INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONSRECAPPING HOW IOs WORK• Decision-making• Accountability• Control of the executive/administration• Voting method• Judicial arbitration• NGOs & other actors• Citizen inputIOs & DOMESTIC IMPACT• Do IOs influence domestic politics & actors? Lawrence Hardy• Case study: the EU Lecturer in European Politics,• Theorising IOs and domestic impact School of Political, Social &• Conclusion International Studies, University of East Anglia
RECAP: INTERNAL STRUCTURES OF IOsREALISM - structures reflect domination of most powerful MSLIBERAL INSTITUTIONALISM - policy-making process is product of systems, procedures & informal normsSOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM - bureaucracies create social knowledge , eg. Development, promoting human rights, markets & democracy (See Barnett & Finnemore, 1999)MARXISM - powerful economic forces dictate IO structuresFEMINISM - men create an ethos & shape governing structures of IOsPRINCIPAL - AGENT MODEL - the Agent able to ‘play off’ MS against each other & its build own policy agenda?
RECAP: COMPARING WEAK & STRONG DECISION- MAKING AUTHORITY AND DELEGATIONINTERGOVERNMENTAL vs SUPRANATIONAL Intergovernmental Supranational organizations: organizations: individual states bound by consent of all member states decisions of the organization required for decision making even those with which they disagree each state retains its veto independent bodies are cannot be bound by created & given powers & decisions with which it had responsibilities they exercise not given its assent independent of the Member States Can you name one? Can you name one?
DO IOs INFLUENCE DOMESTIC POLITICS & ACTORS? Shaping policy & socialising elites towards liberal democracy in states applying for membership of an IO (e.g. the EU) Influencing social & cultural perspectives Through norms & values, information & policy decisions, strengthening domestic actors towards specific policy goals e.g. information & policy positions of an IO can be used by domestic actors such as NGOs to advance their interests
EARLY VIEW (Gourevitch 1978) International factors influence domestic political outcomesRECENT VIEWS ON IOs & DEMOCRATIC CHANGE Regional organizations influence domestic politics by ‘assuaging fears of national elites, or socializing a group of national elites’ helping political liberalization (Pevehouse, 2002) Some make membership conditional on democratic change e.g. EU Can assist deepening democracy as leaders in emerging democracies look to IOs for support International rules or norms can become institutionalized at national level infusing beliefs & values within the state Domestic actors can appeal to international rules & norms to further their objectives in the national political arena Success depends on context & salience
CASE STUDY: EUROPEAN UNIONOBLIGATIONS OF MEMBERSHIP Commitment of prospective MS & existing not only to existing legislation (‘acquis communautaire’), but also to all subsequent legislation Permanent participation in collective system of governance with shared decision-making authority including EU institutions i.e. European Commission, European Parliament, European Court of JusticeIMPACT OF MEMBERSHIP ON FREEDOM OF ACTION ‘Sovereignty’ as concepts insufficient to define freedom to act ‘Strength’ & ‘influence’ achieved by membership of EU also important in giving a member ‘autonomy’ eg. Consider smaller MS such as Latvia, Malta, Portugal - sovereignty may be circumscribed but they are stronger & more influential than they would be if outside EU
WHAT IS EUROPEANIZATION? Domestic change caused by European integration Incremental reshaping of political & economic dynamics & structures of governance Exporting forms of political organisation to new MS & eventual political unification? Development of a new political space at the European level TOP-DOWN APPROACH - change emanating from impact of EU on domestic policy BOTTOM-UP APPROACH - when states affect EU policy NEED FOR CLARITY - about effects of Europeanization on institutions, policy, instruments, goals, paradigms, discourse
IMPACT OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION & EUROPEANIZATION Target of impact Type of impactCentral government Constraints on freedom of actionAdministrations New responsibilities New ways of making & implementing policy Ensuring the representation of national interests at EU levelParliaments Displaced by migration of locus decision making Contributing to decline of legislaturesRegional government Newly empowered?Political Parties New opportunitiesParty systems) New cleavage?Policy Policy change (aims, substance, instruments)Policy making New arenas & new cognitive mapInterest New targets & strategies intermediationFuture member states Administrative reform, policies & policy processes
THEORISING IOs & THE DOMESTICREALISMPolicy change occurs when in self interest of elites/GovtGains must outweigh benefitsSocial, cultural, political, economic changes are the costs ofachieving larger benefitsLIBERAL INSTITUTIONALISMCollective interests are significant in the negotiation process.Norms and values are part of thatSOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISMSocialisation, especially of elites, imparts values and norms
CONCLUSIONS & DISCUSSION EU has had a significant effect on the internal politics, policies, institutions, social & cultural life of its MS MS have also had an important effect on the EU e.g. Britain’s influence shaped the Maastricht and Lisbon Treaties, which may otherwise have gone much further towards political and economic integration Norms & values are important e.g. the conviction of senior Commission officials to advance European unity How effective is THE EU at ‘Europeanising prospective MS?NEXT LECTURE War, peace & security