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Smart machines 
An emerging super class of technologies. 
Gartner 
© Immo Salo
Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends for 2014 
● Web-Scale IT 
● Smart Machines 
● 3D Printing 
● The Era of Personal Cloud ...
Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends for 2015 
● Computing Everywhere 
● The Internet of Things 
● 3D Printing 
● Advanced, ...
Smart Machines gets attention 
Smart machines has been getting more and more attention: 
● Hype Cycle of Smart Machines re...
Must read book about the topic 
www.smartmachines.fi 
The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, 
and Prosperity in a Time of...
Definition of Smart Machines 
“Smart machines include robots, self-driving cars and other cognitive computing systems that...
What are Smart Machines? 
1. Observe 
learn by observing 
2. Tests 
test the real world 
3. Autonomous 
behave autonously ...
What are Smart Machines? 
● Smart Machines are technologies that: 
○ Deal with high levels of complexity and uncertainty 
...
New technologies are enablers 
● The idea of Smart 
Machines is not new, 
but now the time is 
right 
→ Perfect storm 
com...
Innovations are the key 
● Most important innovations will be combinatory 
innovations* 
● Creative destruction will face ...
Phases of competition 
1. Wondering 
○ These machines are amazing! 
2. Innovations, phase 1 
○ Changing the way business i...
Timing and technology 
● Smart Machines is built on top of existing 
technologies and innovations 
○ Cloud computing 
○ Bi...
Categories 
Cloud computing 
● IaaS 
● PaaS 
● SaaS 
XaaS 
Big Data 
● Volume 
● Variety 
● Velocity 
multiple other V’s 
...
www.smartmachines.fi
Cloud Computing is the brain 
powering Smart Machines
The Role of Cloud Computing 
● Cloud Computing is an enabler of Smart Machines 
“Imagine a robot that finds an object that...
www.smartmachines.fi
Division of execution 
Onboard execution 
➢ Simple, repetitive tasks 
➢ Motorics 
➢ Tasks related to events 
www.smartmach...
Advanced Analytics provides wisdom to Smart Machines
The Role of Big Data 
● Cloud Services provide scalability 
“Amazon Kinesis is a fully managed service for real-time proce...
The Role of Big Data 
● Advanced Analytics helps to model and predict the 
future 
“Machine learning–mining historical dat...
Watson as a cloud service 
● IBM Watson is available as a cloud service (Sep 
2014) 
“In the future a cleaning robot in th...
Robotics makes digitalization visible in production, 
services, transportation and all other areas of life
Sales of Industrial Robots 
Record high sales of industrial 
robots in 2013 
Worldrobotics.org: http://www.worldrobotics.o...
Sales of Service Robots 
“Turning to the projections for the period of 2013 to 2016, sales forecast which 
were provided b...
Sales of Domestic Service Robots 
...vacuum and floor cleaning, lawn-mowing 
robots, and entertainment 
and leisure robots...
Drones - soon flying everywhere 
No piloting skills required 
The eBee takes off, flies and lands 
autonomously. 
The arti...
Autonomous vehicles create 
creative destruction 
Jobs will be lost and new ones created. 
Gartner 
www.smartmachines.fi h...
Consumer robotics 
Jibo 
kickstarter project, shipping 2015 
What is Jibo? It’s a little pod with a motorized 
swivel, equ...
Internet of Things 
There are 50 to 500 billion connected devices in 2020 
IDC, General Electric
IBM SyNAPSE chip 
● Computer chip imitating the 
brain (introduced in Aug 2014) 
The architecture can solve a wide class o...
Intel Edison 
● Remember Raspberry Pi? 
● Intel Edison takes tiny 
computers to the next level 
● It can be the brains of ...
Spark 
● Spark is a Wi-Fi development 
kit for connecting devices aka 
“things” to internet 
The Spark Core is our tiny Wi...
The Smart Machine era will be the most disruptive in the history of IT. 
Gartner Oct 2013
Categories of Smart Machines 
● Movers 
○ Example: Google “Self-Driving car” 
● Doers 
○ Example: Rething Robotics “Baxter...
Movers 
Google Driverless Car 
www.smartmachines.fi Google Self-Driving Car: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_driverles...
Doers 
Baxter 
www.smartmachines.fi Rething robotics: http://www.rethinkrobotics.com/baxter/
Sages 
IBM Watson beating top human players in Jeopardy 2011 
www.smartmachines.fi IBM: http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/u...
Categories of Smart Machines 
● Expert systems (sages) 
○ Example: IBM “Watson” 
by Technavio 
● Autonomous robots (movers...
Problem solving with Expert System 
Problem Definition 
System Design 
Formalization 
System Implementation 
System Valida...
Characteristics of Autonomous Robot 
● Self-Maintenance 
● Ability to sense the environment (sensors) 
● Ability to perfor...
5 Generations of virtual assistants 
First Generation 
based on text, low-quality end-user interface 
Second Generation 
i...
Google Brain 
● Artificial Intelligence (AI) is gaining a lot of 
attention 
Building High-level Features 
Using Large Sca...
Wearables, augmented reality 
“Clothing and accessories incorporating computer and advanced 
electronic technologies” 
Wik...
Wearables, categories 
1. Lifestyle 
○ enhancing and simplifying everyday tasks and activities 
2. Entertainment 
○ provid...
Exoskeletons 
● “A powered exoskeleton, also known as powered armor, exoframe, or 
exosuit, is a mobile machine consisting...
Role of Smart Machines 
● Assist people 
● Advise people 
● Observe and help people 
● Extend people 
... 
● Replace peopl...
The Future of Employment 
“According to our estimate, 47 percent of total US 
employment is in the high risk category, 
me...
Jobs will be lost 
“One in three jobs will be taken by [Smart 
Machines] by 2025“ 
Peter Sondergaard, Gartner research dir...
What next? 
● Innovations 
● Investments 
● Creative destruction 
● New skills needed 
www.smartmachines.fi twitter.com/im...
Smart machines presentation, Oct 2014
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Smart machines presentation, Oct 2014

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The era of smart machines will be the most disruptive it the history of IT. On in three jobs will be taken by smart machines by 2025.

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Smart machines presentation, Oct 2014

  1. 1. Smart machines An emerging super class of technologies. Gartner © Immo Salo
  2. 2. Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends for 2014 ● Web-Scale IT ● Smart Machines ● 3D Printing ● The Era of Personal Cloud ● Software-Defined Anything ● Mobile Device Diversity and Management ● Mobile Apps and Applications ● The Internet of Everything ● Hybrid Cloud & IT as a Service Broker ● Cloud/Client Architecture www.smartmachines.fi
  3. 3. Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends for 2015 ● Computing Everywhere ● The Internet of Things ● 3D Printing ● Advanced, Pervasive and Invisible Analytics ● Contex-Rich Systems ● Smart Machines ● Cloud/Client Computing ● Software-Defined Applications and Infrastructure ● Web-Scale IT ● Risk-Based Security and Self-Protection www.smartmachines.fi
  4. 4. Smart Machines gets attention Smart machines has been getting more and more attention: ● Hype Cycle of Smart Machines released Gartner, Jul 2014 ● McKinsey writes about Smart Machines McKinsey Quarterly, Sep 2014 ● Economist writes about Smart Machines “The Age of Smart Machines”, May 2014 ● IBM published a book about Smart Machines “Smart Machines: IBM’s Watson and the Era of Cognitive Computing”, Oct 2013 www.smartmachines.fi
  5. 5. Must read book about the topic www.smartmachines.fi The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies Brynjolfsson, McAfee
  6. 6. Definition of Smart Machines “Smart machines include robots, self-driving cars and other cognitive computing systems that are able to make decisions and solve problems without human intervention.” Techtarget.com “[Smart Machines are]...contextually aware, intelligent personal assistants, smart advisors (such as IBM Watson), advanced global industrial systems and public availability of early examples of autonomous vehicles” Gartner “...a smart machine is an intelligent device that uses machine-to-machine (M2M) technology. Smart machines include robots, self-driving cars and other cognitive computing systems that are able to make decisions and solve problems without human intervention.” Techtarget.com www.smartmachines.fi
  7. 7. What are Smart Machines? 1. Observe learn by observing 2. Tests test the real world 3. Autonomous behave autonously 4. Probabilistic making decision based on probabilities 5. Predicts predict the future based on models and calculations 6. Purpose narrow in purpose, each machine has its own purpose and there are different machines for different purposes 7. Understands appear to understand concepts, relationships, causalities 8. Human reaction “I didn’t know a machine could do that!” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z4kfdkCFQ2g www.smartmachines.fi Gartner tried to answer the question in Jul 2014
  8. 8. What are Smart Machines? ● Smart Machines are technologies that: ○ Deal with high levels of complexity and uncertainty ○ Decision making based on probabilistics ○ Understanding of task-specific contexts ○ Multitude of uses ○ Some gauge person’s feelings by examining facial movements etc. http://gartnernews.com/smart-machine-disruption-will-dominate-this-decade/ www.smartmachines.fi
  9. 9. New technologies are enablers ● The idea of Smart Machines is not new, but now the time is right → Perfect storm combination of technologies and concepts are mature enough www.smartmachines.fi
  10. 10. Innovations are the key ● Most important innovations will be combinatory innovations* ● Creative destruction will face those not willing or able to take action ● The pace of change might be surprisingly fast www.smartmachines.fi * The Second Machine Age, Brynjolfsson & McAfee
  11. 11. Phases of competition 1. Wondering ○ These machines are amazing! 2. Innovations, phase 1 ○ Changing the way business is done within existing industries 3. Innovations, phase 2 ○ Creating new industries 4. Innovations, phase 3 ○ Destruction of old industries / business models 5. The Age of Ecosystems ○ High-technologization of industries, ecosystem-level competition www.smartmachines.fi
  12. 12. Timing and technology ● Smart Machines is built on top of existing technologies and innovations ○ Cloud computing ○ Big data ○ Internet of Everything ○ Robotics www.smartmachines.fi
  13. 13. Categories Cloud computing ● IaaS ● PaaS ● SaaS XaaS Big Data ● Volume ● Variety ● Velocity multiple other V’s Internet of Everything ● People ● Things ● Places ● Information Robotics ● Industrial ● Service ● Consumer Smart Machines is a combination of existing technologies and concepts www.smartmachines.fi
  14. 14. www.smartmachines.fi
  15. 15. Cloud Computing is the brain powering Smart Machines
  16. 16. The Role of Cloud Computing ● Cloud Computing is an enabler of Smart Machines “Imagine a robot that finds an object that it's never seen or used before—say, a plastic cup. The robot could simply send an image of the cup to the cloud and receive back the object’s name, a 3-D model, and instructions on how to use it” J. Kuffner, Google www.smartmachines.fi IEEE: Jan 2011, http://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/robotics-software/cloud-robotics
  17. 17. www.smartmachines.fi
  18. 18. Division of execution Onboard execution ➢ Simple, repetitive tasks ➢ Motorics ➢ Tasks related to events www.smartmachines.fi that always demand immediate response Cloud execution ➢ Complex tasks ➢ Machine learning ➢ Tasks that demand compute-or memory-intensive analytics
  19. 19. Advanced Analytics provides wisdom to Smart Machines
  20. 20. The Role of Big Data ● Cloud Services provide scalability “Amazon Kinesis is a fully managed service for real-time processing of streaming data at massive scale. Amazon Kinesis can collect and process hundreds of terabytes of data per hour from hundreds of thousands of sources, allowing you to easily write applications that process information in real-time, from sources such as web site click-streams, marketing and financial information, manufacturing instrumentation and social media, and operational logs and metering data.” An Inside Look at Google BigQuery www.smartmachines.fi http://aws.amazon.com/kinesis/
  21. 21. The Role of Big Data ● Advanced Analytics helps to model and predict the future “Machine learning–mining historical data with computer systems to predict future trends or behavior–touches more and more lives every day. Search engines, online recommendations, ad targeting, virtual assistants, demand forecasting, fraud detection, spam filters–machine learning powers all these modern services. But these uses barely scratch the surface of what's possible.” Microsoft Azure Machine Learning www.smartmachines.fi http://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/services/machine-learning/
  22. 22. Watson as a cloud service ● IBM Watson is available as a cloud service (Sep 2014) “In the future a cleaning robot in the hospital corridor connected to Medical Watson might be able to give you more precise diagnosis and prognosis than the doctor who you are waiting to see.” www.smartmachines.fi
  23. 23. Robotics makes digitalization visible in production, services, transportation and all other areas of life
  24. 24. Sales of Industrial Robots Record high sales of industrial robots in 2013 Worldrobotics.org: http://www.worldrobotics.org/uploads/tx_zeifr/June_04__2014_PI_IFR_World_Robot_Market.pdf www.smartmachines.fi
  25. 25. Sales of Service Robots “Turning to the projections for the period of 2013 to 2016, sales forecast which were provided by companies worldwide indicate an increase to about 94,800 units with an estimated value of US$ 17.1 billion. Thereof, about 28,000 robots for defense applications are expected to be sold in the period of 2013 to 2016. They are followed by milking robots with about 24,500 units. However, this is probably a rather conservative estimate. These two service robot groups make up 55% of the total forecast of service robots at the current time.” www.smartmachines.fi Worldrobotics.org: http://www.ifr.org/service-robots/statistics/
  26. 26. Sales of Domestic Service Robots ...vacuum and floor cleaning, lawn-mowing robots, and entertainment and leisure robots, including toy robots, hobby systems, education and research. www.smartmachines.fi Worldrobotics.org: http://www.ifr.org/service-robots/statistics/
  27. 27. Drones - soon flying everywhere No piloting skills required The eBee takes off, flies and lands autonomously. The artificial intelligence incorporated in the senseFly autopilot continuously analyzes data from the Inertial Measurement Unit and the onboard GPS and takes care of all aspects of the flight mission. https://www.sensefly.com/drones/ebee.html www.smartmachines.fi
  28. 28. Autonomous vehicles create creative destruction Jobs will be lost and new ones created. Gartner www.smartmachines.fi https://atmelcorporation.wordpress.com/2014/10/08/gartner-smart-machine-disruption-will-dominate-this-decade/
  29. 29. Consumer robotics Jibo kickstarter project, shipping 2015 What is Jibo? It’s a little pod with a motorized swivel, equipped with cameras, microphones and a display. It recognizes faces and voices, and can act as a personal assistant by setting reminders, delivering messages and offering to take group photos. It also serves as a telepresence robot for video chat. Time.com https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/jibo-the-world-s-first-family-robot www.smartmachines.fi
  30. 30. Internet of Things There are 50 to 500 billion connected devices in 2020 IDC, General Electric
  31. 31. IBM SyNAPSE chip ● Computer chip imitating the brain (introduced in Aug 2014) The architecture can solve a wide class of problems from vision, audition, and multi-sensory fusion, and has the potential to revolutionize the computer industry by integrating brain-like capability into devices where computation is constrained by power and speed. IBM: http://www.research.ibm.com/cognitive-computing/neurosynaptic-chips.shtml www.smartmachines.fi
  32. 32. Intel Edison ● Remember Raspberry Pi? ● Intel Edison takes tiny computers to the next level ● It can be the brains of almost any device (width is only 35 mm) The Intel® Edison development platform is the first in a series of low-cost, product-ready, general purpose compute platforms that help lower the barriers to entry for entrepreneurs in the Internet of Things (IoT). Intel: http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/do-it-yourself/edison.html www.smartmachines.fi 3,5 cm
  33. 33. Spark ● Spark is a Wi-Fi development kit for connecting devices aka “things” to internet The Spark Core is our tiny Wi-Fi development kit that helps you build a connected product in hours, not weeks. The Spark Core is hooked to the Cloud out of the box, and the entire design is open source. Spark: https://www.spark.io/ www.smartmachines.fi
  34. 34. The Smart Machine era will be the most disruptive in the history of IT. Gartner Oct 2013
  35. 35. Categories of Smart Machines ● Movers ○ Example: Google “Self-Driving car” ● Doers ○ Example: Rething Robotics “Baxter” ● Sages ○ Example: IBM “Watson” by IBM www.smartmachines.fi IBM: Oct 2013, http://www.ibmbigdatahub.com/blog/rise-smart-machines-nothing-fear-now-austin
  36. 36. Movers Google Driverless Car www.smartmachines.fi Google Self-Driving Car: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_driverless_car
  37. 37. Doers Baxter www.smartmachines.fi Rething robotics: http://www.rethinkrobotics.com/baxter/
  38. 38. Sages IBM Watson beating top human players in Jeopardy 2011 www.smartmachines.fi IBM: http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/en/ibmwatson/what-is-watson.html
  39. 39. Categories of Smart Machines ● Expert systems (sages) ○ Example: IBM “Watson” by Technavio ● Autonomous robots (movers, doers) ○ Example: Google “Self-Driving car” ● Intelligent assistants (helpers?) ○ Examples: Apple “Siri”, Microsoft “Cortana” www.smartmachines.fi Technavio: Oct 2014, http://www.technavio.com/blog/know-your-robots-top-three-types-of-smart-machine
  40. 40. Problem solving with Expert System Problem Definition System Design Formalization System Implementation System Validation www.smartmachines.fi Technavio: Oct 2014, http://www.technavio.com/blog/know-your-robots-top-three-types-of-smart-machine
  41. 41. Characteristics of Autonomous Robot ● Self-Maintenance ● Ability to sense the environment (sensors) ● Ability to perform physical tasks (motorics) ● Ability to navigate point to point (movement) www.smartmachines.fi Technavio: Oct 2014, http://www.technavio.com/blog/know-your-robots-top-three-types-of-smart-machine
  42. 42. 5 Generations of virtual assistants First Generation based on text, low-quality end-user interface Second Generation interactive moving, cartoon type characters, text-to-text, only little speech Third Generation animation, responses to speech, functionality to measure response accuracy Fourth Generation quality animated characters, dashboards, analytics, mobile solutions, high accuracy Fifth Generation 3D images, extraordinary accuracy, requests feedback, full speech-to-speech support www.smartmachines.fi Technavio: Oct 2014, http://www.technavio.com/blog/know-your-robots-top-three-types-of-smart-machine
  43. 43. Google Brain ● Artificial Intelligence (AI) is gaining a lot of attention Building High-level Features Using Large Scale Unsupervised Learning Our high-level detectors also outperform standard baselines in terms of recognition rates, achieving 74.8% and 76.7% on cat and human body respectively. In comparison, best linear filters (sampled from the training set) only achieve 67.2% and 68.1% respectively. Stanford & Google -paper Jul 2012 Cat face drawn by computer base on looking at cat images from Youtube. www.smartmachines.fi http://arxiv.org/pdf/1112.6209v5.pdf
  44. 44. Wearables, augmented reality “Clothing and accessories incorporating computer and advanced electronic technologies” Wikipedia, Sep 2014 Google Glass www.smartmachines.fi Apple Watch
  45. 45. Wearables, categories 1. Lifestyle ○ enhancing and simplifying everyday tasks and activities 2. Entertainment ○ providing enjoyment and entertainment to the user 3. Health & Fitness ○ giving insight to the user by showing personal body data Global market of wearable to reach £30B by 2018 www.smartmachines.fi http://wearableworldnews.com/2014/05/06/wearable-world-taxonomy
  46. 46. Exoskeletons ● “A powered exoskeleton, also known as powered armor, exoframe, or exosuit, is a mobile machine consisting primarily of an outer framework (akin to an insect's exoskeleton) worn by a person, and powered by a system of motors or hydraulics that delivers at least part of the energy for limb movement.” Wikipedia ● Gaining a lot of attention with huge possibilities to offer (ie ReWalk*) *ReWalk helps paralyzed people to walk again. It had a successful IPO on Nasdac in Sep 2014 www.smartmachines.fi http://wearableworldnews.com/2014/05/06/wearable-world-taxonomy
  47. 47. Role of Smart Machines ● Assist people ● Advise people ● Observe and help people ● Extend people ... ● Replace people? www.smartmachines.fi IBM: Oct 2013, http://www.ibmbigdatahub.com/blog/rise-smart-machines-nothing-fear-now-austin
  48. 48. The Future of Employment “According to our estimate, 47 percent of total US employment is in the high risk category, meaning that associated occupations are potentially automatable over some unspecified number of years, perhaps a decade or two“ The future of employment: how suspectible are jobs to computerisation? Frey & Osborne, Oxford Martin School Oxford Martin School: Sep 2013, http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf www.smartmachines.fi
  49. 49. Jobs will be lost “One in three jobs will be taken by [Smart Machines] by 2025“ Peter Sondergaard, Gartner research director, Oct 2014 http://www.computerworld.com/article/2691607/one-in-three-jobs-will-be-taken-by-software-or-robots-by-2025.html www.smartmachines.fi
  50. 50. What next? ● Innovations ● Investments ● Creative destruction ● New skills needed www.smartmachines.fi twitter.com/immon

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