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# 2 3. standard io

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### 2 3. standard io

1. 1. Standard I/O
2. 2. Use of printf() and scanf() printf() is abbreviation of Print formatted Print out something on the monitor printf(“format string..”, argument list);[Ex]#include <stdio.h>main() { int n ; n = 25 * 10; printf(“%d”, n); /* print 250. */}[Ex] printf(“%c%c%c”, ’a’, ’b’, ’c’ ); /* print “abc”. */ printf(“%s”, “def” ); /* print “def”. */ 2
3. 3. Use of printf() and scanf() Conversion characters (format string)%c character printf(“%c”, ’a’);%d decimal integer printf(“%d”, 100);%x Hexadecimal integer printf(“%x”, 100);%o Octal integer printf(“%o”, 100);%u Unsigned decimal printf(“%u”, 100);%e floating point number in printf(“%e”, 1.234); scientific notation%f floating point number printf(“%f”, 1.234);%g e-format or f-format printf(“%g”, 1.234);%s string printf(“%s”, ”C-book”); 3
4. 4. Use of printf() and scanf() The Use of printf() : integer %d printf(“ %md”, a ); /*print a left-justified in m width */ printf(“ %-md”, a); /*print a right-justified in m width */ [Ex] a = 12 ; printf(“%5d%-5d%dn” ,a, a, a+11); 12^^^^^^1223 – %5d : 12^^^ – %-5d : ^^^12 – %d : 23 4
5. 5. Use of printf() and scanf() The Use of printf() : float %f printf(“ %m.pf”, a ); /*print a left-justified in m width with p numbers after decimal point*/ printf(“ %-m.pf”, a); /*print a right-justified in m width with p numbers after decimal point*/[Ex] 83.1260^^83.126083.126000^^^83.13a = 83.126 ; printf(“%8.4f%-8.4f%f%-7.2fn”, a, a, a, a ); – %8.4f : 83.1260^ – %-8.4f : ^83.1260 – %f : 83.126000 – %-7.2f : ^^^83.13 5
6. 6. Use of printf() and scanf() scanf() is abbreviation of Scanf formatted Reads data from standard input scanf(“format string..”, argument list); %c character scanf(“%c”, &a); %d decimal integer scanf(“%d”, &a); %f floating point number scanf(“%f”, &a); %lf floating point number scanf(“%lf”, &a); %Lf floating point number scanf(“%Lf”, &a); %s string scanf(“%s”, &a); 6
7. 7. Use of printf() and scanf()[Ex]#include <stdio.h>main() { int n ; printf(“Enter number : “); scanf(“%d”, &n); printf(“You entered : %d”, n); return 0;} Enter number : 10 You entered : 10 7