s it different now? Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    21. 21. Who (says) What (to) Whom (in) What Channel (with) What Effect IMPACT!!! Laswell (1948) Why might the date be important? What sort of communication epitomises the 1940s? Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    22. 22. Source ----- Transmitter ---------- Receiver ----- Destination Noise Shannon/ Weaver (1949) Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    23. 23. Signal encoder decoder Source Receiver Field of experience Field of experience Schramm (1954) also influenced by WWII experiences Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    24. 24. Source — Message — Channel — Receiver Comm. skills Attitudes Knowledge Social system Culture Comm. skills Attitudes Knowledge Social system Culture Content Elements Treatment Structure Code Hearing Seeing Touching Tasting Feeling Berlo (1960) Refined by Schramm and Osgood Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    25. 25. Carey “Ritual model” Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence Transmission model Ritual model Basic Metaphor: Transportation Ceremony Participant Roles: Sender & Receiver Participants Role of Meaning: Sent & Received Created & Recreated Criterion of Success: Receiver &quot;gets it&quot; (accuracy of transmission) Shared experience (sense of community) Basic Function: Influence across space Community across time
    26. 26. Interactive media <ul><li>Old models </li></ul><ul><li>one-to-many </li></ul><ul><li>New media </li></ul><ul><li>Many-to-many </li></ul>Linear movement of message - sender to passive receiver Non linear movement - responsive sender(s) & receivers Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    27. 27. What is the impact on the relationship between senders and receivers? Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    28. 28. Collective intelligence… eg Pierre Levy on social bookmarking such as de.licio.us – nobody knows everything but everyone has expertise to participate with Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    29. 29. The Machine is Us/ing Us <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLlGopyXT_g </li></ul>Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    30. 30. Now it’s your turn (to search in pairs and tell us what you find)… <ul><li>I like to offer people a choice at this stage for the last few minutes. Please feel free to ask any questions you like and/or work with your partner to find out more about any of these… </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses on facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Libel on the Internet – when rude gets legal </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright – can you use the picture you found to illustrate your blog? </li></ul><ul><li>Data protection – what can a website do with your information? </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy on social media </li></ul><ul><li>E-safety and location… dating sites, anyone? </li></ul>Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence
    31. 31. A quick survey about week 1… <ul><li>http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/3LNCD29 </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll be emailing you this link tonight – I want you to complete it before next week about your use of technology at the moment </li></ul><ul><li>You’ll get the dropbox link and in following weeks you can download your own links list at the start of the class, along with slides if you wish. </li></ul><ul><li>Some glossary websites if you are feeling bamboozled… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://socialeasemarketing.com/2011/02/08/a-simple-guide-to-online-marketing-terms/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thank you! Same time (same place) next week… </li></ul>Material made available by Imogen Bertin/Catherine O'Mahony under a Creative Commons attribution-sharealike licence

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