Writing and publishing a research article

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Writing and publishing a research article

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  • Dear Colleagues.
    Since January 29, I publish a video blog with graphic tutorials to
    scientific publishing, called KEEP CALM and PUBLISH PAPERS. I hope,
    you may find this interesting when writing your thesis, paper or
    making a presentation.

    Best regards
    Pawel Jerzy Wojcik, Ph.D.

    https://www.facebook.com/keepcalmandpublishpapers

    https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCqKuaNlHwxUVDSRt8iLPeNw
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Writing and publishing a research article

  1. 1. Writing and publishing a research article  <br />Thomas H. Adair, Ph.D.<br />Professor of Physiology & BIophysics<br />Center of Excellence in<br />Cardiovascular-Renal Research,<br />University of Mississippi<br />Medical Center <br />August, 2006<br />
  2. 2. Resources<br />Day, RA. “How to write and publish a scientific paper,” 5th edition, Oryx Press, 1998.<br />Fischer BA, Zigmond MJ. “Components of a research article.” survival@pitt.edu<br />Marshal GS. “Writing a peer reviewed article.” <br />http://dor.umc.edu/ARCHIVES/GMarshallPublishingarticle.ppt<br />Hall, JE. “Writing research papers (and getting them published)” http://dor.umc.edu/ARCHIVES/GMarshallPublishingarticle.ppt<br />Benos, D., Reich, M. “Peer review and publication in APS journals.”<br />http://www.the-aps.org/careers/careers1/EBSymposia/Benos2003.ppt<br />
  3. 3. “There is no way to get experience except through experience.”<br />
  4. 4. Why write and publish research papers?<br />Ideally – <br /> to share research findings and discoveries with the hope of improving healthcare.<br />Practically – <br /> to get funding<br /> to get promoted<br /> to get a job<br /> to keep your job! <br />
  5. 5. “Scientists are rated by what they finish, not by what they attempt”<br />
  6. 6. Getting a paper published<br /><ul><li>Competition for space in journals is intense
  7. 7. Cost of publication is high, $360/page for APS
  8. 8. Rejection rates vary
  9. 9. AJP = 50%
  10. 10. JBC = 65%
  11. 11. NEJM, Science, Nature = 90%</li></li></ul><li>Major reasons for rejection<br /><ul><li> Confirmatory (not novel)
  12. 12. Poor experimental design </li></ul> - Poor controls<br /> - Hypothesis not adequately tested<br /><ul><li> Inappropriate for journal
  13. 13. Poorly written</li></li></ul><li>Tips<br />Know the journal, its editors, and why you submitted the paper there<br />Pay close attention to spelling, grammar, and punctuation<br />Make sure references are comprehensive and accurate<br />Avoid careless mistakes<br />Read and conform to “Instructions for Authors”<br />
  14. 14. Publish or perish<br />
  15. 15. Publish and perish<br />“The Seven Deadly Sins”<br /> Data manipulation, falsification<br /> Duplicate manuscripts<br /> Redundant publication<br /> Plagiarism<br /> Author conflicts of interest<br /> Animal use concerns<br /> Humans use concerns <br />
  16. 16. What constitutes redundant publication?<br />Data in conference abstract?<br />Same data, different journal?<br />Data on website?<br />Data included in review article?<br />Expansion of published data set?<br />No<br />Yes<br />Maybe<br />OK if later<br />Yes<br />
  17. 17. What makes a good research paper?<br /><ul><li> Good science
  18. 18. Good writing
  19. 19. Publication in good journals</li></li></ul><li>What constitutes good science?<br />Novel – new and not resembling something formerly known or used(can be novel but not important)<br />Mechanistic – testing a hypothesis - determining the fundamental processes involved in or responsible for an action, reaction, or other natural phenomenon <br />Descriptive – describes how are things are but does not test how things work – hypotheses are not tested. <br />
  20. 20. What constitutes a good journal?<br />Impact factor – <br /> average number of times published papers are cited up to two years after publication.<br />Immediacy Index – <br /> average number of times published papers are cited during year of publication.<br />
  21. 21. Journal Citation Report, 2003<br />Journal Impact Factor Immediacy Index<br />Nature 30.979 06.679 <br />Science 29.162 05.589<br />Hypertens 05.630 00.838<br />AJ P Heart 03.658 00.675 <br />Physiol Rev 36.831 03.727<br />Am J Math 00.962 00.122 <br />Ann Math 01.505 00.564 <br />AM J MATH 0002-9327 002353 00.962 00.122 <br />AM J MATH 0002-9327 002353 00.962 00.122 <br />5907 journals<br />
  22. 22. Things to consider before writing<br />1. Time to write the paper?<br /> - has a significant advancement been made?<br /> - is the hypothesis straightforward?<br /> - did the experiments test the hypothesis?<br /> - are the controls appropriate and sufficient?<br /> - can you describe the study in 1 or 2 minutes?<br /> - can the key message be written in 1 or 2 sentences?<br />“Those who have the most to say usually say it with the fewest words”<br />
  23. 23. Things to consider before writing<br />1. Time to write the paper?<br /> - has a significant advancement been made?<br /> - is the hypothesis straightforward?<br /> - did the experiments test the hypothesis?<br /> - are the controls appropriate and sufficient?<br /> - can you describe the study in 1 or 2 minutes?<br /> - can the key message be written in 1 or 2 sentences?<br />2. Tables and figures <br /> - must be clear and concise<br /> - should be self-explanatory<br />3. Read references <br /> - will help in choosing journal<br /> - better insight into possible reviewers<br />
  24. 24. Things to consider before writing<br />4. Choose journal<br /> - study “instructions to authors”<br /> - think about possible reviewers<br /> - quality of journal “impact factor”<br />5. Tentative title and summary<br />6. Choose authors <br />
  25. 25. Authorship<br />Guidelines on authorshop, International committee of Medical Journal Editors,<br />Reprinted by kind permission of the Editor of the British Medical Journal of Sept<br />14, 1985. J Clin Pathol 39: 110, 1986<br />
  26. 26. Writing the manuscript<br />The hardest part is getting started.<br />
  27. 27. Parts of a manuscript<br />Title<br />Abstract<br />Introduction<br />Methods<br />Results<br />Discussion<br />Acknowledgements<br />References<br />
  28. 28. Write in what order?<br />Title<br />Abstract<br />Introduction<br />Methods<br />Results<br />Discussion<br />Acknowledgements<br />References<br />
  29. 29. Methods and materials<br /><ul><li> Best to begin writing when experiments still in progress.
  30. 30. Should be detailed enough so results can be repeated </li></ul> by others.<br /><ul><li> Reference published methods where appropriate.
  31. 31. Include animal/human use approval information.
  32. 32. Use descriptive subheadings
  33. 33. Animals
  34. 34. Surgical procedures
  35. 35. Histochemistry </li></li></ul><li>Results<br /><ul><li> Briefly repeating protocols can be effective
  36. 36. Tables and figures must be straight forward and </li></ul> concise<br /><ul><li> Present main findings referring to tables/figures.
  37. 37. Do not speculate or over discuss results.</li></li></ul><li>Introduction<br /><ul><li> Build case for why study is important/necessary
  38. 38. Provide brief background
  39. 39. State hypothesis / central question
  40. 40. Give a one sentence summary of findings </li></li></ul><li>Discussion<br /><ul><li> First answer question posed in introduction
  41. 41. Relate your conclusion to existing knowledge
  42. 42. Discuss weaknesses and discrepancies
  43. 43. Explain what is new without exaggerating
  44. 44. Do not repeat results
  45. 45. Conclusion/summary, perspectives, implications</li></li></ul><li>References<br /><ul><li> Relevant and recent
  46. 46. Be highly selective
  47. 47. Read the references
  48. 48. Do not misquote
  49. 49. Use correct style for journal</li></li></ul><li>Abstract<br /><ul><li> Critical part of paper
  50. 50. State main objective
  51. 51. Summarize most important results
  52. 52. State major conclusions and significance
  53. 53. Avoid acronyms
  54. 54. Write and rewrite until flawless</li></li></ul><li>Title<br /><ul><li> Will determine whether paper gets read
  55. 55. Avoid long title (see journal rules)
  56. 56. Avoid abbreviations
  57. 57. Title format:</li></ul> “The effects of heat on ice”<br /> “Heat melts ice”<br /> “The role of heat in melting ice”<br />
  58. 58. Words and expressions to avoid<br /> Jargon Preferred use<br /> a considerable amount of much<br /> on account of because<br /> a number of several <br /> Referred to as called<br /> In a number of cases some<br /> Has the capacity to can<br /> It is clear that clearly<br /> It is apparent that apparently<br /> Employ use<br /> Fabricate make<br />Day, RA. “How to write and publish a scientific paper,” 5th edition, Oryx Press, 1998.<br />
  59. 59. Revise, revise and revise<br /><ul><li> All authors should participate
  60. 60. Review order of data presentation
  61. 61. Polish the writing style
  62. 62. Double check references
  63. 63. Look for typos
  64. 64. Double check spelling</li></li></ul><li>Develop a good writing style<br />Read well written articles<br />Try to get good writers to review<br />Learn from editing changes<br />
  65. 65. Submission<br />Read instructions carefully<br />Fill out all necessary forms<br />Copyright transfer<br /> Conflict of interest<br />Write cover letter (suggest reviewers)<br />Confirm receipt after 6 weeks<br />
  66. 66. Process of Research<br />Completion of research<br />Preparation of manuscript<br />Submission of manuscript<br />Assignment and review<br />Decision<br />Rejection<br />Revision<br />Resubmission<br />Re-review<br />Acceptance<br />Rejection<br />Publication<br />
  67. 67. Responding to reviewers<br />Carefully prepare your responses<br /> Each comment should be addressed<br /> Each change should be stated<br /> Be enthusiastic<br />Reviewer may be wrong<br />Be tactful – thank the reviewers<br />Do not respond to reviewers while upset<br />Never call the editor<br />Get help from other authors<br />
  68. 68.
  69. 69. “There is no way to get experience except through experience.”<br />

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