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Psicobiologia castiello attenzione

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Psicobiologia castiello attenzione

  1. 1. Psicobiologia dell’attenzione
  2. 2. In ogni istante solo una minima parte dell’informazione che proviene dall’ambiente circostante viene elaborata CAPACITA’ LIMITATE L’informazione rilevante per il comportamento deve essere selezionata ATTENZIONE SELETTIVA L’efficienza della selezione dipende da quanto dura la richiesta di prestare attenzione ATTENZIONE SOSTENUTA Inoltre dipende da quanto l’organismo è pronto a ricevere/rispondere agli stimoli AROUSAL L’attenzione
  3. 3. In ogni istante solo una minima parte dell’informazione che proviene dall’ambiente circostante viene elaborata CAPACITA’ LIMITATE L’informazione rilevante per il comportamento deve essere selezionata ATTENZIONE SELETTIVA L’efficienza della selezione dipende da quanto dura la richiesta di prestare attenzione ATTENZIONE SOSTENUTA Inoltre dipende da quanto l’organismo è pronto a ricevere/rispondere agli stimoli AROUSAL L’attenzione
  4. 4. Queste componenti dell’attenzione interagiscono fra loro, anche se sono sistemi parzialmente dissociabili Ci occuperemo soprattutto di attenzione selettiva L’attenzione
  5. 5. • Attenzione covert che non prevede i movimenti degli occhi o della testa L’attenzione
  6. 6. L’attenzione selettiva è sotto il controllo di: Controllo TOP-DOWN Fattori cognitivi (es. conoscenze precedenti, aspettative, obiettivi dell’individuo) Controllo BOTTOM-UP Fattori ambientali (es. stimoli inattesi o salienti) Meccanismi di controllo dell’attenzione
  7. 7. • Gli stimoli inattesi o salienti dell’ambiente attraggono la nostra attenzione – quasi indipendentemente dalla nostra ‘volontà’ • Questo è una caratteristica importante ed adattiva del nostro sistema cognitivo Controllo BOTTOM-UP
  8. 8. • Il soggetto riceve un segnale lateralizzato (‘cue’) prima della comparsa del bersaglio • Il compito è rispondere il più velocemente possibile alla comparsa del bersaglio (es. il quadrato bianco) • Se il bersaglio compare dallo stesso late del cue la prova è detta valida Paradigma di Posner (1980) con ‘cue’ esogeno Prova ‘valida’ Controllo BOTTOM-UP Tempo ~50-150 ms
  9. 9. • Se il bersaglio compare dal lato opposto a quello del cue, la prova è detta invalida Paradigma di Posner (1980) con ‘cue’ esogeno Prova ‘invalida’ Controllo BOTTOM-UP Tempo ~50-150 ms
  10. 10. • La risposta dei soggetti quando la posizione del cue del bersaglio coincide (prove valide) e’ piu’ rapida e piu’ accurata, rispetto a quando la posizione di cue e bersaglio non coincide (prove invalide) Paradigma di Posner (1980) con ‘cue’ esogeno Controllo BOTTOM-UP
  11. 11. Basi neurali nell’uomo La detezione di stimoli inattesi attiva una rete di aree cerebrali nei lobi frontali e parietali (sistema fronto- parietale ventrale) Questo sistema è lateralizzato nell’emisfero destro Giunzione temporo-parietale Giro Frontale inferiore Giro Frontale medio Controllo BOTTOM-UP
  12. 12. Basi neurali nell’uomo Controllo BOTTOM-UP Giunzione temporo-parietale Giro Frontale inferiore Giro Frontale medio • Un sistema analogo è attivato anche nei compiti di attenzione sostenuta (o vigilanza) • Il sistema fronto- parietale ventrale potrebbe dipendere da un neurotrasmettitore (noradrenalina) prodotto da un nucleo del tronco dell’encefalo (locus coeruleus)
  13. 13. L’attenzione e’ sotto il controllo di: Controllo TOP-DOWN Fattori cognitivi (es. conoscenze precedenti, aspettative, obiettivi dell’individuo) Controllo BOTTOM-UP Fattori ambientali (es. stimoli inattesi o salienti) Meccanismi di controllo dell’attenzione
  14. 14. • La nostra capacita’ di percepire e rispondere agli stimoli dell’ambiente e’ migliore quando possiamo anticipare alcune caratteristiche dello stimolo (es. la posizione, il colore, il movimento) o della risposta che dobbiamo effettuare (es. premere un determinato pulsante) Ovvero quando siamo in grado di creare un stato attenzionale utile al comportamento Controllo TOP-DOWN
  15. 15. • Il cue e’ un segnale (es. Una freccia centale) che indica il lato piu’ probabile di comparsa del bersaglio (es. 80% delle volte) • Il compito e’ rispondere il piu’ velocemente possibile alla comparsa del bersaglio (es. il quadrato bianco) Paradigma di Posner (1980) con ‘cue’ endogeno Tempo ~800ms Prova ‘valida’ Controllo TOP-DOWN >
  16. 16. • In una percentuale limitata di prove (es. 20%) il bersaglio non compare nel lato indicato dal cue, ma dall’altro lato. Paradigma di Posner (1980) con ‘cue’ endogeno Prova ‘invalida’ Tempo ~800ms Controllo TOP-DOWN >
  17. 17. • In alcune prove non compare nessun cue. Queste prove sono definite ‘neutre’ e servono come riferimento (baseline) • Rispetto alla baseline è possibile misurare: COSTI (Invalide – Neutre) BENEFICI (Valide – Neutre) Paradigma di Posner (1980) con ‘cue’ endogeno Prova ‘neutra’ Tempo ~800ms Controllo TOP-DOWN
  18. 18. Paradigma di Posner (1980) con ‘cue’ endogeno • Gli stimoli nella posizione ‘attesa’ (ovvero segnalata dal cue) sono rilevati o riconosciuti più velocemente (e con maggiore accuratezza). • Gli stimoli nella posizione ‘inattesa’ sono rilevati più lentamente (e con meno accuratezza). Controllo TOP-DOWN 200 250 300 350 400 Valide Neutre Invalide Tempodireazione(ms)
  19. 19. Paradigma di Posner (1980) con ‘cue’ endogeno • In questo paradigma non sono consentiti movimenti degli occhi o della testa (orientamenti espliciti) • Gli effetti di costi e benefici dipendono quindi da un orientamento implicito ed endogeno dell’attenzione. Controllo TOP-DOWN 200 250 300 350 400 Valide Neutre Invalide Tempodireazione(ms)
  20. 20. Solco intraparietale Campi visivi frontali Aree visive extrastriate Basi neurali nell’uomo Caratteristica ‘attesa’: posizione dello stimolo Controllo TOP-DOWN
  21. 21. Solco intraparietale Campi visivi frontali Basi neurali nell’uomo Aree visive extrastriate Caratteristica ‘attesa’: direzione del movimento Controllo TOP-DOWN
  22. 22. Controllo attenzione e movimenti oculari Controllo TOP-DOWN • Nel lobo frontale e nelle aree parietali, le stesse strutture attivate per il controllo endogeno dell’attenzione sono attivate anche nel controllo dei movimenti oculari. • La teoria premotoria dell’attenzione (Rizzolatti et al., 1984) suggerisce che l’orientamento dell’attenzione sia la conseguenza della programmazione di un atto motorio (es. movimenti oculari)
  23. 23. Basi neurali nell’uomo Il sistema fronto-parietale dorsale attivato nei compiti di controllo endogeno dell’attenzione: 1. mantiene la sua attivita’ mentre il soggetto dirige la sua attenzione 2. e’ prevalentemente bilaterale (ovvero si attiva indipendentemente dalla direzione dell’attenzione in entrambi gli emisferi cerebrali) 3. ma esistono aree parietali e frontali che rispondono soprattutto quando il soggetto presta attenzione nello spazio controlaterale Controllo TOP-DOWN
  24. 24. Sembrano quindi esistere due sistemi distinti per il controllo top-down e quello bottom-up. Questi sistemi devono tuttavia interagire fra loro. Una visione d’insieme
  25. 25. Lesione del lobo parietale sinistro
  26. 26. Lesione del lobo parietale sinistro
  27. 27. Lesione del lobo parietale sinistro
  28. 28. Lesione del lobo parietale sinistro
  29. 29. 100 RPM b 150 RPM50 RPM a index thumb wristA B Time (ms) 0 100 0 0 15001500 0 1500 C c
  30. 30. • Ci siamo fatti una domanda sbagliata? (Allport, 1993) • Non è possibile trattare il problema dell’attenzione separatamente dalla struttura del cervello • Studi neurofisiologici dimostrano che la selezione comincia ai primi stadi dell’elaborazione sensoriale e continua fino alla selezione della risposta. I segnali top-down ed il carico percettivo influenzano la selezione. Una nuova prospettiva
  31. 31. (Integrated Competition Hypothesis; Duncan, 1996) 1. Tutte le risposte nel cervello sono reciprocamente inibitorie ed in costante competizione 2. Le informazioni top-down influenzano gli esiti della competizione 3. La competizione è integrata; ovvero caratteristiche diverse appartenenti allo stesso oggetto (incluse le risposte motorie) tendono a ‘vincere’ la competizione in aree cerebrali differenti Ipotesi della competizione integrata
  32. 32. L’attenzione seleziona regione vuote dello spazio, come fosse un fascio di luce di dimensione variabile? L’attenzione seleziona gli oggetti nell’ambiente, le loro caratteristiche e le azioni che ‘richiamano’ Lo spazio o gli oggetti?
  33. 33. Riportare due caratteristiche della figura (es. lato di inclinazione della linea e lato dell’apertura nel rettangolo) Duncan, 1984 Lo spazio o gli oggetti? I soggetti sono meno accurati quando devono riportare caratteristiche di oggetti diversi, piuttosto che caratteristiche dello stesso oggetto. Nonostante i due oggetti occupino la medesima posizione spaziale
  34. 34. La dimensione del fuoco attenzionale
  35. 35. La divisione del fuoco attenzionale
  36. 36. Pallavolo
  37. 37. Atletica
  38. 38. Tennis

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